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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645064/heroin-and-saccharin-demand-and-preference-in-rats
#1
Lindsay P Schwartz, Jung S Kim, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have investigated the choice between heroin and a non-drug alternative reinforcer in rats. A common finding in these studies is that there are large individual differences in preference, with some rats preferring heroin and some preferring the non-drug alternative. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in how heroin or saccharin is valued, based on demand analysis, predicts choice. METHODS: Rats lever-pressed for heroin infusions and saccharin reinforcers on fixed-ratio schedules...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644607/electrochemical-exfoliation-of-graphite-in-aqueous-sodium-halide-electrolytes-towards-low-oxygen-content-graphene-for-energy-and-environmental-applications
#2
Jose Maria Munuera, Juan Ignacio Paredes, Marina Enterria, Ana Pagán, Silvia Villar-Rodil, Manuel Fernando R Pereira, J I Martins, José L Figueiredo, Jose Luis Cenis, Amelia Martinez-Alonso, Juan Manuel D Tascon
Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great promise in many technological applications, but their large-scale production and processing by simple and cost-effective means still constitute significant issues in the path of their widespread implementation. Here, we investigate a straightforward method for the preparation of a ready-to-use and low oxygen content graphene material that is based on electrochemical (anodic) delamination of graphite in aqueous medium with sodium halides as the electrolyte...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643794/enrichment-of-low-frequency-functional-variants-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequencing-of-multiple-isolated-european-populations
#3
Yali Xue, Massimo Mezzavilla, Marc Haber, Shane McCarthy, Yuan Chen, Vagheesh Narasimhan, Arthur Gilly, Qasim Ayub, Vincenza Colonna, Lorraine Southam, Christopher Finan, Andrea Massaia, Himanshu Chheda, Priit Palta, Graham Ritchie, Jennifer Asimit, George Dedoussis, Paolo Gasparini, Aarno Palotie, Samuli Ripatti, Nicole Soranzo, Daniela Toniolo, James F Wilson, Richard Durbin, Chris Tyler-Smith, Eleftheria Zeggini
The genetic features of isolated populations can boost power in complex-trait association studies, and an in-depth understanding of how their genetic variation has been shaped by their demographic history can help leverage these advantageous characteristics. Here, we perform a comprehensive investigation using 3,059 newly generated low-depth whole-genome sequences from eight European isolates and two matched general populations, together with published data from the 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K. Sequencing data give deeper and richer insights into population demography and genetic characteristics than genotype-chip data, distinguishing related populations more effectively and allowing their functional variants to be studied more fully...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643264/genome-editing-of-c-elegans
#4
Takuma Sugi
Caenorhabditis elegans, a 1 mm long free-living nematode, is a traditional model animal for genetic investigations of various biological processes. Characteristic features that make C. elegans a powerful model of choice for eukaryotic genetic studies include its rapid life cycle, well-annotated genome, simple morphology, and transparency. Recently, genome editing technologies have been increasingly used in C. elegans, thereby facilitating their genetic analyses. Here, I introduce a protocol frequently used in C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642773/infestation-of-broad-bean-vicia-faba-by-the-green-stink-bug-nezara-viridula-decreases-shoot-abscisic-acid-contents-under-well-watered-and-drought-conditions
#5
Luisa Ederli, Cecilia Brunetti, Mauro Centritto, Stefano Colazza, Francesca Frati, Francesco Loreto, Giovanni Marino, Gianandrea Salerno, Stefania Pasqualini
The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642738/distinct-bacterial-communities-associated-with-massive-and-branching-scleractinian-corals-and-potential-linkages-to-coral-susceptibility-to-thermal-or-cold-stress
#6
Jiayuan Liang, Kefu Yu, Yinghui Wang, Xueyong Huang, Wen Huang, Zhenjun Qin, Ziliang Pan, Qiucui Yao, Wenhuan Wang, Zhengchao Wu
It is well known that different coral species have different tolerances to thermal or cold stress, which is presumed to be related to the density of Symbiodinium. However, the intrinsic factors between stress-tolerant characteristics and coral-associated bacteria are rarely studied. In this study, 16 massive coral and 9 branching coral colonies from 6 families, 10 genera, and 18 species were collected at the same time and location (Xinyi Reef) in the South China Sea to investigate the bacterial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642695/concealed-around-the-ear-eeg-captures-cognitive-processing-in-a-visual-simon-task
#7
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Debener, Edmund Wascher
In theory, miniaturized systems such as the around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids) enable mobile monitoring of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a variety of real life situations without interfering with the natural setting. However, the research benefit of such cEEGrid recordings critically depends on their validity. To investigate whether visual and motor processing are reflected in the cEEGrid-EEG, a direct comparison of EEG that was concurrently recorded with the cEEGrids and with a high-density cap setup was conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642648/morphological-analysis-of-the-scapula-and-its-implications-in-bristow-latarjet-procedure
#8
Joana Daniela DE Oliveira Silva, Catarina Neves Damas, Márcia Christel DE Carvalho Sá, João Manuel Costa Ferreira Torres
OBJECTIVE: To assess which of two procedures, Bristow or Latarjet, is anatomically the most appropriate for the general population . METHODS: One thousand one hundred and thirty two shoulders were evaluated by an observer who measured the following coracoid process parameters - length, angle and minimum thickness - through Computed Tomography (CT) analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA and Bland-Altman tests . RESULTS: The mean length, angle and minimum thickness of the coracoid were 27...
