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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332557/evaluation-of-a-victim-centered-trauma-informed-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#1
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
April 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332529/alcohol-related-victim-behavior-and-rape-myth-acceptance-as-predictors-of-victim-blame-in-sexual-assault-cases
#2
Mónica Romero-Sánchez, Barbara Krahé, Miguel Moya, Jesús L Megías
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332509/sexual-scripts-and-criminal-statutes-gender-restrictions-spousal-allowances-and-victim-accountability-after-rape-law-reform
#3
Ethan Czuy Levine
The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication...
February 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332506/rape-crimes-are-victims-acute-psychological-distress-and-perceived-social-support-associated-with-police-case-decision-and-victim-willingness-to-participate-in-the-investigation
#4
Nina B Hansen, Maj Hansen, Louise H Nielsen, Rikke H Bramsen, Ask Elklit, Rebecca Campbell
This study examined level of acute psychological distress and perceived social support in 64 victims of rape and the association with police case decisions and victims' willingness to participate in the investigation. The results of independent-sample t tests revealed that victims' unwillingness to participate in the investigation was significantly associated with a higher level of psychological distress in the acute phase following the assault. The results suggest that victims of rape who disengage with the police investigation may do so because of a high level of acute psychological distress...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316511/young-africans-social-representations-of-rape-in-their-hiv-related-creative-narratives-2005-2014-rape-myths-and-alternative-narratives
#5
Robyn Singleton, Kate Winskell, Siphiwe Nkambule-Vilakati, Gaëlle Sabben
Sexual violence is both a major human rights issue and an important driver of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. While quantitative indicators of sexual violence have evolved to facilitate cross-national comparison and country-level decision making, qualitative findings typically remain constrained to single sites and populations. We analyzed social representations of sexual violence, specifically rape, in a sample of 1446 narratives about HIV written by young Africans between 2005 and 2014. The narratives were written at 5 discrete time points (2005, 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014) by equal numbers of males and females aged 10-24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal...
December 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306795/a-retrospective-study-of-sexual-offences-in-zambia
#6
Innocent Makasa, Laura Jane Heathfield
Zambia has recently reported high incidences of sexual abuse against women and children. Zambian law categorises sexual offences into rape, defilement, incest and others, with defilement constituting the majority of the reported cases (>89%). Between 2010 and 2012, convictions of defilement cases were achieved in only 13% of cases reported to the police. DNA evidence has shown prominence in resolving crimes, specifically as an identification tool in sexual offences. Currently there is no empirical evidence describing the role of forensic evidence in sexual crimes in Zambia; as such a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate this between 2007 and 2014 (n = 1154)...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301113/factors-associated-with-trace-evidence-analyses-and-dna-findings-among-police-reported-cases-of-rape
#7
Camilla Forr, Berit Schei, Lise Eilin Stene, Kari Ormstad, Cecilie Therese Hagemann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between victim, suspect and assault characteristics and (1) forensic analysis of trace evidence, (2) detection of spermatozoa and (3) DNA match in police-reported cases of rape/attempted rape. In addition, we explored whether DNA findings were associated with legal outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study based on police-reported rapes and attempted rapes of women  ≥16 years of age in Sør-Trøndelag Police District throughout 1997-2010...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295033/alcohol-priming-and-attribution-of-blame-in-an-acquaintance-rape-vignette
#8
Elena V Stepanova, Amy L Brown
Research on nonpharmacological effects of alcohol shows that exposure to alcohol-related cues (i.e., alcohol priming) can increase behaviors associated with actual alcohol consumption. Attributions of responsibility to female victims in sexual assault scenarios are affected by whether or not alcohol was consumed by a victim and/or perpetrator. Victims often receive higher levels of blame if they consume alcohol prior to the assault. This work extends the research on nonpharmacological effects of alcohol into a novel domain of blame attribution toward rape victims...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295008/undergraduate-men-s-self-reports-of-sexual-assault-and-perceptions-of-college-campus-acquaintance-rape
#9
M Colleen McDaniel, Dario N Rodriguez
Acquaintance rape is distressingly common on college campuses. Differing models of the perpetration of sexual assault make diverging predictions regarding the degree to which individual differences may distinguish among such sexual offenders and nonoffenders. Much research investigating these issues has primarily sampled students from large, commuter colleges. Such data may not generalize to students in other university settings (e.g., private schools, students in university housing). The present study sought to examine the rate of self-reported sexual assault among college men at a private school at which most students live in university housing...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294993/crossing-the-threshold-from-porn-use-to-porn-problem-frequency-and-modality-of-porn-use-as-predictors-of-sexually-coercive-behaviors
#10
Ethan A Marshall, Holly A Miller, Jeff A Bouffard
According to recent statistics, as many as one in five female college students are victims of sexual assault during their college career. To combat what has been called the "Campus Rape Crisis," researchers have attempted to understand what variables are associated with sexually coercive behaviors in college males. Although investigators have found support for the relationship between pornography consumption and sexually coercive behavior, researchers typically operationalize pornography use in terms of frequency of use...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294968/situational-and-dispositional-determinants-of-college-men-s-perception-of-women-s-sexual-desire-and-consent-to-sex-a-factorial-vignette-analysis
#11
Ashton M Lofgreen, Richard E Mattson, Samantha A Wagner, Edwin G Ortiz, Matthew D Johnson
