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rape victim

Bryana H French, Han Na Suh, Brooke Arterberry
The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Sexual Coercion Inventory (SCI; Waldner, Vaden-Goad, & Sikka, 1999), revised by the authors (SCI-R). Overall, 514 high school and college students from a Midwestern state completed the SCI-R. To complete the SCI-R, high school participants completed paper-pencil surveys with those younger than 18 obtaining parental consent; college students older than 18 completed computer-based and paper-pencil surveys. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the validity of score interpretation and reliability of scores for the measure...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
T A M Teunissen, S H Lo Fong Wong, A L M Lagro-Janssen
Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the abuse. Doctors often do not recognize the signs of sexual abuse. Most victims of rape have symptoms that may develop into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if they persist for more than 4 weeks, such as sleep problems or panic attacks...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Ines Domenech Del Rio, Elena Sirvent Garcia Del Valle
BACKGROUND: Research on sexual violence by non-partners based on representative samples is scarce. The objectives of the study were (i) to analyse the prevalence of different forms of non-partner sexual violence in Spain and their perpetrators, (ii) to analyse the consequences of non-partner sexual violence on mental health and (iii) to estimate the percentage of rapes that are reported to the police. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Spanish Survey on Violence against Women, a nationally representative sample of 10 171 women, were used...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Denis Mukwege, Marie Berg
Denis Mukwege and Marie Berg describe the One Stop Centre at Panzi Hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that provides care for girls and women who have been raped in combination with extreme bodily harm.
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Gudrun Høiseth, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Ritva Karinen
INTRODUCTION: A number of new designer benzodiazepines have reached the illegal drug market over the past years. Toxicological interpretation of concentrations of these drugs in blood is quite challenging as very limited human data have previously been published. The aim of this study was to report blood concentrations of new designer benzodiazepines in a population of drugged drivers as well as some other criminal offenders, and to relate this to clinical impairment. METHODS: The present material represents cases involving new designer benzodiazepines (clonazolam, diclazepam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam and pyrazolam) and etizolam, submitted for analyses during the period July 1, 2013-May 31, 2016...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
Jamie R Yoder, Ashleigh I Hodge, Donna Ruch
Although research is becoming increasingly nuanced by exploring differential risk factors linked with types of youth offenders, typological distinctions have rarely been made between youth rapists and other serious youth offenders. This study tests the relative effects of intra- and extra-familial victimization-while holding other theoretically driven variables constant-on membership in three mutually exclusive youth offending groups: non-serious non-sexual offenders (n = 4,013), serious non-sexual offenders (n = 2,571), and rapists (n = 489)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kyoko Hazama, Satoshi Katsuta
Research in Western countries has indicated that the cognitive distortions of sexual offenders play an etiological and maintenance role in offending. The present study examines whether the cognitive distortions hypothesized by previous Western studies can be found in Japanese sexual offenders against women. This study used the questionnaire administered by probation officers in the special cognitive-behavioral treatment programs for sexual offenders, which have been implemented since 2006 in Japan. Participants in the offender group were 80 Japanese male probationers and parolees (more than 19 years old, M age = 34...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Helene Flood Aakvaag, Siri Thoresen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Grete Dyb
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for adult victimization in women, but little is known about the importance of relationship to perpetrator and exposure to other violence types. This study interviewed 2,437 Norwegian women (response rate = 45.0%) about their experiences with violence. Logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate associations of multiple categories of childhood violence with adult victimization. Women exposed to CSA often experienced other childhood violence, and the total burden of violence was associated with adult rape and intimate partner violence (IPV)...
August 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Michael D Barnett, Kylie B Sligar, Chiachih D C Wang
Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
John Chishugi, Trixy Franke
A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force...
August 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Andrea D Haugen, Phia Salter, Nia L Phillips
This study examined various individual differences that influence perceptions of sexual assault (SA), specifically focusing on participants' self-reported recent experiences of rape or sexual coercion. Female college students (N = 214) read 16 short SA encounter vignettes, indicated whether what they read constituted rape, and completed individual difference measures. Results indicated that participants who confirmed a recent history of SA endorsed rape myths to a greater degree, held more adversarial sexual beliefs, reported higher levels of sociosexuality, and were less likely to construct the SA encounters as rape when compared with women who do not report recent SA or coercion...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Liesl A Nydegger, Wayne DiFranceisco, Katherine Quinn, Julia Dickson-Gomez
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Michele R Parkhill, Jeanette Norris, Amanda K Gilmore, Danielle M Hessler, William H George, Kelly Cue Davis, Tina Zawacki
Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high)...
2016: Violence and Victims
Jennifer S Wong, Samantha Balemba
When confronted with a sexual attacker, women are often extremely concerned with avoiding rape completion. While narrative reviews typically suggest that the victim resistance is linked to rape avoidance, much of the existing literature relies on overlapping samples from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The current meta-analysis examines whether victim resistance is related to a greater likelihood of avoiding rape completion. Results from a systematic literature search across 25 databases supplemented by a search of the gray literature resulted in 4,581 hits of which seven studies met eligibility criteria for the review...
August 12, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Rachel M Venema
As research continues to describe negative experiences and high case attrition within sexual assault cases reported to the police, it is important to better understand the role of first-responding police officers. This study surveyed a sample of sworn police officers (N = 174) from one department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region to examine the effect of individual police officer characteristics, rape myth acceptance (RMA), attributions of blame, and case characteristics from a hypothetical vignette, on officer perceptions of a "good" case and behavioral intentions...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lylla Winzer
The lack of official data on rape has been a challenge for researchers in Brazil. Two recently published studies were based on law enforcement and medical records. Although these studies represent important progress in research on rape in the country, they have several limitations. In order to obtain more realistic rates, the current article reviews Brazilian studies on self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in individuals over 14 years of age. Forty-one studies were identified through electronic searches and reference verification...
August 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Lisa Fedina, Celia Williamson, Tasha Perdue
Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry (N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Xing-Chun Zhao, Le Wang, Jing Sun, Bo-Wei Jiang, Er-Li Zhang, Jian Ye
Vaginal swabs taken in rape cases usually contain epithelial cells from the victim and sperm from the assailant and forensic DNA analysis requires separation of sperm from these cell mixtures. PH-20, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored hyaluronidase located on the head of sperm, has important functions in fertilization. Here we describe a newly developed method for sperm isolation using anti-PH-20 antibody-coupled immunomagnetic beads (anti-PH-20 IMBs). Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the IMBs recognized the head of sperm specifically and exhibited a great capacity to capture sperm cells...
2016: PloS One
David M Bierie, Kristen M Budd
Statutory rape is an important yet understudied topic. There is broad public support for the prosecution of older adults who engage in sexual relationships with minors regardless of perceptions of consent by either party. However, some scholars worry that expansive definitions within these laws have led to the widespread involvement of the justice system in the lives of similarly aged teenagers engaging in relatively normal sexual behavior, so called "Romeo and Juliet" liaisons. This, in turn, has called into question the legitimacy of national policies, such as sex offender registration, because of the presumption that registries are likely filled with these kinds of cases which may not represent the intent of legislatures and the public...
July 15, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Manon Ceelen, Tina Dorn, Flora S van Huis, Udo J L Reijnders
Although the physical and psychological consequences of sexual violence can be severe, many victims do not report the violence to the police force. The current study examined the characteristics and the post-decisional attitude of the non-reporting sexual violence victims. In total, 287 victims of sexual violence completed an anonymous online questionnaire that assessed characteristics of the violence, whether or not the crime was reported, reasons for not reporting, and aspects that would have convinced non-reporters to report in retrospect...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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