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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350846/dissemination-and-genetic-diversity-of-chlamydial-agents-in-polish-wildfowl-isolation-and-molecular-characterisation-of-avian-chlamydia-abortus-strains
#1
Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Agata Mitura, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Kinga Zaręba, Agnieszka Jodełko, Aneta Pluta, Sabine Scharf, Bailey Vitek, Rachid Aaziz, Fabien Vorimore, Karine Laroucau, Christiane Schnee
Wild birds are considered as a reservoir for avian chlamydiosis posing a potential infectious threat to domestic poultry and humans. Analysis of 894 cloacal or fecal swabs from free-living birds in Poland revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 14.8% (n = 132) with the highest prevalence noted in Anatidae (19.7%) and Corvidae (13.4%). Further testing conducted with species-specific real-time PCR showed that 65 samples (49.2%) were positive for C. psittaci whereas only one was positive for C. avium. To classify the non-identified chlamydial agents and to genotype the C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350806/pharmacokinetics-of-a-single-1g-dose-of-azithromycin-in-rectal-tissue-in-men
#2
Fabian Y S Kong, Thusitha W Rupasinghe, Julie A Simpson, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Christopher K Fairley, Malcolm J McConville, Jane S Hocking
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men. Repeat infection following treatment with 1g azithromycin is common and treatment failure of up to 22% has been reported. This study measured the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rectal tissue in men following a single 1g dose to assess whether azithromycin reaches the rectal site in adequate concentrations to kill chlamydia. Ten healthy men took a single oral dose of 1g azithromycin and provided nine self-collected swabs and one blood sample over 14 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350724/prevalence-and-predictors-of-unsatisfactory-anal-cytology-tests-in-a-cohort-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-sydney-australia-baseline-findings-from-the-study-of-the-prevention-of-anal-cancer-spanc
#3
David J Templeton, Jennifer M Roberts, I Mary Poynten, Carmella Law, Richard J Hillman, Annabelle Farnsworth, Christopher K Fairley, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Suzanne M Garland, Andrew E Grulich, Fengyi Jin
Anal cytology has been suggested as a screening test for the anal cancer precursor high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of initial unsatisfactory anal cytology tests ('unsats'). The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and precancerous lesions among gay and bisexual men (GBM) of at least 35 years in Sydney, Australia. At each study visit, an anal swab is collected for cytological testing...
May 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350701/interpretation-of-nasal-swab-measurements-following-suspected-releases-of-actinide-aerosols
#4
John Klumpp, Luiz Bertelli, Tom Waters
For radionuclides such as plutonium and americium, detection of removable activity in the nose (i.e., nasal swab measurements) are frequently used to determine whether follow-up bioassay measurements are warranted following a potential intake. For this paper, the authors analyzed 429 nasal swab measurements taken following incidents or suspicious circumstances (such as an air monitor alarming) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for which the dose was later evaluated using in vitro bioassay. Nasal swab measurements were found to be very poor predictors of dose and should not be used as such in the field...
May 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#5
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#6
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344116/asymptomatic-group-a-streptococcal-throat-carriage-in-royal-marines-recruits-and-young-officers
#7
M Pearson, J L Fallowfield, T Davey, N Thorpe, A Allsopp, A Shaw, D Wilson, S Sriskandan, L Lamb
AIMS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Royal Marines (RM) recruits to investigate throat carriage of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and incidence of soft tissue infections. METHODS: 1012 RM recruits were followed through a 32-week training programme, with throat swabs being obtained in weeks 1, 6, 15, and 32. Alongside a separate cohort of 46 RM Young Officers (YO) undergoing training were sampled in parallel. RESULTS: Carriage of group A Streptococcus was detected in only 5/1012 (0...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343857/staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-health-care-workers-first-report-from-a-major-public-hospital-in-argentina
#8
Carina Andrea Boncompain, Cristian Alejandro Suárez, Héctor Ricardo Morbidoni
Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers...
March 24, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343691/improving-the-quality-of-nasal-specimen-collection-for-influenza-a-and-b-screening
#9
Joan Catherine Widmer, Pamela P DiNapoli
PROBLEM: Rapid diagnosis of seasonal influenza leads to optimized clinical care and reduces the spread of infection. The collection of adequate cellular material can be facilitated by the presence of moisture in the nares. The specific aim of this project was to determine if the installation of sterile saline into the nares prior to specimen collection would improve the quality of the specimen. METHODS: This quasi-experimental single group design tested an initial "dry swab" specimen against a second swab after instillation of sterile saline solution using a nasal atomizer, a "wet swab...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343639/the-benefits-of-a-preoperative-mrsa-swabbing-protocol
#10
Hope Herd
Infection control practices pose a challenge to nursing care in general, but can have a huge negative impact on the perioperative process. Prior to July of 2012, our institution did not perform routine methacillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening on preoperative patients with a prior history of MRSA. This resulted in patients remaining in isolation throughout their entire perioperative course. Screening for MRSA was delayed until the patient arrived in the medical surgical unit. Many of these patients were later found to have negative nasal swabs...
