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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822697/head-and-neck-myiasis-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
José Alcides Almeida de Arruda, Leni Verônica de Oliveira Silva, Pedro Urquiza Jayme Silva, Eugênia Leal de Figueiredo, Gerhilde Callou, Ricardo Alves Mesquita, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos
OBJECTIVE: This study describes 9 cases of myiasis affecting the head and neck region and discusses the demographic distribution, treatment, clinical characteristics, and sequelae of the disease in light of the literature. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed in 2 steps. In the first part, 9 cases seen over a period of 10 years at the Emergency Department of Hospital da Restauração in Brazil were studied. In the second part, a literature search was performed in PubMed for articles on head and neck myiasis published from 1975 to March 2017...
July 5, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819951/metformin-a-new-old-drug
#2
Marta Patrycja Wróbel, Bogdan Marek, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Dominika Rokicka, Aleksandra Szymborska-Kajanek, Krzysztof Strojek
For many years metformin has been the gold standard in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According to recommendations of the most important diabetes associations, this is the first-choice drug for use as monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Metformin is also recommended in combined treatment when monotherapy is no longer effective. It is then combined with a sulfony-lurea, an incretin, flozin, or insulin, irrespective of the number of insulin injections per day. Besides its properties used in the treatment of diabetes, metformin has been treated for some time as a drug of a so-called pleiotropic activity, as each year brings new reports about its favourable effect in different conditions...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816550/a-review-on-biosynthesis-analytical-techniques-and-pharmacological-activities-of-trigonelline-as-a-plant-alkaloid
#3
Neda Mohamadi, Fariba Sharififar, Mostafa Pournamdari, Mehdi Ansari
Trigonelline (TRG) as a polar hydrophilic alkaloid is extracted from many plant species, for example, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sepapea, Coffea sp, Pissum sativum, Glycine max, and Lycopersicon esculentum. Numerous biological activities have been reported for TRG such as protection of heart and liver and treatment of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, nervous and hormonal disorders, and cancers. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize some information about TRG's biosynthesis pathway, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, and analytical techniques to introduce TRG as an alternative choice to treat the various diseases...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815733/comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-two-different-amphotericin-b-formulations-in-healthy-dogs
#4
B Bingöl, T Bakirel
This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of conventional (Fungizone(®) ) and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(®) ) formulations in order to predict their therapeutic properties, and evaluate their potential differences in veterinary treatment. For this purpose, twelve healthy mixed breed dogs received both drugs at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg by intravenous infusion over a 4-min period in a total volume of 40 ml. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr after dosing, and concentrations of drug in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814941/a-survey-on-the-perception-of-allergy-specialists-about-the-reimbursed-grass-pollen-tablets-for-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis-in-italy
#5
Ilaria Massaro, Oliviero Rossi, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Carlo Lombardi
BACKGROUND: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a feasible option to classical subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat respiratory allergy and is increasingly prescribed in Europe. However, the lack of reimbursement may limit its prescription. In 2015, the 5-grass pollen tablets was authorized by the European Medicine Agency to treat grass-pollen induced rhinitis and was approved in Italy for full reimbursement. We evaluated the opinions of allergy specialists after the availability of the reimbursed 5-grass pollen tablets...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814858/spotlight-on-glycopyrronium-formoterol-fumarate-inhalation-aerosol-in-the-management-of-copd-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Santosh Dhungana, Gerard J Criner
Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of the treatment of COPD. With the advent of several combination inhalers with long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMAs) and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs), the choice of therapy in the treatment of COPD has been ever expanding. With the focus of COPD management shifting from FEV1-based treatment escalation to symptoms and risk-based treatment, we are seeing a paradigm shift in COPD treatment with early introduction of LAMA-LABA combination as a single inhaler...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814310/modelling-the-benefits-of-long-acting-or-transmission-blocking-drugs-for-reducing-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-by-case-management-or-by-mass-treatment
#7
Michael T Bretscher, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani, Lucy C Okell
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drugs are an important tool for malaria control and elimination. Alongside their direct benefit in the treatment of disease, drug use has a community-level effect, clearing the reservoir of infection and reducing onward transmission of the parasite. Different compounds potentially have different impacts on transmission-with some providing periods of prolonged chemoprophylaxis whilst others have greater transmission-blocking potential. The aim was to quantify the relative benefit of such properties for transmission reduction to inform target product profiles in the drug development process and choice of first-line anti-malarial treatment in different endemic settings...
