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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775927/effects-of-microcystin-lr-on-the-tissue-growth-and-physiological-responses-of-the-aquatic-plant-iris-pseudacorus-l
#1
Naiyu Wang, Can Wang
The release of cyanobacterial toxins during algal bloom has adverse effects on aquatic plants and animals. This study aimed to understand the toxic effects and mechanism of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the seedling growth and physiological responses of Iris pseudacorus L. (calamus). After a one-month exposure experiment, the growth and development of the calamus leaves were significantly inhibited, and this inhibitory effect was verified to be concentration dependent. Furthermore, the cell membrane system was damaged, and the photosynthesis was also adversely affected by MC-LR...
April 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#2
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#3
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775817/janus-graphene-oxide-nanosheet-a-promising-additive-for-enhancement-of-polymeric-membranes-performance-prepared-via-phase-inversion
#4
Mahdi Akbari, Mojtaba Shariaty-Niassar, Takeshi Matsuura, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
Although polymeric membranes find important role in water and waste water treatment in recent years, their fouling is still an important problem. Application of hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the proposed methods for reducing fouling of membranes but their dispersion and stability in hydrophobic polymer matrix is challenging. In this study Janus functionalization of the NPs was introduced as a promising technique toward achieving this goal. Polysulfone (PSf) membranes containing various concentrations of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and Janus graphene oxide (Janus GO) nanosheets (as additives) were fabricated via phase inversion...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775737/deltex-interacts-with-eiger-and-consequently-influences-the-cell-death-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Debdeep Dutta, Ankita Singh, Maimuna Sali Paul, Vartika Sharma, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
TNF-JNK signaling is one of the highly conserved signaling pathways that regulate a broad spectrum of cellular processes including proliferation and apoptosis. Eiger, the sole homologue of TNF in Drosophila, initiates the TNF-JNK pathway to induce cell death. Previously, Deltex (Dx) has been identified as a Notch signaling component that regulates vesicular trafficking of Notch. In the present study, we have investigated the interaction between these two proteins in order to identify how Dx influences the activity of Eiger...
May 15, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#6
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775666/the-effect-of-syndecan-4-and-glypican-1-knockdown-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-turkey-satellite-cells-differing-in-age-and-growth-rates
#7
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
Posthatch skeletal muscle growth requires myogenic satellite cells and the dynamic expression of cell membrane-associated proteins. The membrane associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan-4 and glypican-1, link the satellite cell niche to the intracellular environment. Sydnecan-4 and glypican-1 are differentially expressed with age in turkey satellite cells and their over-expression impacts both satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, but their effect on satellite cells from lines with different growth potentials is not known...
May 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775644/redox-signal-mediated-trpm2-promotes-ang-ii-induced-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-via-ca-2-dependent-camkii-jnk-cascade
#8
Min Gao, Yu Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Jing Xue, Yi-Ting Wang, Li Qin, Ming-Ming Ma, Yong-Bo Tang, Xiao-Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, little is known whether TRPM2 is involved in adipocyte dysfunction during hypertension. In the present study, we determined the role of TRPM2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ang II-induced adipocyte insulin resistant model was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775606/ecmo-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-after-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#9
Subhasis Chatterjee, William Mulvoy, Ourania A Preventza, Kim I de la Cruz, Scott A LeMaire, Joseph S Coselli
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair poses a formidable challenge. Despite conventional maneuvers in the operating room, perioperative ARDS may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present 3 cases of successful ECMO for ARDS after TAAA repair and discuss management of anticoagulation and cerebrospinal fluid drains. Our experience suggests that ECMO is reasonable in selected patients after TAAA repair.
