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Investigations of choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335437/effect-of-clozapine-on-dna-methylation-in-peripheral-leukocytes-from-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#1
Makoto Kinoshita, Shusuke Numata, Atsushi Tajima, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Shinya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Shinji Shimodera, Takanobu Nakazawa, Masataka Kikuchi, Akihiro Nakaya, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Issei Imoto, Ryota Hashimoto, Tetsuro Ohmori
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ). To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the effects of clozapine on DNA methylation in treatment-resistant SCZ. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral leukocytes (485,764 CpG dinucleotides) from treatment-resistant SCZ patients treated with clozapine (n = 21) in a longitudinal study...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335392/conscientious-objection-to-animal-experimentation-in-italian-universities
#2
Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Maria Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies...
March 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334046/enhancing-sampling-design-in-mist-net-bat-surveys-by-accounting-for-sample-size-optimization
#3
Leonardo Carreira Trevelin, Roberto Leonan Morim Novaes, Paul François Colas-Rosas, Thayse Cristhina Melo Benathar, Carlos A Peres
The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333461/suberin-fatty-acids-from-outer-birch-bark-isolation-and-physical-material-characterization
#4
Jyrki Heinämäki, Minni M Pirttimaa, Sami Alakurtti, H Pauliina Pitkänen, Heimo Kanerva, Janne Hulkko, Urve Paaver, Jaan Aruväli, Jouko Yliruusi, Karin Kogermann
The isolation and physical material properties of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) were investigated with special reference to their potential applications as novel pharmaceutical excipients. SFAs were isolated from outer birch bark (OBB) with a new extractive hydrolysis method. The present simplified isolation process resulted in a moderate batch yield and chemical purity of SFAs, but further development is needed for establishing batch-to-batch variation. Cryogenic milling was the method of choice for the particle size reduction of SFAs powder...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333337/tubal-anastomosis-after-previous-sterilization-a-systematic-review
#5
Jacoba A H van Seeters, Su Jen Chua, Ben W J Mol, Carolien A M Koks
BACKGROUND: Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success...
February 22, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333218/gay-fathers-motivations-for-and-feelings-about-surrogacy-as-a-path-to-parenthood
#6
L Blake, N Carone, E Raffanello, Jenna Slutsky, A A Ehrhardt, S Golombok
STUDY QUESTION: Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Little is known of gay fathers' motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers' satisfaction with the surrogacy process...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333073/effects-of-melatonin-on-liver-injuries-and-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Yue Zhou, Dong-Ping Xu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Liver injuries and diseases are serious health problems worldwide. Various factors, such as chemical pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, could induce liver injuries. Liver diseases involve a wide range of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries and diseases are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries and diseases remains a priority...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332940/longitudinal-cancer-risk-management-trajectories-of-brca1-2-mutation-positive-reproductive-age-women
#8
Jennifer Louise Young, Allison Werner-Lin, Rebecca Mueller, Lindsey Hoskins, Norman Epstein, Mark H Greene
Young women with BRCA1/2 mutations face difficult health-care decisions regarding family formation, fertility, breastfeeding, and whether/when to undergo cancer risk-reducing surgery. This longitudinal qualitative study investigated these life choices during the reproductive years. We conducted two semistructured interviews over three years with 12 reproductive-age BRCA1/2-positive women. Researchers coded transcripts to examine the evolution of risk perceptions, risk management, and family planning decisions...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332641/the-sample-of-choice-for-detecting-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-asymptomatic-dromedary-camels-using-real-time-reversetranscription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#9
K A Mohran, E A B Farag, C B E Reusken, V S Raj, M M Lamers, S D Pas, J Voermans, S L Smits, M M Alhajri, F Alhajri, H E Al-Romaihi, H Ghobashy, M M El-Maghraby, S H S Al Dhahiry, N Al-Mawlawi, A M El-Sayed, M Al-Thani, S A Al-Marri, B L Haagmans, M P G Koopmans
The newly identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease, particularly in people with comorbidities, requires further investigation. Studies in Qatar and elsewhere have provided evidence that dromedary camels are a reservoir for the virus, but the exact modes of transmission of MERS-CoV to humans remain unclear. In February 2014, an assessment was made of the suitability and sensitivity of different types of sample for the detection of MERSCoV by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for three gene targets: UpE (upstream of the E gene), the N (nucleocapsid) gene and open reading frame (ORF) 1a...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332595/mechanistic-platform-knowledge-of-concomitant-sugar-uptake-in-escherichia-coli-bl21-de3-strains
#10
David J Wurm, Johanna Hausjell, Sophia Ulonska, Christoph Herwig, Oliver Spadiut
When producing recombinant proteins, the use of Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) in combination with the T7-based pET-expression system is often the method of choice. In a recent study we introduced a mechanistic model describing the correlation of the specific glucose uptake rate (qs,glu) and the corresponding maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max) for a pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strain producing a single chain variable fragment (scFv). We showed the effect of qs,lac,max on productivity and product location underlining its importance for recombinant protein production...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332044/no-difference-between-cemented-and-cementless-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-young-patients-a-review-of-the-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Edoardo Franceschetti, Guglielmo Torre, Alessio Palumbo, Rocco Papalia, Jón Karlsson, Olufemi R Ayeni, Kristian Samuelsson, Francesco Franceschi
PURPOSE: The present piece of work provides improved knowledge about the evidence related to TKA in patients 60 years of age or younger, with special focus on fixation methods. Main concern of the review is to analyse the difference of survival rate and complications of cemented and cementless implants. METHODS: An electronic search was carried out between October and December 2015, through CINAHL, PubMed and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials web databases...