April 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343555/provoked-vestibulodynia-diagnosis-self-reported-pain-and-presentation-during-gynaecological-examinations
#11
Emma E Dargie, Susan M Chamberlain, Caroline F Pukall
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors associated with the diagnosis of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) through (1) self-reported pain characteristics and (2) Friedrich's criteria (vestibular pain during sexual activity/gynaecological examination). We also identified cases in which incorrect diagnoses were assigned and explored group differences in gynaecological examination presentation and associations with self-reported pain. METHODS: Data were extracted from nine studies conducted in our research laboratory...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343098/developmental-validation-of-qiagen-investigator-%C3%A2-24plex-qs-kit-and-investigator-%C3%A2-24plex-go-kit-two-6-dye-multiplex-assays-for-the-extended-codis-core-loci
#12
Melanie Kraemer, Anke Prochnow, Michael Bussmann, Mario Scherer, Ralf Peist, Carolyn Steffen
The original CODIS database based on 13 core STR loci has been overwhelmingly successful for matching suspects with evidence. In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group determined the expansion of the CODIS core loci to 20 STR plus three additional "highly recommended" loci (SE33, DY391, Amelogenin) Hares, 2015, 2012 [1,2]. The QIAGEN Investigator 24plex QS and Investigator 24plex GO! Kits are 6-dye multiplex assays that contain all markers of the expanded 23 CODIS core loci along with a unique internal performance control that is co-amplified with the STR markers...
March 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342745/culture-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-from-the-nasopharynx-not-all-media-are-equal
#13
Tegan M Harris, Angela Rumaseb, Jemima Beissbarth, Federica Barzi, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan
The efficacy of chocolate agar, versus bacitracin, vancomycin, clindamycin, chocolate agar (BVCCA) for the isolation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from nasopharyngeal swabs was determined. BVCCA cultured NTHi from 97.3% of NTHi-positive swabs, compared to 87.1% for chocolate agar. To maximise culture sensitivity, the use of both media is recommended.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342387/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-putative-human-polyomavirus
#14
Tarik Gheit, Sankhadeep Dutta, Javier Oliver, Alexis Robitaille, Shalaka Hampras, Jean-Damien Combes, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Neil Fenske, Basil Cherpelis, Anna R Giuliano, Silvia Franceschi, James McKay, Dana E Rollison, Massimo Tommasino
The small double-stranded DNA polyomaviruses (PyVs) form a family of 73 species, whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds. So far, 13 PyVs have been isolated in humans, and some of them have clearly been associated with several diseases, including cancer. In this study, we describe the isolation of a novel PyV in human skin using a sensitive degenerate PCR protocol combined with next-generation sequencing. The new virus, named Lyon IARC PyV (LIPyV), has a circular genome of 5269 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses showed that LIPyV is related to the raccoon PyV identified in neuroglial tumours in free-ranging raccoons...
March 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341280/cost-effectiveness-of-staphylococcus-aureus-decolonization-strategies-in-high-risk-total-joint-arthroplasty-patients
#15
Devin M Williams, Andy O Miller, Michael W Henry, Geoffrey H Westrich, Hassan M K Ghomrawi
BACKGROUND: The risk of prosthetic joint infection increases with Staphylococcus aureus colonization. The cost-effectiveness of decolonization is controversial. We evaluated cost-effectiveness decolonization protocols in high-risk arthroplasty patients. METHODS: An analytical model evaluated risk under 3 protocols: 4 swabs, 2 swabs, and nasal swab alone. These were compared to no-screening and universal decolonization strategies. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from the hospital, patient, and societal perspective...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341192/potential-infection-control-risks-associated-with-ultrasound-equipment-a-bacterial-perspective
#16
Susan Campbell Westerway, Jocelyne M Basseal, Adam Brockway, Jon A Hyett, Dee A Carter
Ultrasound equipment used in trans-abdominal (TA) and trans-vaginal (TV) examination may carry bacterial contamination and pose risks to infection control during ultrasound examination. We aimed to describe the prevalence of bacterial contamination on ultrasound probes, gel, machine keyboard and cords and examined the effectiveness of low- and high-level disinfection techniques. This study was performed at a public hospital and a private practice. A total of 171 swabs were analyzed and bacterial species were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339745/chronic-nasal-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-identifies-a-subset-of-newly-diagnosed-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-patients-with-high-relapse-rate
#17
Anna Salmela, Niels Rasmussen, Jan Willem Cohen Tervaert, David R W Jayne, Agneta Ekstrand
Objective.: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is related to relapses in patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Methods.: In two clinical trials (n = 200), for early systemic (n = 83) and generalized (n = 117) AAV, nasal swabs were obtained monthly and at the time of a relapse. Chronic nasal SA carriage (CNSAC) was defined as ⩾ 75% of cultures being SA positive, with non-carriers being SA negative in all cultures and remaining patients being intermittent carriers...
February 20, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339447/chronic-localized-back-pain-due-to-posterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-pocnes-a-new-diagnosis
#18
Oliver B Boelens, Robert C Maatman, Marc R Scheltinga, Kees van Laarhoven, Rudi M Roumen
Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338790/empathy-for-pain-motivates-actions-without-altruistic-effects-evidence-of-motor-dynamics-and-brain-activity
#19
Xiaochun Han, Kang He, Bing Wu, Zhenhao Shi, Yi Liu, Siyang Luo, Kunlin Wei, Xinhuai Wu, Shihui Han
Empathy has been supposed to be a proximate mechanism of altruistic behavior. We investigated whether empathy for pain drives actions without altruistic effects and how such actions modulate neural responses to others' pain. In two experiments, we asked healthy adults to press a button for no reason when viewing video clips showing faces with pain expressions receiving needle penetration or faces with neutral expressions receiving a cotton swab touch. Experiment 1 found that participants pressed a button with greater response force when watching painful than non-painful stimuli...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337492/flock-based-surveillance-for-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-commercial-breeders-and-layers-southwest-nigeria
#20
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Ayoyimika Omolanwa, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi, Oluladun Comfort Aiki-Raji
BACKGROUND: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the epidemiological characteristics of AI needed for the development of prevention and control strategies in such countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of routine AI monitoring in southwest Nigeria, a competitive ELISA was used for detecting influenza A virus antibodies in the sera of 461 commercial breeder and layer birds obtained from different flocks in Oyo State, Nigeria while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 subtype-specific antigens...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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