May 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775570/rapid-non-classical-effects-of-steroids-on-the-membrane-receptor-dynamics-and-downstream-signaling-in-neurons
#10
REVIEW
Klaudia Barabás, Soma Godó, Ferenc Lengyel, Dávid Ernszt, József Pál, István M Ábrahám
Although rapid effects of steroid hormones on membrane receptors and intracellular signaling molecules have been extensively studied in neurons, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms behind these non-classical steroid actions. Single molecule tracking (SMT) studies on live cells demonstrated that surface trafficking of membrane receptors determines their ligand binding properties and downstream signaling events. Recent findings suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms of non-classical steroid actions is the alteration of receptor movements on the membrane surface...
May 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775559/mechanosensitivity-of-mitochondr-ial-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#11
Agnieszka Walewska, Bogusz Kulawiak, Adam Szewczyk, Piotr Koprowski
Potassium channels have been discovered in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various cells. These channels can regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume, respiration and reactive species generation. Therefore, it is believed that their activation is cytoprotective in various tissues. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa ) was measured by the patch-clamp technique on mitoplasts derived from mitochondria isolated from human glioma U-87 MG cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775554/outcomes-and-predictors-of-early-infection-after-heart-transplantation
#12
Kendall C Shultes, Jerrica E Shuster, Scott Micek, Justin M Vader, Keki Balsara, Akinobu Itoh, Bethany R Tellor
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the incidence and outcome of early infection after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics and outcomes of OHT recipients with an early infection and to identify predictors of such infections. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included patients greater than 18 years of age who underwent OHT from February 2009 to May 2014 and had an infection within 30 days of transplantation...
May 18, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775486/peroxidasin-contributes-to-lung-host-defense-by-direct-binding-and-killing-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#13
Ruizheng Shi, Zehong Cao, Hong Li, Jochen Graw, Guogang Zhang, Victor J Thannickal, Guangjie Cheng
Innate immune recognition is classically mediated by the interaction of host pattern-recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns; this triggers a series of downstream signaling events that facilitate killing and elimination of invading pathogens. In this report, we provide the first evidence that PXDN (also known as vascular peroxidase-1) directly binds to gram-negative bacteria and mediates bactericidal activity, thus, contributing to lung host defense. PXDN contains five leucine-rich repeats and four immunoglobulin domains, which allows for its interaction with lipopolysaccharide, a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775485/plasmodium-parasite-exploits-host-aquaporin-3-during-liver-stage-malaria-infection
#14
Dora Posfai, Kayla Sylvester, Anupama Reddy, Jack G Ganley, Johannes Wirth, Quinlan E Cullen, Tushar Dave, Nobutaka Kato, Sandeep S Dave, Emily R Derbyshire
Within the liver a single Plasmodium parasite transforms into thousands of blood-infective forms to cause malaria. Here, we use RNA-sequencing to identify host genes that are upregulated upon Plasmodium berghei infection of hepatocytes with the hypothesis that host pathways are hijacked to benefit parasite development. We found that expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water and glycerol channel, is significantly induced in Plasmodium-infected hepatocytes compared to uninfected cells. This aquaglyceroporin localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the compartmental interface between the host and pathogen, with a temporal pattern that correlates with the parasite's expansion in the liver...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775478/treadmilling-analysis-reveals-new-insights-into-dynamic-ftsz-ring-architecture
#15
Diego A Ramirez-Diaz, Daniela A García-Soriano, Ana Raso, Jonas Mücksch, Mario Feingold, Germán Rivas, Petra Schwille
FtsZ, the primary protein of the bacterial Z ring guiding cell division, has been recently shown to engage in intriguing treadmilling dynamics along the circumference of the division plane. When coreconstituted in vitro with FtsA, one of its natural membrane anchors, on flat supported membranes, these proteins assemble into dynamic chiral vortices compatible with treadmilling of curved polar filaments. Replacing FtsA by a membrane-targeting sequence (mts) to FtsZ, we have discovered conditions for the formation of dynamic rings, showing that the phenomenon is intrinsic to FtsZ...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775473/na-k-atpase-signaling-mediates-mir-29b-3p-regulation-and-cardiac-fibrosis-formation-in-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Christopher A Drummond, Xiaoming Fan, Steven T Haller, David J Kennedy, Jiang Liu, Jiang Tian