January 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642588/epigenetic-targeting-drugs-potentiate-chemotherapeutic-effects-in-solid-tumor-therapy
#9
Jingjing Li, Dapeng Hao, Li Wang, Haitao Wang, Yuan Wang, Zhiqiang Zhao, Peipei Li, Chuxia Deng, Li-Jun Di
Epigenetic therapy is a novel tumor therapeutic method and refers to the targeting of the aberrant epigenetic modifications presumably at cancer-related genes by chemicals which are epigenetic targeting drugs (ETDs). Not like in treating hematopoietic cancer, the clinical trials investigating the potential use of ETDs in the solid tumor is not encouraging. Instead, the curative effects of ETD delivered together with DNA targeting chemo drugs (DTDs) are quite promising according to our meta-analysis. To investigate the synergistic mechanism of ETD and DTD drug combination, the therapeutic effect was studied using both cell lines and mouse engrafted tumors...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642480/haralick-texture-features-from-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-adc-mri-images-depend-on-imaging-and-pre-processing-parameters
#10
Patrik Brynolfsson, David Nilsson, Turid Torheim, Thomas Asklund, Camilla Thellenberg Karlsson, Johan Trygg, Tufve Nyholm, Anders Garpebring
In recent years, texture analysis of medical images has become increasingly popular in studies investigating diagnosis, classification and treatment response assessment of cancerous disease. Despite numerous applications in oncology and medical imaging in general, there is no consensus regarding texture analysis workflow, or reporting of parameter settings crucial for replication of results. The aim of this study was to assess how sensitive Haralick texture features of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MR images are to changes in five parameters related to image acquisition and pre-processing: noise, resolution, how the ADC map is constructed, the choice of quantization method, and the number of gray levels in the quantized image...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642125/safety-and-efficacy-of-dual-lead-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-treatment-refractory-multiple-sclerosis-tremor-a-single-centre-randomised-single-blind-pilot-trial
#11
Seth F Oliveria, Ramon L Rodriguez, Dawn Bowers, Daniel Kantor, Justin D Hilliard, Erin H Monari, Bonnie M Scott, Michael S Okun, Kelly D Foote
BACKGROUND: Efficacy in previous studies of surgical treatments of refractory multiple sclerosis tremor using lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been variable. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic DBS (one targeting the ventralis intermedius-ventralis oralis posterior nucleus border [the VIM lead] and one targeting the ventralis oralis anterior-ventralis oralis posterior border [the VO lead]) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641605/state-dependent-parasitism-by-a-facultative-parasite-of-fruit-flies
#12
Lien T Luong, Taylor Brophy, Emily Stolz, Solomon J Chan
Parasites can evolve phenotypically plastic strategies for transmission such that a single genotype can give rise to a range of phenotypes depending on the environmental condition. State-dependent plasticity in particular can arise from individual differences in the parasite's internal state or the condition of the host. Facultative parasites serve as ideal model systems for investigating state-dependent plasticity because individuals can exhibit two life history strategies (free-living or parasitic) depending on the environment...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#13
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641600/the-influence-of-food-consumption-and-socio-economic-factors-on-the-relationship-between-zinc-and-iron-intake-and-status-in-a-healthy-population
#14
Marija Knez, Marina Nikolic, Milica Zekovic, James Cr Stangoulis, Mirjana Gurinovic, Maria Glibetic
OBJECTIVE: To examine Zn and Fe nutritional status of a healthy population by means of anthropometric, dietary and biochemical measurements and to investigate the relationship of usual Zn and Fe dietary intakes to Zn and Fe status. In addition, to examine the impact of food choices and socio-economic factors on Fe and Zn dietary intakes and status with the aim to identify groups at risk of dietary deficiency and suggest factors that may influence the status of these nutrients. DESIGN: Food consumption was assessed by 24 h recall questionnaires...
