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Dopamine release

Paola Imbriani, Tommaso Schirinzi, Maria Meringolo, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the numerous mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The identification of PD pathogenic mutations and the use of different animal models have contributed to better elucidate the processes underlying the disease. Here, we report a brief survey of some relevant cellular mechanisms, including autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial impairment, with the main aim to focus on their potential convergent roles in determining early alterations at the synaptic level, mainly consisting in a decrease in dopamine release at nigrostriatal terminals and loss of synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xiaoqun Zhang, Ioannis Mantas, Alexandra Alvarsson, Takashi Yoshitake, Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Marcela Pereira, Anna Nilsson, Jan Kehr, Per E Andrén, Mark J Millan, Karima Chergui, Per Svenningsson
The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is expressed by dopaminergic neurons, but the precise influence of trace amines upon their functional activity remains to be fully characterized. Here, we examined the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) compared to 3-iodothyronamine (T1 AM). Immunoblotting and amperometry were performed in dorsal striatal slices from wild-type (WT) and TAAR1 knockout (KO) mice. T1 AM increased TH phosphorylation at both Ser19 and Ser40 , actions that should promote functional activity of TH...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Stylianos Kouvaros, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
Hippocampus is importantly involved in dopamine-dependent behaviors and dopamine is a significant modulator of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the dopaminergic innervation appears to be disproportionally segregated along the hippocampal longitudinal (dorsoventral) axis with unknown consequences for synaptic plasticity. In this study we examined the actions of endogenously released dopamine and the effects of exogenous D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists on theta-burst stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory synaptic potential (fEPSP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in slices from dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH)...
March 14, 2018: Synapse
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhao Lv, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
It is becoming increasingly clear that neurotransmitters impose direct influence on regulation of the immune process. Recently, a simple but sophisticated neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system was identified in oyster, which modulated neural immune response via a "nervous-hemocyte"-mediated neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway. In the present study, the de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters and their immunomodulation in the hemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to understand the autocrine/paracrine pathway independent of the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jérôme Linden, Alexander S James, Colin McDaniel, J David Jentsch
Neuroimaging studies in animal models and human subjects have each revealed that relatively low striatal dopamine D2-like receptor binding potential is associated with poor impulse control and with vulnerability for addiction-related behaviors. These studies cannot, however, disambiguate the roles for various pools of D2 receptors found in the striatum (e.g., those expressed on medium spiny striato-pallidal neurons vs on dopamine-releasing nerve terminals) in these behavioral outcomes. To clarify the role of the latter pool, namely, D2 autoreceptors, we studied mice carrying a conditional DRD2 gene, with or without Cre-recombinase expressed under the transcriptional control of the dopamine transporter gene locus (autoDrd2-KO, n = 19 and controls, n = 21)...
January 2018: ENeuro
Dae Gon Lim, Racelly Ena Prim, Eunah Kang, Seong Hoon Jeong
The self-organizing complexes with hyaluronic acid (HA) and polydopamine (PDA), an adhesion mediator via hydrogen bonding, were investigated for use as protein drug carriers. The complexes were prepared with HA of different molecular weights (20 kDa and 200 kDa) and various molar ratios of dopamine and lysozyme, a model protein. Dopamine-conjugated HA (HADA)/PDA complexes were prepared by one-pot synthesis by relying on the self-polymerization of dopamine under oxidative, weakly basic conditions. Lysozyme was bound via coacervation and hydrogen bonding into HADA/PDA complexes...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ishan Gupta, Andrew M J Young
The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). This study sought to investigate the effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment on modulation of dopamine neurotransmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 5 (mGluR2 and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens shell in vitro, with the hypothesis that phencyclidine pretreatment would disrupt the mGluR-mediated modulation of dopamine release...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells which occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, which help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Yu Sun, Ning Zhao, Wangyuan Liu, Miao Liu, Zizhao Ju, Jun Li, Zhen Cheng, Xingdang Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between expression level of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and myopia, as well as the feasibility of noninvasive myopia diagnosis through imaging VMAT2 in retina by using [18 F]fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ). PROCEDURES: The right eyes of ten guinea pigs were deprived of vision to establish form-deprived (FD) myopia and the left eyes were untreated as the self-control eyes. The location and expression level of VMAT2 in the eyes were detected by micro-positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging through using [18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
A Belin-Rauscent, J Lacoste, O Hermine, A Moussy, B J Everitt, David Belin
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that cocaine, and also heroin, influence several tyrosine kinases, expressed in neurons and in non-neuronal populations such as microglia, astrocytes and mast-cells. Drug-induced activation of mast cells both triggers inflammatory processes in the brain mediated by the glial cells they activate, and facilitates histamine release which may directly influence the dopamine system. Thus, by triggering the activation and degranulation of mast cells dependent on the tyrosine kinase c-kit and Fyn, the latter being also involved in NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity, cocaine and heroin may indirectly influence the neural mechanisms that mediate their reinforcing properties...