The Na/K-ATPase is an important membrane ion transporter and a signaling receptor that is essential for maintaining normal cell function. The current study examined the role of Na/K-ATPase signaling in regulating miR-29b-3p, an anti-fibrotic microRNA, in a mouse chronic kidney disease (CKD) model (5/6th partial nephrectomy or PNx). The results showed that CKD induced significant reduction of miR-29b-3p expression in the heart tissue by activation of Src and NFκB signaling in these animals. To demonstrate the role of Na/K-ATPase signaling, we also performed the PNx surgery on Na/K-ATPase α1 heterozygous (α1+/-) mice, which expresses ~40% less Na/K-ATPase α1 compared to their wild type littermates (WT) and exhibits deficiency in Na/K-ATPase signaling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775457/potassium-and-sodium-microdomains-in-thin-astroglial-processes-a-computational-model-study
#17
Kevin Breslin, John Joseph Wade, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Jim Harkin, Bronac Flanagan, Harm Van Zalinge, Steve Hall, Matthew Walker, Alexei Verkhratsky, Liam McDaid
A biophysical model that captures molecular homeostatic control of ions at the perisynaptic cradle (PsC) is of fundamental importance for understanding the interplay between astroglial and neuronal compartments. In this paper, we develop a multi-compartmental mathematical model which proposes a novel mechanism whereby the flow of cations in thin processes is restricted due to negatively charged membrane lipids which result in the formation of deep potential wells near the dipole heads. These wells restrict the flow of cations to "hopping" between adjacent wells as they transverse the process, and this surface retention of cations will be shown to give rise to the formation of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) microdomains at the PsC...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775438/breakdown-of-water-super-permeation-in-electrically-insulating-graphene-oxide-films-role-of-dual-interlayer-spacing
#18
M K Kavitha, Tushar Sakorikar, Pramitha V, Manu Jaiswal
Conventional graphene oxide is characterized by low sp<sup>2</sup> content in a sp<sup>3</sup> rich matrix, which is responsible both for electrical insulation and water super-permeation. Upon reduction, electrical conduction is achieved at the expense of water permeation ability. Here, we demonstrate that charge conduction and water permeation can be simultaneously restricted in a functionalized form of graphene oxide. Gravimetric studies reveal that diffusion of water vapour through glassy polymer membranes is arrested by loading hydrophobic form of GO in the polymer matrix, even as such water inhibition cannot be realized by substantially increasing the thickness of the bare polymer...
May 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775397/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-in-cancer-radiotherapy-and-its-targeting-for-tumor-radiosensitization
#19
Poushali Bhattacharya, Neena G Shetake, Badri N Pandey, Amit Kumar
PURPOSE: One of the most important implications of 'Radiation Biology' research is to improve cancer radiotherapy with minimum side effects. In this regard, combination of chemotherapy with radiation has significantly improved tumor control as well as overall survival in a variety of cancers. However, this has been achieved at the cost of significant normal tissue toxicity, due to the lack of specificity of chemotherapy. Membrane-localized receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been found to play a driving role in various hallmarks of cancer...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775319/operando-evidence-for-a-universal-oxygen-evolution-mechanism-on-thermal-and-electrochemical-iridium-oxides
#20
Viktoriia A Saveleva, Li Wang, Detre Teschner, Travis E Jones, Aldo S Gago, K Andreas Friedrich, Spyridon Zafeiratos, Robert Schloegl, Elena R Savinova
Progress in the development of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis technology requires decreasing the anode overpotential, where the sluggish multistep oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurs. This calls for the understanding of the nature of the active OER sites and reaction intermediates, which are still being debated. In this work, we apply synchrotron radiation - based near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopies under operando conditions in order to unveil the nature of the reaction intermediates and shed light on the OER mechanism on electrocatalysts most widely used in PEM electrolyzers - electrochemical and thermal iridium oxides...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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