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rape victim

J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Alexis A Adams-Clark, Joan C Chrisler
Many people believe that rape is always perpetrated by a stranger and involves vaginal intercourse. To clarify perceptions of rape that do not follow traditional beliefs, participants were presented with a vignette that described a rape in which the marital status and sexual act were manipulated. Participants were then asked to assess the incident's severity and the victim's responsibility. Results indicated that there was no difference in perceptions between vignettes based on marital status. However, rapes involving vaginal intercourse were associated with lesser degrees of victim blame and minimization than were rapes involving forced oral sex or digital sex...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Sofia Persson, Katie Dhingra, Sarah Grogan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: are to, on a sample of nurses and the general public, examine whether victim blame varies according to level of familiarly between victim and perpetrator. It also examines how Ambivalent Sexism (AS) and Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) impacts on this. BACKGROUND: Around one in five women will be victims of sexual assault during their lifetime. The majority are acquaintance rapes, and these victims are generally attributed more blame than victims of stranger rape...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Amy L Brown
Research has shown that judgments of a rape victim could be influenced by exposure to negative social reactions: students indicated less willingness to provide sympathy and support to a hypothetical rape victim when they learned she had been blamed and stigmatized. The current study, which utilized a sample of 100 college students, replicated and extended these results and showed that men were affected by others' negative social reactions in their hypothetical judgments and in their behavioral responses to a rape victim (sitting farther away)...
February 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Cortney A Franklin, Alondra D Garza
The aftermath of sexual assault warrants further attention surrounding the responses provided by those to whom survivors disclose, especially when perpetrator type or victim race may affect whether the bystander response is supportive or attributes culpability to the victim. Disclosure responses have significant consequences for survivors' posttrauma mental health and formal help-seeking behavior. The current study used a sample of 348 self-report, paper-and-pencil surveys administered during the fall 2015 semester to a purposive sample of undergraduate students with a mean age of 20...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Qin Xiang Ng, Bob Zheng Jie Yong, Collin Yin Xian Ho, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
Suicide is an emerging, yet preventable global health issue associated with significant mortality. Identification of underlying risk factors and antecedents may inform preventive strategies and interventions. This study serves to provide an updated meta-analysis examining the extent of association of early life sexual abuse with suicide attempts. Using the keywords [early abuse OR childhood abuse OR sexual OR rape OR molest* OR violence OR trauma OR PTSD] AND [suicid* OR premature OR unnatural OR deceased OR died OR mortality], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases yielded 12,874 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1988 and 1-June-2017...
April 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Melissa T Merrick, Kathleen C Basile, Xinjian Zhang, Sharon G Smith, Marcie-Jo Kresnow
INTRODUCTION: Youth sexual violence victimization is an urgent public health concern that can lead to a variety of health problems and increased risk for victimization during adulthood. Examining the characteristics of early victimization and their association with subsequent victimization during adulthood may help strengthen primary prevention efforts. METHODS: Data are from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. Prevalence estimates were computed in 2017 for rape and made to sexually penetrate, their subtypes, as well as proportions among victims by type of perpetrator...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Emily M Nichols, Amy Bonomi, Rebecca Kammes, Elizabeth Miller
OBJECTIVE: To examine mental health service experiences following sexual violence (SV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among college women with a disability. PARTICIPANTS: College women (n = 27, ages 19 to 24) with a disability who experienced at least one SV/IPV occurrence; interviewed July/August 2016. METHODS: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews, with thematic analysis. RESULTS: Women tended to wait several months (or did not seek care at all) following SV/IPV, because they downplayed their experience (e...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Heather Littleton, Marlee Layh, Kelly Rudolph
Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
L Stark, K Asghar, I Seff, B Cislaghi, G Yu, T Tesfay Gessesse, J Eoomkham, A Assazenew Baysa, K Falb
Background: Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Methods: Ordinary least squares multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the associations between attitudes and social norms, and self-esteem...
2018: Global Mental Health
Papanu Suttipasit, Surachet Wongwittayapanich
The presence of semen is generally accepted as evidence in sexual assault cases prosecution. Detection of sperm is confirmation of semen; however, sperm cannot always be detected. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and semenogelin (Sg) are used as semen biomarkers. We compared the detection rate and persistence of sperm, PSA and Sg over a range of time intervals from the time of assault to specimen collection. The results show that sperm had the longest persistence and highest detection rate. The detection rate of the Sg test was significantly better than that of the PSA test overall, whether the sperm test was negative or positive...
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Lucas Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira, Fábio Henrique Queiroz Pereira, Ana Maria Luna Neri Benevides, Matias Carvalho Aguiar Melo
Although sexual abuse (SA) is known to be frequent among borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, few reviews evaluating that relationship have been published. This systematic review aimed to investigate SA (including adulthood) as a predictor of BPD diagnosis, clinical presentation and prognosis. Studies written in English or Portuguese from January 1997 until January 2017 were identified by searching the following keywords in three international databases: "borderline personality disorder" OR "borderline disorder" AND "sexual abuse" OR "sexual violence" OR "sexual victimization" OR "sexual assault" OR "rape"...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Melinda Manning
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects medical students and residents from all forms of sexual discrimination, including sexual harassment and assault. Hospitals that train residents as well as medical students must follow Title IX mandates, including investigating and addressing all reports of sexual discrimination, harassment, or violence. While these processes can help eliminate potential barriers to women in medical training, the pressure to participate in an internal investigation can discourage some medical students and residents from seeking help...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Beril Anılanmert, Ibrahim Narın, Ibrahim Aydın, Munevver Acıkkol
In cases where pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical candidates are involved in drug facilitated crimes (DFC), like organ theft, robbery, rape and suicides, the analysis of drug powders or solution residues found in crime scenes may give idea on what the victims have ingested. An easy and fast simultaneous determination of 7 drugs; GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), GBL (γ-butyrolactone), norketamine, ketamine, fenobarbital, fenitoin and thiopental which have the potential to be used in DFC was performed. The method required no sample preparation and has 12 minutes elution time with a good chromatographic separation...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mevludin Hasanović
No abstract available.
November 2017: Acta Medica Academica
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
April 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Mónica Romero-Sánchez, Barbara Krahé, Miguel Moya, Jesús L Megías
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Ethan Czuy Levine
The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication...
February 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Nina B Hansen, Maj Hansen, Louise H Nielsen, Rikke H Bramsen, Ask Elklit, Rebecca Campbell
This study examined level of acute psychological distress and perceived social support in 64 victims of rape and the association with police case decisions and victims' willingness to participate in the investigation. The results of independent-sample t tests revealed that victims' unwillingness to participate in the investigation was significantly associated with a higher level of psychological distress in the acute phase following the assault. The results suggest that victims of rape who disengage with the police investigation may do so because of a high level of acute psychological distress...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Robyn Singleton, Kate Winskell, Siphiwe Nkambule-Vilakati, Gaëlle Sabben
Sexual violence is both a major human rights issue and an important driver of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. While quantitative indicators of sexual violence have evolved to facilitate cross-national comparison and country-level decision making, qualitative findings typically remain constrained to single sites and populations. We analyzed social representations of sexual violence, specifically rape, in a sample of 1446 narratives about HIV written by young Africans between 2005 and 2014. The narratives were written at 5 discrete time points (2005, 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014) by equal numbers of males and females aged 10-24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal...
December 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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