June 23, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641373/estimating-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-the-test-negative-design-using-alternative-control-groups-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Shuo Feng, Benjamin J Cowling, Heath Kelly, Sheena G Sullivan
One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated if such a phenomenon might affect a commonly used study design to estimate influenza vaccination effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in Medline, PubMed and Web of Science. Twelve studies were identified reporting VE estimates using the test-negative design by three alternative control groups: (1) all patients testing negative for influenza, VEFLU-, (2) patients who tested positive for other respiratory viruses, VEORV+, or (3) patients who tested negative for all viruses tested, VEPAN-...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641248/method-for-simulating-dose-reduction-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#16
Lucas R Borges, Igor Guerrero, Predrag R Bakic, Alessandro Foi, Andrew D A Maidment, Marcelo A C Vieira
This work proposes a new method of simulating dose reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard radiation dose. It considers both signal-dependent quantum and signal-independent electronic noise. Furthermore, the method accounts for pixel crosstalk, which causes the noise to be frequency-dependent, thus increasing the simulation accuracy. For an objective assessment, simulated and real images were compared in terms of noise standard deviation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641204/towards-dosimetry-for-photodynamic-diagnosis-with-the-low-level-dose-of-photosensitizer
#17
Igor Buzalewicz, Iwona Hołowacz, Agnieszka Ulatowska-Jarża, Halina Podbielska
BACKGROUND: Contemporary medicine does not concern the issue of dosimetry in photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) but follows the photosensitizer (PS) producers recommendation. Most preclinical and clinical PDD studies indicate a considerable variation in the possibility of visualization and treatment, as e.g. in case of cervix lesions. Although some of these variations can be caused by the different histological subtypes or various tumor geometries, the issue of varying PS concentration in the tumor tissue volume is definitely an important factor...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640169/the-use-of-lorazepam-and-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-catatonia-treatment-characteristics-and-outcomes-in-60-patients
#18
Ahmet Unal, Abdurrahman Altindag, Bahadir Demir, Ihsan Aksoy
OBJECTIVES: Lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are effective treatments for catatonia. However, systematic data on these treatments in catatonia are limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and treatment-related characteristics of patients with catatonia who underwent lorazepam and/or ECT. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2016, we received 60 patients with catatonia hospitalized in the Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine Clinic of Psychiatry...
June 20, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639800/working-memory-capacity-and-the-antisaccade-task-a-microanalytic-macroanalytic-investigation-of-individual-differences-in-goal-activation-and-maintenance
#19
Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil, Michael J Kane
The association between working memory capacity (WMC) and the antisaccade task, which requires subjects to move their eyes and attention away from a strong visual cue, supports the claim that WMC is partially an attentional construct (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001; Unsworth, Schrock, & Engle, 2004). Specifically, the WMC-antisaccade relation suggests that WMC helps maintain and execute task goals despite interference from habitual actions. Related work has recently shown that mind wandering (McVay & Kane, 2009, 2012a, 2012b) and reaction time (RT) variability (Unsworth, 2015) are also related to WMC and they partially explain WMC's prediction of cognitive abilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639045/passing-the-fundamentals-of-endoscopic-surgery-fes-exam-linking-specialty-choice-and-attitudes-about-endoscopic-surgery-to-success
#20
Aimee K Gardner, Michael B Ujiki, Brian J Dunkin
INTRODUCTION: Previous work has shown that up to 30% of graduating surgery residents fail the fundamentals of endoscopic surgery (FES) exam. This study investigated the extent to which FES pass rates differ in a specific sample of individuals who have chosen a career in GI surgery and to examine the relationships between FES performance and confidence in performing flexible endoscopy. METHODS: Fellows attending the 2016 SAGES Flexible Endoscopy Course were invited to complete the FES manual skills examination...
June 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
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