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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#1
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349706/effect-of-the-combination-of-mephedrone-plus-ethanol-on-serotonin-and-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-awake-rats
#2
Raúl López-Arnau, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Jorge Camarasa, David Pubill, Elena Escubedo
Cathinones, such as mephedrone (Meph), are often co-abused with alcoholic drinks. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of Meph plus ethanol (EtOH) on neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A guide canula was stereotaxically implanted into either the NAc or the mPFC of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven days after surgery, a microdialysis probe was inserted and rats were administered saline, EtOH (1 g/kg, i.p.), Meph (25 mg/kg, s...
January 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349573/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-elevates-stimulus-evoked-release-of-dopamine-in-freely-moving-rats
#3
Juho-Matti Renko, Susanne Bäck, Merja H Voutilainen, T Petteri Piepponen, Ilkka Reenilä, Mart Saarma, Raimo K Tuominen
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) hold potential as disease-modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) have shown neuroprotective and restorative effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons in various animal models of Parkinson's disease. To date, however, their effects on brain neurochemistry have not been compared using in vivo microdialysis...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#4
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346545/influence-of-nicotine-metabolism-ratio-on-11c-phno-pet-binding-in-tobacco-smokers
#5
Patricia Di Ciano, Rachel F Tyndale, Esmaeil Mansouri, Christian S Hendershot, Alan A Wilson, Dina Lagzdins, Sylvain Houle, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
Background: Identifying the biological basis of smoking cessation success is of growing interest. The rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), affects multiple aspects of nicotine dependence. Fast nicotine metabolizers (FM) tend to smoke more, experience more withdrawal and craving and have lower cessation rates as compared to slow metabolizers (SM). The NMR predicts treatment response, and differences in brain activation between FM and SM have been reported in fMRI studies...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343767/blockade-of-trpv1-inhibits-methamphetamine-induced-rewarding-effects
#6
Yu-Hua Tian, Shi-Xun Ma, Kwang-Wook Lee, Sunmee Wee, George F Koob, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Methamphetamine (MAP) is the most widely used psychostimulant in the world, but the exact mechanisms underlying MAP addiction are not yet fully understood. Recent studies have identified the distribution of TRPV1 in several brain regions that are related to drug addiction, including nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DSt). In the present study, we performed conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration tests to examine the effects of capsazepine (CPZ) and SB366791 (SB) on MAP reward. We found that both CPZ and SB significantly inhibited MAP-induced CPP and self-administration; in contrast, TRPV1 knock-out (KO) mice did not develop MAP-induced CPP...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342497/non-antipsychotic-catecholaminergic-drugs-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#7
REVIEW
Hany G El-Sayeh, John Rathbone, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of antipsychotic medication. Several strategies have been examined in the treatment of TD. Currently, however, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs in TD and they have been associated with many side effects. One particular strategy would be to use pharmaceutical agents which are known to influence the catecholaminergic system at various junctures. OBJECTIVES: 1...
January 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339293/methylphenidate-significantly-alters-the-functional-coupling-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#8
Ike C Dela Peña, Guofang Shen, Wei-Xing Shi
Amphetamine-like psychostimulants, including methylphenidate, have been shown to produce two opposing effects on dopamine (DA) neurons: a DA receptor-mediated feedback inhibition and a non-DA receptor-mediated excitation. To test whether the latter effect is mediated through the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we made dual-site recordings from the PFC and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Consistent with previous reports, methylphenidate inhibited VTA DA neurons. The D2 receptor antagonist raclopride completely reversed the inhibition and further increased the activity, particularly bursting, to above pre-drug baseline...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339106/safinamide-a-new-hope-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel F Gago, Paulo Marques, Pedro Silva Moreira, Ricardo Magalhães, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
The loss of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) and reduced dopamine (DA) production underlies the reasoning behind the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) using levodopa (L-DOPA). Recently licensed by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), safinamide [a monoamine oxidase B (MOA-B) inhibitor] is an alternative to L-DOPA; as we discuss here, it enhances dopaminergic transmission with decreased secondary effects compared with L-DOPA. In addition, nondopaminergic actions (neuroprotective effects) have been reported, with safinamide inhibiting glutamate release and sodium/calcium channels, reducing the excitotoxic input to dopaminergic neuronal death...
January 12, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339089/concentration-gradient-of-noradrenaline-from-the-periphery-to-the-centre-of-the-cornea-a-clue-to-its-origin
#10
Luis Figueira, Carla Ferreira, Catarina Janeiro, Paula Serrao, Fernando Falcao-Reis, Daniel Moura
We set out to demonstrate that the major source of corneal catecholamines is its neuronal release from intrinsic sympathetic nerves rather than circulating or non-neuronal local production. Three concentric segments (central, intermediate, peripheral) were obtained by double trephination (9.5-7.25 mm) performed on corneas harvested from 3-4 month old rabbits and human corneas rejected for transplantation, along with aqueous humour, full iris tissue and blood samples. Endogenous catecholamines were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED), and comparison with the uptake of radio-labelled noradrenaline (3H-NA) before and after incubation with cocaine was performed...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338466/valbenazine-as-the-first-and-only-approved-treatment-for-adults-with-tardive-dyskinesia
#11
Harini Sarva, Claire Henchcliffe
Valbenazine is a selective VMAT2 inhibitor that the FDA approved in April 2017 for the specific treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder commonly caused by dopamine blocking agents. Valbenazine acts to decrease dopamine release, reducing excessive movement found in TD. Areas covered: This drug profile reviews the development of valbenazine and the clinical trials that led to its approval as the first treatment specific to TD. The literature search was performed with the PubMed online database...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332198/drug-delivery-and-transport-into-the-central-circulation-an-example-of-zero-order-in-vivo-absorption-of-rotigotine-from-a-transdermal-patch-formulation
#12
Willi Cawello, Marina Braun, Jens-Otto Andreas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetic studies using deconvolution methods and non-compartmental analysis to model clinical absorption of drugs are not well represented in the literature. The purpose of this research was (1) to define the system of equations for description of rotigotine (a dopamine receptor agonist delivered via a transdermal patch) absorption based on a pharmacokinetic model and (2) to describe the kinetics of rotigotine disposition after single and multiple dosing...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330884/synapsin-iii-is-a-key-component-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-in-lewy-bodies-of-pd-brains
#13
Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Tatiana Varanita, Michela Zaltieri, Vanessa Porrini, Isabella Tessari, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Cristina Missale, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Luigi Bubacco, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Lewy bodies (LB) and Lewy neurites (LN), which are primarily composed of α-synuclein (α-syn), are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We recently found that the neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (syn III) controls dopamine release via cooperation with α-syn and modulates α-syn aggregation. Here, we observed that LB and LN, in the substantia nigra of PD patients and hippocampus of one subject with DLB, displayed a marked immunopositivity for syn III...