Sexual victimization of women by men on college campuses is a growing societal concern, with research identifying a host of situational and characterological factors that may predict men's likelihood to engage in sexual misconduct. In the present study, we examined the relative contribution and potential interplay of these various determinants on college men's perceptions of women's sexual desire and consent in hypothetical dating scenarios depicting a sexual interaction. We found that the men ( N = 145) in this sample (a) conflated sexual desire with consent, (b) varied their appraisals of consent and desire depending on whether and how the woman in the vignette communicated consent or refusal, (c) perceived higher levels of consent if the man in the vignette had intercourse with the woman previously and as a function of escalating sexual intimacy in the ongoing interaction, (d) endorsed higher levels of perceived desire and consent across situations if they more strongly held rape-supportive attitudes, and (e) moderated their association between situational factors and perceptions of a woman's sexual intentions based on their endorsement of rape myths and a hypermasculine ideology...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294964/rape-crisis-counseling-trauma-contagion-and-supervision
#12
Niveen Rizkalla, Maya Zeevi-Barkay, Steven P Segal
This study of rape crisis counselors considers whether increased exposure to victims' trauma is associated with increased supervision-believed necessary to combat trauma contagion-and whether such supervision will reduce the negative impact of such exposure. One hundred six women counselors in seven of nine rape crisis centers in Israel completed anonymous questionnaires documenting their work and trauma exposure. Trauma exposure was defined by counselors' number of victim-contact hours per week and their assessment of the trauma severity they experienced...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294942/the-interaction-between-observer-sex-and-sexual-identity-on-attributions-of-blame-with-a-heterosexual-female-victim
#13
Bridget K Diamond-Welch, Olivia Mann, Melissa L Bass, Craig Tollini
This article examines the difference in blame attribution between men and women, heterosexuals and homosexuals, and heterosexual males, heterosexual females, gay males, and lesbians in response to a vignette depicting the acquaintance rape of a heterosexual female ( n = 177). While the levels of empathy for the victim and blaming of the perpetrator were high for every group and blaming of the victim and rape myth acceptance were low for every group, some important trends emerged. Consistent with previous research, women reported higher rates of empathy for the victim, lower rape myth acceptance, and lower victim blaming than did men...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294932/rape-myth-acceptance-among-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-mostly-heterosexual-college-students
#14
Meredith G F Worthen
Although there is a wealth of existing research on various correlates and patterns of rape myth acceptance (RMA), including how RMA relates to homophobia (i.e., antigay and antilesbian perspectives) and negativity toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women rape victims, no research to date has specifically focused on RMA among LGB and "mostly heterosexual" men and women. The current study examines how gender, sexual identity, personal experiences with rape (i.e., knowing/being a survivor), feminist identity, patriarchal gender norms, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and the interactions among these relate to LGB college students' ( n = 389; 24% gay/lesbian, 19% bisexual, 57% mostly heterosexual) RMA using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294900/characterizing-sexual-violence-in-intimate-relationships-an-examination-of-blame-attributions-and-rape-acknowledgment
#15
Anna E Jaffe, Anne L Steel, David DiLillo, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Rape by an intimate partner frequently involves a precedence of sexual consent between victim and perpetrator, often does not include the use of physical force, and may not fit societal definitions of rape. Given these unique characteristics, women who are assaulted by an intimate partner may be less likely to acknowledge the experience as a rape. In turn, they might make fewer blame attributions toward themselves and their perpetrators than victims of rape by a nonpartner. Consistent with these expectations, results from 208 community women reporting rape in adulthood revealed the presence of indirect effects of perpetrator type (nonpartner vs...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294893/who-helps-the-helpers-social-support-for-rape-crisis-advocates
#16
Jaclyn D Houston-Kolnik, Charlynn A Odahl-Ruan, Megan R Greeson
Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294886/understanding-gender-differences-in-rape-victim-blaming-the-power-of-social-influence-and-just-world-beliefs
#17
Caitlin M Pinciotti, Holly K Orcutt
Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294880/-miscommunication-and-undergraduate-women-s-conceptualizations-of-sexual-assault-a-qualitative-analysis
#18
Christina M Dardis, Kathryn M Kraft, Christine A Gidycz
Approximately 60% of legally defined rape victims do not label their experiences as "rape," most of whom label the experience as "a serious miscommunication." However, little research has examined why women choose this label. Labeling rape as a miscommunication could be problematic if chosen due to stereotypical conceptions that one's experience is not "real" rape. The present study used a mixed-methodological approach to understand why women might refer to rape as a "miscommunication," and how their reasons for labeling might differ from those who label their experiences and those who are nonlabeled (i...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294839/blame-attributions-in-multiple-perpetrator-rape-cases-the-impact-of-sympathy-consent-force-and-beliefs
#19
Kerstin Adolfsson, Leif A Strömwall, Sara Landström
Victims of multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) have been found to be an especially vulnerable group. This study examined effects of MPR and perpetrators' use of force on attributions of victim and perpetrator blame. In two large experiments (total N = 2,928), Swedish community members read scenarios depicting an MPR and subsequently made several ratings of blame, rape myth acceptance (RMA), just world beliefs, sympathy for the victim, perception of consent, and trust in the legal system. Data were analyzed with a multianalytical approach using both analyses of variance as well as exploratory analyses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294827/internet-facilitated-rape-a-multivariate-model-of-offense-behavior
#20
Louise Almond, Michelle Ann McManus, Hannah Chatterton
Recent statistics report a significant increase in individuals reporting they have been raped by a stranger whom they have met through the Internet (Internet facilitated rape [IFR]). Previous literature has primarily focused on child victims; hence, the overriding aim of this study is to further our understanding of IFR in terms of crime scene behavior. One hundred forty-four IFR cases and two comparative samples of age-matched stranger rapists (confidence approach and surprise approach) were coded for 38 crime scene behaviors...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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