March 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Bombi Lee, Insop Shim, Hyejung Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-induced psychiatric disorder characterized by impaired fear extermination, hyperarousal, anxiety, depression, and amnesic symptoms that may involve the release of monoamines in the fear circuit. The present study measured several anxiety-related behavioral responses to examine the effects of berberine (BER) on symptoms of anxiety in rats after single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure, and to determine if BER reversed the dopamine (DA) dysfunction. Rats received BER (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) for 14 days after SPS exposure...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Yi-Zhou Huang, Jing-Jing Wang, Yong-Can Huang, Cheng-Guang Wu, Yi Zhang, Chao-Liang Zhang, Lin Bai, Hui-Qi Xie, Zhao-Yang Li, Li Deng
Acellular bone matrix (ACBM) provides an osteoconductive scaffold for bone repair, but its osteoinductivity is poor. Strontium (Sr) improves the osteoinductivity of bone implants. In this study, we developed an organic composite-mediated strontium coating strategy for ACBM scaffolds by using the ion chelating ability of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and the surface adhesion ability of dopamine (DOPA). The organic coating composite, termed the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite, was synthesized under a mild condition, and its chemical structure and strontium ion chelating ability were then determined...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yuan-Hao Chen, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathon Miller
Background: Traumatic brain injury is associated with substantial alterations in reward processing, but underlying mechanisms are controversial. Objective: A better understanding of alterations in dopamine (DA) release patterns from the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) may provide insights into posttraumatic reward pathology. Materials and Methods: The patterns of DA release with or without exposure to nicotine in brain slices with striatum and NAc, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 psi fluid percussion (FPI) or sham injury were analysis by using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Jessika C Bridi, Frank Hirth
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by intracellular inclusions of aggregated and misfolded α-Synuclein (α-Syn), and the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the brain. The resulting motor abnormalities mark the progression of PD, while non-motor symptoms can already be identified during early, prodromal stages of disease. Recent studies provide evidence that during this early prodromal phase, synaptic and axonal abnormalities occur before the degenerative loss of neuronal cell bodies. These early phenotypes can be attributed to synaptic accumulation of toxic α-Syn...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Matthias Deliano, Michael G K Brunk, Mohamed El-Tabbal, Maria M Zempeltzi, Max F K Happel, Frank W Ohl
Cortical release of the neurotransmitter dopamine has been implied in adapting cortical processing with respect to various functions including coding of stimulus salience, expectancy, error prediction, behavioral relevance, and learning. Dopamine agonists have been shown to modulate recurrent cortico-thalamic feedback, and should therefore also affect synchronization and amplitude of thalamo-cortical oscillations. In this study we have used multitaper spectral and time-frequency analysis of stimulus-evoked and spontaneous current source density patterns in primary auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils to characterize dopaminergic neuromodulation of the oscillatory structure of current sources and sinks...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jorge Tovar-Díaz, Matthew B Pomrenze, Russell Kan, Bahram Pahlavan, Hitoshi Morikawa
Stressful events rapidly trigger activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, driving the formation of aversive memories. However, it remains unclear how stressful experience affects plasticity mechanisms to regulate appetitive learning, such as intake of addictive drugs. Using rats, we show that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and α1 adrenergic receptor (α1AR) signaling enhance the plasticity of NMDA-receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons through distinct effects on inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 )-dependent Ca2+ signaling...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Yunmei Peng, Junpeng Nie, Wei Cheng, Gan Liu, Dunwan Zhu, Linhua Zhang, Chaoyu Liang, Lin Mei, Laiqiang Huang, Xiaowei Zeng
The integration of various therapy strategies into a single nanoplatform for synergistic cancer treatment has presented a great prospect. Herein, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-coated polydopamine modified with d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was synthesized for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy against cancer. Firstly, the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by a facile and robust nanoprecipitation method. Then, they were coated with dopamine to achieve the photothermal effects and to be further modified with TPGS, which can inhibit the P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR)...
March 7, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Debora Aricò, Bartolo Lanuzza, Filomena Irene Ilaria Cosentino, Domenico Paci, Maurizio Papotto, Manuela Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Walter Paulus, Raffaele Ferri
Background: Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. Methods: A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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