March 22, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331968/choice-of-mode-of-delivery-in-a-subsequent-pregnancy-after-oasi-a-survey-among-dutch-gynecologists
#12
Judith J A E Donners, Kirsten B Kluivers, Jan W de Leeuw, Jeroen van Dillen, Sander M J van Kuijk, Mirjam Weemhoff
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: National and international guidelines do not provide clear recommendations on the mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy after obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI). The aim of this study was to investigate the opinion of gynecologists in The Netherlands on this choice and the extent to which this choice is affected by the gynecologist's characteristics. METHODS: Of 973 gynecologists sent a questionnaire seeking their opinion on the mode of delivery in 16 different case descriptions, 234 (24%) responded...
March 22, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331254/an-investigation-to-identify-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-common-chronic-diseases-among-the-older-population-in-india
#13
Enemona Emmanuel Adaji, Anand S Ahankari, Puja R Myles
BACKGROUND: In India, chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and their prevalence has constantly increased over the last decade. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with common chronic diseases among people aged 50 years and over in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Indian Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) was used to investigate the association between lifestyle choices and chronic diseases using logistic regression...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330961/reference-values-for-developing-responsive-functional-outcome-measures-across-the-lifespan
#14
Marnee J McKay, Jennifer N Baldwin, Paulo Ferreira, Milena Simic, Natalie Vanicek, Joshua Burns
OBJECTIVE: To generate a reference dataset of commonly performed functional outcome measures in 1,000 children and adults and investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric, strength, and flexibility characteristics. METHODS: Twelve functional outcome measures were collected from 1,000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years: 6-minute walk test, 30-second chair stand test, timed stairs test, long jump, vertical jump, choice stepping reaction time, balance (Star Excursion Balance Test, tandem stance eyes open and closed, single-leg stance eyes closed), and dexterity (9-hole peg test, Functional Dexterity Test)...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#15
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328637/estimating-implant-volume-and-mastectomy-specimen-volume-by-measuring-breast-volume-with-a-3-dimensional-scanner
#16
Hiroki Utsunomiya, Taro Kusano, Nobuhiro Sato, Shinya Yoshimoto
OBJECTIVES: Conventional 2-stage expander-implant breast reconstruction is frequently performed. However, direct to implant reconstruction should be considered if indicated and if circumstances allow. One difficulty in breast reconstruction postmastectomy is selection of the appropriate implant size prior to surgery. The ability to estimate implant volume and mastectomy-specimen volume from the preoperative breast volume using a 3-dimensional (3D) scanner would greatly facilitate reconstruction...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327742/pair-natural-orbital-and-canonical-coupled-cluster-reaction-enthalpies-involving-light-to-heavy-alkali-and-alkaline-earth-metals-the-importance-of-sub-valence-correlation
#17
Yury Minenkov, Giovanni Bistoni, Christoph Riplinger, Alexander A Auer, Frank Neese, Luigi Cavallo
In this work, we tested canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) for a set of 32 ligand exchange and association/dissociation reaction enthalpies involving ionic complexes of Li, Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb(ii). Two strategies were investigated: in the former, only valence electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the computationally very efficient FC (frozen core) approach; in the latter, all non-ECP electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the AE (all electron) approach...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327141/the-first-nationwide-survey-of-md-phds-in-the-social-sciences-and-humanities-training-patterns-and-career-choices
#18
Seth M Holmes, Jennifer Karlin, Scott D Stonington, Diane L Gottheil
BACKGROUND: While several articles on MD-PhD trainees in the basic sciences have been published in the past several years, very little research exists on physician-investigators in the social sciences and humanities. However, the numbers of MD-PhDs training in these fields and the number of programs offering training in these fields are increasing, particularly within the US. In addition, accountability for the public funding for MD-PhD programs requires knowledge about this growing population of trainees and their career trajectories...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326611/mechanical-characterization-of-curly-hair-influence-of-the-use-of-nonconventional-hair-straightening-treatments
#19
M G A Leite, P M B G Maia Campos
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hair straighteners are very popular around the world, although they can cause great damage to the hair. Thus, the characterization of the mechanical properties of curly hair using advanced techniques is very important to clarify how hair straighteners act on hair fibers and to contribute to the development of effective products. On this basis, we chose two nonconventional hair straighteners (formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid) to investigate how hair straightening treatments affect the mechanical properties of curly hair...
March 21, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326338/predictors-of-teriparatide-treatment-failure-in-patients-with-low-bone-mass
#20
Tarig Elraiyah, Adil H Ahmed, Zhen Wang, Joshua N Farr, Mohammad H Murad, Matthew T Drake
INTRODUCTION: While teriparatide is the only skeletal anabolic agent approved in the United States, treatment failure is a major concern which complicates its clinical utility. We sought to identify factors that predict response failure in patients with low bone mass. METHOD: We performed a retrospective study of adults with osteopenia or osteoporosis (T-scores < - 1.0 and - 2.5 SD below normal, respectively, at the total hip or lumbar spine) treated with teriparatide at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) between November 2002-December 2012...
June 2016: Bone Reports
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