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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454179/race-ethnicity-and-racial-group-composition-moderate-the-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-substance-use-disorder
#1
Brenna L Greenfield, Corey Roos, Kylee J Hagler, Elena Stein, Sarah Bowen, Katie A Witkiewitz
INTRODUCTION: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention has shown promise as a treatment for substance use disorder but its efficacy according to racial/ethnic minority status and group composition is unknown. METHOD: This is a secondary analysis of existing data (Bowen et al., 2014) testing individual race/ethnicity and racial/ethnic group composition as moderators of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP). Participants (N = 191; 29% female; 47% racial/ethnic minority; mean age = 39) with substance use disorder were randomized to MBRP or relapse prevention (RP)...
February 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453848/postoperative-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Antonio Di Sario, Paola Sassaroli, Luigi Daretti, Giulia Annulli, Laura Schiada, Giorgia Falcioni, Emanuele Bendia, Simone Antuono, Antonio Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of Crohn`s disease (CD) patients require at least one surgical intervention in their lifetime and up to 70% of these patients develop postoperative endoscopic recurrence within 1 year. The most important predictors of early postoperative recurrence are represented by smoking, prior intestinal surgery, penetrating disease and perianal location. Genetic factors, gut microbiota structure and immunological alterations may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence of CD, although their specific roles have to be determined yet...
February 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453467/loading-dose-only-versus-standard-dose-magnesium-sulfate-seizure-prophylaxis-in-severe-pre-eclamptic-women
#3
Surya Prasad Rimal, Pappu Rijal, Rabindra Bhatt, Kriti Thapa
INTRODUCTION: Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for prevention of seizures in the pre-eclamptic woman. There is no agreement in the published randomized trials regarding the optimal time to initiate magnesium sulfate, the dose to use (both loading and maintenance) as well as the duration of therapy. The objective of this study is to determine whether magnesium sulfate prophylaxis is needed for up to 24 hours postpartum in all patients with severe pre-eclampsia for the prevention of seizure...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452115/bioprosthetic-versus-mechanical-valve-replacement-for-infective-endocarditis-focus-on-recurrence-rates
#4
Nana Toyoda, Shinobu Itagaki, Henry Tannous, Natalia N Egorova, Joanna Chikwe
BACKGROUND: Consensus guidelines for prosthesis selection in infective endocarditis recommend bioprosthetic or mechanical valve replacement based on life expectancy and comorbidity. However, contemporary outcome data are limited to institution series. METHODS: The outcomes of 3,447 patients identified from mandatory discharge databases in California and New York states who had either primary isolated mitral (n=1603) or aortic (n=1,844) valve replacement for active endocarditis between 1998 and 2010, were compared according to whether they received bioprosthetic (n=1,673, 48...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452113/technological-innovation-strategies-for-the-specific-treatment-of-chagas-disease-based-on-benznidazole
#5
REVIEW
Leslie Raphael de Moura Ferraz, Alinne Élida Gonçalves Alves, Débora Dolores Souza da Silva Nascimento, Isabela Araújo E Amariz, Aline Silva Ferreira, Salvana Priscylla Manso Costa, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease is responsible for public health problems greater in magnitude than those attributed to malaria, schistosomiasis, or leishmaniasis. A factor in the socioeconomic development of poor countries, Chagas disease can cause death due to a high parasitic burden during its acute phase due and irreversible damage in organs such as the heart, esophagus, and colon during its chronic phase, even when the number of parasites is minimal. For treating Chagas disease, benznidazole (BNZ) remains the drug of choice and, in Latin America, the only drug on the market for treating the disease...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#6
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450230/do-addicts-have-free-will-an-empirical-approach-to-a-vexing-question
#7
Gene M Heyman
Introduction: This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods: I propose two testable versions of free will. First, the observation that activities differ in the degree to which they are susceptible to the influence of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) has proven a useful criterion for classifying behavior as voluntary or involuntary...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449131/the-treatment-of-anti-phospholipid-syndrome-a-comprehensive-clinical-approach
#8
REVIEW
Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola, Laura Andreoli, Maria Gerosa, Angela Tincani, Amelia Ruffatti, Pier Luigi Meroni
Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired pro-thrombotic autoimmune disease that predisposes to thrombotic events and/or obstetric complications, in the persistent presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Life long moderate-intensity anticoagulation is the option of choice for aPL-positive patients with a previous thrombosis; critical issues concern the management of those with a history of arterial event due to the high rate of recurrence. Alternatives comprise anti-platelet agents and high-intensity anticoagulation...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448956/immunomodulatory-plasticity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-potential-key-to-successful-solid-organ-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Urvashi Kaundal, Upma Bagai, Aruna Rakha
Organ transplantation remains to be a treatment of choice for patients suffering from irreversible organ failure. Immunosuppressive (IS) drugs employed to maintain the allograft have shown excellent short-term graft survival, but, their long-term use could contribute to immunological and non-immunological risk factors, resulting in graft dysfunctionalities. Upcoming IS regimes have highlighted the use of cell-based therapies, which can eliminate the risk of drug-borne toxicities while maintaining efficacy of the treatment...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447787/rationale-and-design-of-the-comparison-between-a-p2y12-inhibitor-monotherapy-versus-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-implantation-of-coronary-drug-eluting-stents-smart-choice-a-prospective-multicenter-randomized-trial
#10
Young Bin Song, Seok Kyu Oh, Ju-Hyeon Oh, Eul-Soon Im, Deok-Kyu Cho, Byung Ryul Cho, Jong-Young Lee, Joo Myung Lee, Taek Kyu Park, Jeong Hoon Yang, Jin-Ho Choi, Seung-Hyuck Choi, Sang Hoon Lee, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Joo-Yong Hahn
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor reduces thrombotic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but these benefits come at the expense of increased risk of bleeding when compared with aspirin monotherapy. It is unclear whether P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy might maintain anti-ischemic efficacy while reducing the bleeding risk compared with DAPT after implantation of the current generation of drug-eluting stents (DES)...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447469/tricin-isolated-from-allium-atroviolaceum-potentiated-the-effect-of-docetaxel-on-pc3-cell-proliferation-role-of-mir-21
#11
Sorayya Ghasemi, Zahra Lorigooini, JokoPriyanto Wibowo, Hossein Amini-Khoei
For more effectiveness and overcoming the drug resistance Chemotherapy agents, the combination treatment is raised. Flavonoids with different anti-cancer effects are an appropriate choice as lead compounds. Over expressed MiR-21 in prostate cancer is associated with metastasis and drug resistance to chemotherapy with Docetaxel. In this study, the anticancer effect of 4', 5, 7-Trihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyflavone (Tricin) was investigated with Docetaxel on PC3 cell line. Tricin was initially isolated from the Allium atroviolaceum by column chromatography and recrystallization method...