August 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814080/drug-delivery-from-a-multi-faceted-ultrasound-contrast-agent-influence-of-shell-composition
#8
Lauren J Jablonowski, Nutte T Teraphongphom, Margaret A Wheatley
Many cancer therapy regimes still rely heavily on the systemic administration of toxic chemotherapeutic agents. Ultrasound contrast agents consisting of microbubbles (MB) have emerged as a drug delivery vehicle to overcome the challenges associated with systemic chemotherapy. Here we describe the development of non-immunogenic, functionalized polylactic acid (PLA) MB for use in targeted cancer therapy. Our previous studies have shown that the balance between acoustic behavior and improved immune avoidance was scalable and successful to different degrees with two different PEGylation methods, and was best achieved using incorporation of PEG-PLA at 5 wt% and for a LipidPEG at 1 wt%...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#9
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813109/assessment-of-inhibitory-control-in-crack-and-or-cocaine-users-a-systematic-review
#10
Fernanda Rasch Czermainski, Alice Rodrigues Willhelm, Álvaro Zaneti Santos, Mayra Pacheco Pachado, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida
Objective: Impairments involving inhibitory control have been considered central deficits in drug users, but it appears that dysfunctions may be specific to users' drug of choice. This article aims to review recent findings on inhibitory control impairment in samples of crack and/or cocaine users. Methods: Searches were conducted on the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Knowledge databases in two stages according to eligibility criteria. Initially, databases were searched and the titles and abstracts of results were analyzed and then selected articles were read in full...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811085/the-use-of-phenobarbital-and-other-anti-seizure-drugs-in-newborns
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed El-Dib, Janet S Soul
Neonatal seizures constitute the most frequent presenting neurologic sign encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. Despite limited efficacy and safety data, phenobarbital continues to be used near-universally as the first-line anti-seizure drug (ASD) in neonates. The choice of second-line ASDs varies by provider and institution, and is still not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. In this review, we discuss the available evidence supporting the efficacy, mechanism of action, potential adverse effects, key pharmacokinetic characteristics such as interaction with therapeutic hypothermia, logistical issues, and rationale for use of neonatal ASDs...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809921/first-choice-of-treatment-place-in-the-pathways-to-epileptic-care-at-the-outpatient-department-of-university-of-gondar-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-cross-sectional-institutional-based-study
#12
Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh, Wondale Getinet Alemu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy treatment gap range from 87% to 98%. In spite of this, there is a gross inadequacy of the availability, accessibility and affordability of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. In countries like Ethiopia, where most populations are less aware about mental health problems, most people seek help for their illness from traditional healers. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the pathways to epilepsy care and associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study design utilized among 409 participants selected by systematic random sampling technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809644/-endoprosthesis-infections-guidelines-for-antibiotic-therapy-common-guidelines-of-the-czech-society-for-orthopaedics-and-traumatology-and-the-society-for-infectious-diseases-of-the-czech-medical-association-of-j-e-purkyn%C3%A4
#13
D Musil, M Balejová, M Horníková, A Chrdle, N Mallátová, O Nyč, V Chmelík, J Gallo, D Jahoda, J Stehlík
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aims to articulate regional guidelines for curative and suppressive antibiotic therapy of total joint replacement infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS When developing the standard, used as source materials were the published foreign guidelines for antibiotic therapy of prosthetic joint infections, the analysis of resistance of bacterial strains conducted in the Hospital in České Budějovice, a.s. and the assessment of strain resistance for the Czech Republic published by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809010/bioinformatics-resources-for-interpreting-proteomics-mass-spectrometry-data
#14
Iulia M Lazar
Developments in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation have supported the advance of a variety of proteomic technologies that have enabled scientists to assess differences between healthy and diseased states. In particular, the ability to identify altered biological processes in a cell has led to the identification of novel drug targets, the development of more effective therapeutic drugs, and the growth of new diagnostic approaches and tools for personalized medicine applications. Nevertheless, large-scale proteomic data generated by modern mass spectrometers are extremely complex and necessitate equally complex bioinformatics tools and computational algorithms for their interpretation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809009/docking-and-virtual-screening-in-drug-discovery
