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Bin Du, You-Quan Ding, Xia Xiao, Hong-Yi Ren, Bing-Yin Su, Jian-Guo Qi
BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific and MHCII-restricted CD4+ αβ T cells have been shown or suggested to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries. However, it is still largely unknown where these T cells infiltrate along the somatosensory pathways transmitting mechanical allodynia to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after nerve injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the definite neuroimmune interface for these T cells to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are blood dwelling parasitic worms that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Here we examined the influence of the parasites on their external environment by monitoring the impact of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms on the murine plasma proteome in vitro and, in particular, on how the worms affect the blood coagulation protein high molecular weight kininogen (HK). METHODS: Following the incubation of adult schistosomes in murine plasma, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted to look for changes in the plasma proteome compared with control plasma...
March 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Matej Samoš, Tomáš Bolek, Lucia Stančiaková, Ingrid Škorňová, Peter Bánovčin, František Kovář, Ján Staško, Peter Galajda, Peter Kubisz, Marián Mokáň
: The number of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NV-AF) who require long-term anticoagulation and also have a higher risk of bleeding is increasing. Recently, there is no information regarding real on-treatment anti-Xa activity in patients with NV-AF and a higher risk of bleeding who receive oral factor Xa inhibitors. The aim of this study was to determine trough and peak anti-Xa activity in these patients. This single-centre pilot study enrolled 41 patients with NV-AF and a higher risk of bleeding defined as Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly score at least 3 points...
March 13, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Andreas H Scheel, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Wedad Hanna, Gustavo Baretton, Peter Middel, Judith Burchhardt, Manfred Hofmann, Bharat Jasani, Josef Rüschoff
BACKGROUND: Detection of HER2/neu receptor overexpression and/or amplification is a prerequisite for efficient anti-HER2 treatment of breast and gastric carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the HER2 protein is the most common screening test, thus precise and reproducible IHC-scoring is of utmost importance. Interobserver variance still is a problem; in particular in gastric carcinomas the reliable differentiation of IHC scores 2+ and 1+ is challenging. Herein we describe the physical basis of what we called the 'magnification rule': Different microscope objectives are employed to reproducibly subdivide the continuous spectrum of IHC staining intensities into distinct categories (1+, 2+, 3+)...
March 12, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Minhui He, Qiong Hu, Yaqi Mei, Baojing Zhou, Jinming Kong, Xueji Zhang
The ability to directly detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in undiluted serum samples is of great importance for clinical diagnosis. In this work, we report the use of the distinctive metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption properties of the Cu(BCA)2 + (BCA = bicinchoninic acid) reporter for the visual detection of ALP activity. In the presence of ALP, the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) can be enzymatically hydrolyzed to release ascorbic acid (AA), which in turn reduces Cu2+ to Cu+ ...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
P R F Adkins, S Dufour, J N Spain, M J Calcutt, T J Reilly, G C Stewart, J R Middleton
The purpose of this study was to investigate non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. intramammary infections (IMI) in periparturient heifers and determine the relationship of precalving body site isolation with precalving IMI and postcalving IMI using molecular speciation and strain-typing methods. Primiparous heifers were enrolled at approximately 14 d before expected calving date. Precalving mammary quarter secretions and body site swabbing samples (teat skin, inguinal skin, muzzle, and perineum) were collected. Postcalving, mammary quarter milk samples were collected for culture and somatic cell counting...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yu Lu, Chengjian Wang, Rendan Liu, Wanjun Jin, Yanan Wen, Linjuan Huang, Zhongfu Wang
Sensitive analysis of glycans by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is significantly hampered by the lack of chromogenic or fluorescent groups on the glycan structures, as well as, their poor ionization properties. In the present, a heterobifunctional chromogenic reagent 3-amino-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-ketone (PAP) bearing amino and active methylene groups, which readily reacts with reducing glycans, was used for detection of the pre-column-labeled glycans via high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS)...
March 7, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Fenggang Yu, Yanan Lu, Fredrik Petersson, De-Yun Wang, Kwok Seng Loh
BACKGROUND: Chromogenic Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH) is the gold standard to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but it is difficult to use in conjunction with immunohistochemistry (IHC). In this study, our purpose was to validate the sensitivity and specificity of RNAscope in detection of EBV infection in nasal epithelium and its stroma. METHODS: Fluorescence-based RNAscope EBER-ISH, BRLF1-ISH, and lineage marker-IHC were performed on archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from normal nasal cavity (n = 5), nasopharynx (n = 8), and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) specimens (n = 10)...