February 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445787/nanoparticles-based-on-glycyrrhetinic-acid-modified-porphyrin-for-photodynamic-therapy-of-cancer
#12
Xin Wang, Peisong Wang, Shuai Xue, Xiaohua Zheng, Zhigang Xie, Guang Chen, Tingting Sun
Self-assembled small molecules, as a novel form of drug presentation, have splendid capabilities for water stability and cell endocytosis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is regarded as a promising cancer treatment because it is less invasive and has fewer side effects. In this work, an amphiphilic glycyrrhetinic acid-porphyrin conjugate (TPP-GA) was designed and synthesized, and this could self-assemble into nanoparticles (TPP-GA NPs) in water. The morphology of the TPP-GA NPs was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their stability in water was revealed by dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
February 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445473/graves-disease-coexisting-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-a-rare-case
#13
Hongping Sun, Shuhang Xu, Shaofeng Xie, Wen Cao, Guofang Chen, Hongjie Di, Rendong Zheng, Xingjia Li, Xiaodong Mao, Chao Liu
A rare case of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) complicated with Graves' hyperthyroidism was reported. The management of this disease is similar to that of Graves' disease. Antithyroid drug therapy is the first choice, and iodine therapy and surgery are not recommended due to the possibility of severe hypothyroidism and enlargement of the pituitary gland.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#14
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444140/getting-to-fp2020-harnessing-the-private-sector-to-increase-modern-contraceptive-access-and-choice-in-ethiopia-nigeria-and-drc
#15
Christina Riley, Danielle Garfinkel, Katherine Thanel, Keith Esch, Endale Workalemahu, Jennifer Anyanti, Godéfroid Mpanya, Arsène Binanga, Jen Pope, Kim Longfield, Jane Bertrand, Bryan Shaw
BACKGROUND: An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice. METHODS: In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442049/solidification-of-cinnarizine-self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-by-fluid-bed-coating-optimization-of-the-process-and-formulation-variables
#16
A Abdul-Wahhab Shahba, A Riaz Ahmed, K Mohsin, S Ibrahim Abdel-Rahman, F Kaed Alanazi
Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) offer an efficient choice to improve the poor dissolution and erratic bioavailability of poorly-water soluble drugs. However, liquid SNEDDS experience some manufacturing and stability limitations. To overcome these limitations, the current study aims to investigate and optimize the solidification of cinnarizine (CN) liquid SNEDDS onto pellets by fluid bed coating. The study involved optimization of process and formulation variables. The coated self-nanoemulsifying pellets (SNEP) were characterized, their droplet size and dissolution profiles were compared to the corresponding liquid SNEDDS...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441502/methodological-issues-in-economic-evaluations-submitted-to-the-pan-canadian-oncology-drug-review-pcodr
#17
Lisa Masucci, Jaclyn Beca, Mona Sabharwal, Jeffrey S Hoch
BACKGROUND: Public drug plans are faced with increasingly difficult funding decisions. In Canada, the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes funding recommendations to the provincial and territorial drug plans responsible for cancer drugs. Assessments of the economic models submitted by pharmaceutical manufacturers are publicly reported. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this research was to identify recurring methodological issues in economic models submitted to pCODR for funding reviews...
December 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441456/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-kap-study-of-pediatricians-on-infantile-spasms
#18
Vamsi Krishna Vaddi, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Sumeet R Dhawan, Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Infantile Spasms among pediatricians. METHODS: A survey was carried out among pediatricians serving in Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. The survey was done by Survey Monkey Software through emails by using a structured questionnaire between July 2016 and December 2017. RESULTS: A total of 236 pediatricians responded to the survey. Most of the respondents (95...
February 14, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441280/pharmacological-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review-for-practitioners
#19
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Cynthia Feucht, Kelly Brown, Jessica Ramsay
Anxiety disorders are common in children and adolescents with reported prevalence rates between 10% and 30%. A combined approach to treatment has been found to be the most effective for optimal outcomes and is typically comprised of psychotherapy (especially exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy), family and patient education, and use of medication if indicated. In children and adolescents who might benefit from use of medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the drugs of choice...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436450/lesson-of-the-month-2-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-patient-on-rivaroxaban-and-concurrent-carbamazepine
#20
Thomas Burden, Charlotte Thompson, Efstathios Bonanos, Andrew Rl Medford
A 71-year-old female with a history of pulmonary embolism treated with rivaroxaban presented with acute onset shortness of breath, chest pain and palpitations. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary emboli. The patient was concurrently prescribed carbamazepine and was later diagnosed with recurrence of breast cancer during the admission. We discuss common drug interactions pertinent to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) that can increase the risk of further venous thromboembolism...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
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