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Zarizal Suhaili, Putri 'Amira Rafee, Norhidayah Mat Azis, Chew Chieng Yeo, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Abdul Rachman Abdul Rahim, Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa
Introduction: This study aims to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from university students and to determine the prevalence of constitutive and inducible clindamycin resistance, the latter being able to cause therapeutic failure due to false in vitro clindamycin susceptibility. Methods: S. aureus strains were isolated from the nasal swabs of 200 health sciences students of a Malaysian university. Twelve classes of antibiotics were used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles with the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ) phenotype for inducible clindamycin resistance determined by the double-diffusion test (D-test)...
March 2018: Germs
Nayeem Ahmad, Shamsi Khalid, Syed M Ali, Asad U Khan
Carbapenem-resistance among enterobacteriaceae has become a global health concern. The objective of this study was to understand NDM producing enterobacteriaceae and their genetic basis of resistance, spreading in neonatal intensive care unit. Carbapenem resistant NDM producing enterobacteriaceae isolates were recovered from rectal swab and blood sample of infants admitted in NICU. These were determined by using Carba-NP test. All isolates were identified using BD PhoenixTM-100 and MICs were determined by broth microdilution method...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luigi Principe, Aurora Piazza, Carola Mauri, Adriano Anesi, Silvia Bracco, Gioconda Brigante, Erminia Casari, Carlo Agrappi, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Federica Novazzi, Roberta Migliavacca, Laura Pagani, Francesco Luzzaro
Background: The emergence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism in Escherichia coli has raised concern among public health experts as colistin is a last-line antimicrobial resort. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of this resistance trait in E. coli isolates circulating in the Lombardy region, Northern Italy. The presence of mcr -type genes and their genetic relationship were also studied. Materials and methods: A prospective study was performed during a 4-month period (May to August, 2016) in six acute care Hospitals...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Hongwei Zhang, Jiaqi Lu, Yingying Lu, Qingqing Cai, Haiou Liu, Congjian Xu
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause leading to the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the relationship between genital microbiome and HPV persistence/clearance is not well established. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is one of standard treatments of CIN 2/3 globally, yet little is known about how the LEEP influence genital microbiota. We conducted a prospective study of 26 patients with CIN2/3 who underwent analysis of cervical microbiome before and after 3 months of LEEP treatment...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alberto Berardi, Isotta Guidotti, Roberta Creti, Giovanna Alfarone, Antonella Grottola, Claudia Venturelli, Giulia Fregni Serpinid, Elisa Della Casa, Elena Vecchi, Alessandra Boncompagni, Carlotta Toffoli, Fabrizio Ferrari
OBJECTIVES: Current predominant routes of group B Streptococcus (GBS) transmission in preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are poorly defined. We report two overlapping clusters of GBS late-onset disease (LOD) from June to September 2015 in an Italian NICU. METHODS: During the outbreak, possible sources of transmission (equipment, feeding bottles, breast pumps) were swabbed. Specimens from throat and rectum were collected on a weekly basis from all neonates admitted to NICU...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Josephine L K Murray, Diogo F P Marques, Ross L Cameron, Alison Potts, Jennifer Bishop, Beatrix von Wissmann, Naoma William, Arlene J Reynolds, Chris Robertson, Jim McMenamin
Scotland observed an unusual influenza A(H3N2)-dominated 2017/18 influenza season with healthcare services under significant pressure. We report the application of the moving epidemic method (MEM) to virology data as a tool to predict the influenza peak activity period and peak week of swab positivity in the current season. This novel MEM application has been successful locally and is believed to be of potential use to other countries for healthcare planning and building wider community resilience.