#15
Maria Kontoyianni
Stages in a typical drug discovery organization include target selection, hit identification, lead optimization, preclinical and clinical studies. Hit identification and lead optimization are very much intertwined with computational modeling. Structure-based virtual screening (VS) has been a staple for more than a decade now in drug discovery with its underlying computational technique, docking, extensively studied. Depending on the objective, the parameters for VS may change, but the overall protocol is very straightforward...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807611/initial-treatment-for-nonsyndromic-early-life-epilepsy-an-unexpected-consensus
#16
Renée A Shellhaas, Anne T Berg, Zachary M Grinspan, Courtney J Wusthoff, John J Millichap, Tobias Loddenkemper, Jason Coryell, Russell P Saneto, Catherine J Chu, Sucheta M Joshi, Joseph E Sullivan, Kelly G Knupp, Eric H Kossoff, Cynthia Keator, Elaine C Wirrell, John R Mytinger, Ignacio Valencia, Shavonne Massey, William D Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). METHODS: Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records...
June 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805564/deep-brain-stimulation-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#17
Elliot Hogg, Jeffrey Wertheimer, Sarah Graner, Michele Tagliati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Several brain targets, including the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus, have been successfully employed, with excellent motor outcomes. Despite less established knowledge, DBS may be a powerful tool for managing a wide variety of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in PD patients, either directly or indirectly due to motor benefit or reduction of dopaminergic drug load. After an assessment of global nonmotor outcomes of DBS, as measured by currently available clinical scales and questionnaires, this chapter will address DBS effects on four main NMS categories: neurobehavioral, including cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, including orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary dysfunction, sleep disturbances, including insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder, and restless leg syndrome, to conclude with sensory symptoms, mainly focusing on pain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805117/fungal-fatal-attraction-a-mechanistic-review-on-targeting-liposomal-amphotericin-b-ambisome-%C3%A2-to-the-fungal-membrane
#18
Linda Soo Hoo
Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(®)) is a lipid-based nanotherapeutic that is used successfully worldwide to treat a broad range of life-threatening invasive fungal infections. In subtropical regions, AmBisome is emerging as the treatment of choice for human parasitic protozoan pathogens such as those from the genus Leishmania. The key to the remarkable efficacy of AmBisome is attributed to its liposome based formulation to deliver a potent drug at high dosage with significantly reduced toxicity in patients with immunocompromised systems...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803942/an-adaptive-individualized-fmri-delay-discounting-procedure-to-increase-flexibility-and-optimize-scanner-time
#19
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Anders Eklund, Warren K Bickel, Stephen M LaConte
Research on the rate at which people discount the value of future rewards has become increasingly prevalent as discount rate has been shown to be associated with many unhealthy patterns of behavior such as drug abuse, gambling, and overeating. fMRI research points to a fronto-parietal-limbic pathway that is active during decisions between smaller amounts of money now and larger amounts available after a delay. Researchers in this area have used different variants of delay discounting tasks and reported various contrasts between choice trials of different types from these tasks...
August 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803725/schistosomiasis-drugs-used-and-treatment-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Lidiany da Paixão Siqueira, Danilo Augusto Ferreira Fontes, Cindy Siqueira Britto Aguilera, Taysa Renata Ribeiro Timóteo, Matheus Alves Ângelos, Laysa Creusa Paes Barreto Barros Silva, Camila Gomes de Melo, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect millions of people in different geographic regions, especially the poorest and most vulnerable. Currently NTDs are prevalent in 149 countries, seventeen of these neglected tropical parasitic diseases are classified as endemic. One of the most important of these diseases is schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, a disease caused by the genus Schistosoma. It presents several species, such as Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni, the latter being responsible for parasitosis in Brazil...
August 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
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