January 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330488/motor-skill-learning-and-reward-consumption-differentially-affect-vta-activation
#14
Susan Leemburg, Tara Canonica, Andreas Luft
Dopamine release from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals in the primary motor cortex (M1) enables motor skill acquisition. Here, we test the hypothesis that dopaminergic VTA neurons projecting to M1 are activated when rewards are obtained during motor skill acquisition, but not during task execution at plateau performance, or by rewards obtained without performing skilled movements. Rats were trained to perform a skilled reaching task for 3 days (acquisition) or 7 days (plateau). In combination with retrograde labelling of VTA-to-M1 projection neurons, double immunofluorescence for c-fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used to assess activation of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA neurons...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325847/amphetamine-induced-striatal-dopamine-release-measured-with-an-agonist-radiotracer-in%C3%A2-schizophrenia
#15
W Gordon Frankle, Jennifer Paris, Michael Himes, N Scott Mason, Chester A Mathis, Rajesh Narendran
BACKGROUND: Receptor imaging studies have reported increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in subjects with schizophrenia (SCH) relative to healthy control subjects (HCs). A limitation of these studies, performed with D2/3 antagonist radiotracers, is the failure to provide information about D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for the agonists (i.e., D2/3 receptors coupled to G proteins [D2/3 HIGH]). The endogenous agonist dopamine binds with preference to D2/3 HIGH receptors relative to D2/3 LOW receptors, making it critical to understand the status of D2/3 HIGH receptors in SCH...
December 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324402/c-fscv-compressive-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-for-brain-dopamine-recording
#16
Hossein Zamani, Hamid Reza Bahrami, Preeti Chalwadi, Paul A Garris, Pedram Mohseni
This paper presents a novel compressive sensing framework for recording brain dopamine levels with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode. Termed compressive FSCV (C-FSCV), this approach compressively samples the measured total current in each FSCV scan and performs basic FSCV processing steps, e.g., background current averaging and subtraction, directly with compressed measurements. The resulting background-subtracted faradaic currents, which are shown to have a block-sparse representation in the discrete cosine transform domain, are next reconstructed from their compressively sampled counterparts with the block sparse Bayesian learning algorithm...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321592/amyloid-%C3%AE-causes-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-through-dopamine-receptor-1-dependent-disruption-of-fast-spiking-gabaergic-input-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#17
Si-Qiang Ren, Wen Yao, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chunhui Jin, Jia-Jun Yin, Jianmin Yuan, Shui Yu, Zaohuo Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. At the early stages of AD development, the soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) induces synaptic dysfunction, perturbs the excitation/inhibition balance of neural circuitries, and in turn alters the normal neural network activity leading to cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here by using whole-cell recordings in acute mouse brain slices, we found that 50 nM Aβ induces hyperexcitability of excitatory pyramidal cells in the cingulate cortex, one of the most vulnerable areas in AD, via depressing inhibitory synaptic transmission...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321525/exploring-the-consequences-of-social-defeat-stress-and-intermittent-ethanol-drinking-on-dopamine-dynamics-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#18
Alex L Deal, Joanne K Konstantopoulos, Jeff L Weiner, Evgeny A Budygin
The current study aimed to explore how presynaptic dopamine (DA) function is altered following brief stress episodes and chronic ethanol self-administration and whether these neuroadaptations modify the acute effects of ethanol on DA dynamics. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to evaluate changes in DA release and uptake parameters in rat nucleus accumbens brain slices by analyzing DA transients evoked through single pulse electrical stimulation. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: ethanol-naïve or ethanol drinking (six week intermittent two-bottle choice) and stressed (mild social defeat) or nonstressed...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#19
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317025/electrochemical-sensing-platform-based-on-kelp-derived-hierarchical-meso-macroporous-carbons
#20
Yashuang Hei, Xiqian Li, Xiao Zhou, Jingju Liu, Mimi Sun, Tianze Sha, Cuixing Xu, Wanyi Xue, Xiangjie Bo, Ming Zhou
In this paper, kelp (Laminaria japonica), as a kind of abundant biomass, is used as the precursor for the preparation of kelp-derived hierarchical meso-macroporous carbons (K-dHMMCs) through the carbonization under nitrogen (N2) atmosphere at high temperature. The K-dHMMCs exhibits the unique structure with high specific surface area of 416.02 m2 g-1, large pore volume of 0.24 cm3 g-1, the hierarchical meso-macroporous size distribution centered at 2, 12 and 82 nm and high density of defective sites, enabling K-dHMMCs attractive for the electrocatalysis...
March 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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