March 9, 2018: Head & Neck
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Jun-Chao Yan, Yan Chen, Yu Pang, Jan Slavik, Yun-Fei Zhao, Xiao-Ming Wu, Yi Yang, Si-Fan Yang, Tian-Ling Ren
Water quality detection plays an increasingly important role in environmental protection. In this work, a novel colorimeter based on the Beer-Lambert law was designed for chemical element detection in water with high precision and miniaturized structure. As an example, the colorimeter can detect phosphorus, which was accomplished in this article to evaluate the performance. Simultaneously, a modified algorithm was applied to extend the linear measurable range. The colorimeter encompassed a near infrared laser source, a microflow cell based on microfluidic technology and a light-sensitive detector, then Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) processing technology was used to form a stable integrated structure...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
Hyung-Suk Lee, Sang-Kyeom Kim, Seok-Woo Park, Elbert de Josselin de Jong, Ho-Keun Kwon, Seung-Hwa Jeong, Baek-Il Kim
Occlusal discoloration due to staining frequently occurs on the pits and fissures of teeth. Noncariogenic discoloration (non-CD) refers to the attachment of staining chromogens to sound surfaces, whereas cariogenic discoloration (CD) represents the discoloration of porous structures due to bacterial metabolites and mineral loss from the enamel surface. This study evaluated whether it is possible to distinguish between non-CD and CD on stained occlusal surfaces with fluorescence assessed by the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Kimberley N Sent-Doux, Craig Mackinnon, Jen-Chieh Lee, Andrew L Folpe, Omar Habeeb
Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumor (PMT) is a rare, histologically distinctive neoplasm, which classically presents with phosphaturia and tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) (i.e., oncogenic osteomalacia). Both the phosphaturia and TIO are due to paraneoplastic production of FGF23 (a phosphatonin) by the neoplastic cells, which are genetically characterized by rearrangements of FN1 (most often with FGFR1 - and less frequently with FGF1). However, rare cases of PMT present without phosphaturia and TIO (i.e., the "non-phosphaturic" variant) - and are therefore much more challenging to diagnose...
March 4, 2018: Human Pathology
Hyeong Jin Chun, Yong Duk Han, Yoo Min Park, Ka Ram Kim, Seok Jae Lee, Hyun C Yoon
To overcome the time and space constraints in disease diagnosis via the biosensing approach, we developed a new signal-transducing strategy that can be applied to colorimetric optical biosensors. Our study is focused on implementation of a signal transduction technology that can directly translate the color intensity signals-that require complicated optical equipment for the analysis-into signals that can be easily counted with the naked eye. Based on the selective light absorption and wavelength-filtering principles, our new optical signaling transducer was built from a common computer monitor and a smartphone...
March 6, 2018: Materials
Menglu Li, Juan Yang, Yining Ou, Ying Shi, Li Liu, Chaoqun Sun, Huzhi Zheng, Yijuan Long
The peroxidase-like activity of 2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DFF), was investigated using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a chromogenic substrate in the presence of H2 O2 . DFF could catalyze oxidization of TMB by H2 O2 to produce a blue colored oxidation product. Effect of various reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, H2 O2 concentration and reaction time on the catalytic activity of DFF was studied. The peroxidase-like activity of DFF was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and its catalysis accorded with ping-pong mechanism...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Inari Kalalahti, Kaisa Huotari, Kanerva Lahdensuo, Eveliina Tarkka, Henrikki Santti, Antti Rannikko, Anu Pätäri-Sampo
Transrectal prostate biopsies carry the risk of infection. By using non-selective culture plates, instead of commonly used ciprofloxacin (CIP)-containing plates, we analyzed the association between Escherichia coli CIP minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and post-biopsy infectious complications. A pre-biopsy rectal swab was taken from 207 consecutive men, scheduled for transrectal 12-core prostate biopsy with CIP 750 mg as the mostly used prophylaxis. CIP MIC of rectal Gram-negative bacilli was determined from a chromogenic agar...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Xiwen Ye, Yan Peng, Zengyuan Niu, Xin Luo, Li Zhang
A novel and simple method utilizing a chromogenic reaction on filter paper is introduced for the rapid screening of banned aromatic amines released from azo dyes. The proposed method involves the sample preparation protocols outlined by the current standard method and the chromogenic reaction of extracted aromatic amines on filter paper. Based on the principle of the reaction between primary amines and aldehydes, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) was used as the chromogenic reagent for the rapid screening of 24 carcinogenic aromatic amines and aniline without any chromatographic instruments under optimized experimental conditions...
March 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Anat Aharon, Anni Rebibo Sabbah, Liron Issman, Hila Berkovich, Reem Copty, Yeshayahu Talmon, Benjamin Brenner
BACKGROUND:  The involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in cancer-associated thrombosis (CT) is unclear. This study aimed to explore the properties of EVs derived from breast cancer (BC) cells following exposure to high- or low-dose chemotherapeutic agents and evaluate thrombogenic effects of these EVs on endothelial cells (ECs). METHODS:  EVs were isolated from BC cell lines (non-metastatic MCF7, high-metastatic MDA-MB-231), pre-exposed to serum-free medium (control), with or without increasing doses of doxorubicin or paclitaxel...
February 28, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
G W Kershaw, K Dissanayake, V M Chen, T-L Khoo
INTRODUCTION: Chromogenic substrate assays (CSA) to measure Factor IX (FIX) have recently become commercially available. However, information on their performance characteristics and use in diagnostic haemostasis laboratories remains limited. AIM: To evaluate the Hyphen Biomed (Hyphen) and Rossix FIX CSAs on fully automated coagulation analysers and compare them to the FIX one-stage assay (OSA). This study was conducted in a tertiary referral haemostasis laboratory associated with a haemophilia treatment centre...
February 28, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Feifan Yu, Veronica Alesand, Per-Åke Nygren
Protein fragment complementation assays (PCA) rely on a proximity-driven reconstitution of a split reporter protein activity, typically via interaction between bait and prey units separately fused to the reporter protein halves. The PCA principle can also be formatted for use in immunossays for analyte detection, e.g. via the use of small immunoglobulin binding proteins (IgBp) as fusion partners to split-reporter protein fragments for conversion of pairs of antibodies into split-protein half-probes. However, the non-covalent binding between IgBp and antibodies is not ideal for development of robust assays...
February 27, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
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