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Ting Xin, Xintao Gao, Hongjun Yang, Pingjun Li, Qianqian Liang, Shaohua Hou, Xiukun Sui, Xiaoyu Guo, Weifeng Yuan, Hongfei Zhu, Jiabo Ding, Hong Jia
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is primarily caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis , which belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The airborne route is considered the most common for transmission of M. bovis , and more than 15% of cattle with bTB shed the Mycobacterium , which can be detect by nested PCR to amplify mycobacterial mpb 70 from a nasal swab from a cow. To screen for cytokines fostering early and accurate detection of bTB, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from naturally M...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta, Alemayehu Worku, Gudina Egata, Berhanu Seyoum, Dadi Marami, Yemane Berhane
Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Liselotte Coorevits, Ans Traen, Luk Bingé, Jo Van Dorpe, Marleen Praet, Jerina Boelens, Elizaveta Padalko
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global cause of acute illness. Early detection plays a crucial role in interrupting transmission and preventing complications. However, the accessibility of STI testing is curbed by the lack of an overall preferred sample type. By means of a prospective study in female sex workers (FSW), we compared the sensitivity of samples from different anatomical sites in detecting Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium and human papillomavirus...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Michael Loesche, Kamyar Farahi, Kimberly Capone, Steven Fakharzadeh, Andrew Blauvelt, Kristina Callis Duffin, Samuel E DePrimo, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Carrie Brodmerkel, Bidisha Dasgupta, Marc Chevrier, Kevin Smith, Joseph Horwinski, Amanda Tyldsley, Elizabeth A Grice
BACKGROUND: Plaque psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the skin, is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, including innate immune system dysregulation, environmental triggers, and genetic susceptibility. PURPOSE: We sought to further understand the role of skin microbiota in psoriasis pathogenesis, as well as their response to therapy. We systematically analyzed dynamic microbiota colonizing psoriasis lesions and adjacent nonlesional skin in 114 patients prior to and during ustekinumab treatment in a Phase 3b clinical trial...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Jie Li, Xiaoyan Lu, Baoming Jiang, Yiwei Du, Yang Yang, Haikun Qian, Baiwei Liu, Changying Lin, Lei Jia, Lijuan Chen, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus (HAdV)-associated acute conjunctivitis is a common infectious disease and causes significant morbidity among residents in Beijing, China. However, little is known about the epidemiology and type distribution of acute adenoviral conjunctivitis in Beijing. METHODS: Acute conjunctivitis surveillance was conducted in 18 hospitals in Beijing from July through October during 2011-2013. HAdVs were detected by PCR from eye swab and types were determined by partial hexon and fiber gene sequencing...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mukhit B Orynbayev, Sasan Fereidouni, Abylay R Sansyzbai, Bakhytkul A Seidakhmetova, Vitaliy M Strochkov, Askar M Nametov, Sandugash O Sadikaliyeva, Asel Nurgazieva, Kaissar K Tabynov, Nurkuysa M Rametov, Kulyaisan T Sultankulova
In order to improve current understanding of the molecular epidemiology of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1, formerly avian paramyxovirus 1) in wild birds in Kazakhstan, 860 cloacal swab samples were evaluated. Samples were collected from 37 families of wild birds in nine different regions in the years 2011 and 2014. Overall, 54 positive samples (4.2%) were detected from 17 different families of wild birds, and 16 AAvV-1 isolates were characterized. Three of the isolates contained the fusion protein cleavage site motif RRQKR, and 13 contained KRQKR, which is typical for pathogenic strains of AAvV-1...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Virology
Jane Oliver, Erandi Malliya Wadu, Nevil Pierse, Nicole J Moreland, Deborah A Williamson, Michael G Baker
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic treatment of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is important in acute rheumatic fever (ARF) prevention, however clinical guidelines for prescription vary. GAS carriers with acute viral infections may receive antibiotics unnecessarily. This review assessed the prevalence of GAS pharyngitis and carriage in different settings. METHODS: A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Prevalence estimates for GAS+ve pharyngitis, serologically-confirmed GAS pharyngitis and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage were generated...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Heidi Kruit, Oskari Heikinheimo, Timo Sorsa, Juuso Juhila, Jorma Paavonen, Leena Rahkonen
The prediction of successful labour induction is difficult, indicating a need for a biomarker test. Little is known about the effect of Foley catheter (FC) induction on biochemical mediators in the cervix, such as the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (TIMP). We enrolled 35 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, intact amniotic membranes and cephalic presentation ≥40 gestational weeks scheduled for labour induction by FC. Serial cervical swab samples were collected at FC insertion and expulsion...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Adham Abu Taha, Ayman Daoud, Sawsan Zaid, Sajida Sammour, Maram Belleh, Refqa Daifi
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Lu Gan, Mengyuan Zhu, Xiaozhao Li, Chen Chen, Ting Meng, Jiaxi Pu, Huiming Luo, Fengmin Shao, Qiaoling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tonsillitis can promote the progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) by aggravating immunopathologic response. Th22 cell disorder is involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN with tonsillitis. This study was determined to explore the possible mechanism of IgAN with tonsillitis underlying Th22 cell chemotaxis response to the effect of CCL20, CCL22, and CCL27. METHODS: This research was conducted on 65 subjects including 16 healthy controls (HC group), 5 patients with  renal carcinoma (HTC group) and 44 patients with IgAN between 2015 and 2016...
March 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Jacob B Hall, Zhaoyuan Cong, Yuka Imamura-Kawasawa, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Diane M Thiboutot, Amanda M Nelson
Our understanding of the microbiome and the role of P. acnes in skin homeostasis and acne pathogenesis is evolving. Multiple methods for sampling and identifying the skin's microbiome exist and understanding the differences between the abilities of various methods to characterize the microbial landscape is warranted. This study compared the microbial diversity of samples obtained from the cheeks of twenty volunteers, collected by surface swab, pore strips, and cyanoacrylate glue follicular biopsy, all sequenced with 16S rRNA sequencing (V1-V3) and whole-genome metagenomic sequencing (WGS)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Azucena Muñoz-Ramírez, Aracely López-Monteon, Angel Ramos-Ligonio, Enrique Méndez-Bolaina, Mario R B Guapillo-Vargas
Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limited to microscopic studies and the molecular screening of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is only done to women 35 years of age and older. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T...
March 13, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
N Haber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Reinfections are common throughout adult life with more severe presentations occurring in immunocompromised individuals, subjects with underlying high-risk cardiopulmonary diseases, and in the elderly. There is now a significant body of literature indicating that the impact of RSV in elderly adults is similar to that of non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in nursing homes...
March 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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