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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449351/long-term-plasticity-of-corticostriatal-synapses-is-modulated-by-pathway-specific-co-release-of-opioids-through-kappa-opioid-receptors
#1
Sarah L Hawes, Armando G Salinas, David M Lovinger, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity in striatum adjusts behaviour adaptively during skill learning, or maladaptively in the case of addiction. Just as dopamine plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying normal skill learning and addiction, endogenous and exogenous opiates also modulate learning and addiction-related striatal plasticity. Though the role of opioid receptors in long-term depression in striatum has been characterized, their effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) remains unknown. In particular, direct pathway (Dopamine D1 Receptor containing; D1R) - spiny projection neurons (SPNs) co-release the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin, which acts at presynaptic kappa opioid receptors (KORs) on dopaminergic afferents and can negatively regulate dopamine release...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#2
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443614/cocaine-cue-induced-dopamine-release-in-recreational-cocaine-users
#3
Sylvia M L Cox, Yvonne Yau, Kevin Larcher, France Durand, Theodore Kolivakis, J Scott Delaney, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
It has been proposed that the acquisition of drug seeking is related to the development of conditioned dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. As drug use continues and becomes habit-like, conditioned responses have been shown to shift to the dorsal striatum. Here, using the PET [(11)C]raclopride method and highly personalized cocaine cues, we report the first evidence in humans of the dorsal dopamine response prior to the onset of addiction.
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442947/a-high-fat-diet-induces-a-loss-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neuronal-function-that-underlies-motor-abnormalities
#4
Yunseon Jang, Min Joung Lee, Jeongsu Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Ilhwan Ryu, Xianshu Ju, Min Jeong Ryu, Woosuk Chung, Eungseok Oh, Gi Ryang Kweon, Jun Young Heo
Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is responsible for regulating grip strength and motor initiation through tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity-dependent dopamine release...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442946/optogenetic-rescue-of-locomotor-dysfunction-and-dopaminergic-degeneration-caused-by-alpha-synuclein-and-eko-genes
#5
Cheng Qi, Scott Varga, Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee, Daewoo Lee
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small presynaptic protein and its mutant forms (e.g. A53T) are known to be directly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying α-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration in PD still remain to be explored. However, several studies strongly support that overexpression of mutant α-Syn causes reduced release of dopamine (DA) in the brain, and contributes to motor deficits in PD. Using a favorable genetic model Drosophila larva, we examined whether reduced DA release is enough to induce key PD symptoms (i...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442370/modulation-of-drug-choice-by-extended-drug-access-and-withdrawal-in-rhesus-monkeys-implications-for-negative-reinforcement-as-a-driver-of-addiction-and-target-for-medications-development
#6
REVIEW
S Stevens Negus, Matthew L Banks
Chronic drug exposure is hypothesized to recruit negative reinforcement processes that increase the magnitude and alter the mechanisms of drug reinforcement. Candidate substrates of negative reinforcement include increased signaling via stress-related neurotransmitters such as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF, acting at CRF receptors) or dynorphin (acting at kappa opioid receptors) and/or decreased signaling via reward-related neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Determinants of drug reinforcement can be examined with choice procedures, in which subjects choose between a drug of interest (e...
April 22, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440810/naltrexone-modulates-dopamine-release-following-chronic-but-not-acute-amphetamine-administration-a-translational-study
#7
N Jayaram-Lindström, J Guterstam, J Häggkvist, M Ericson, T Malmlöf, B Schilström, C Halldin, S Cervenka, T Saijo, A-L Nordström, J Franck
The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been shown to attenuate the subjective effects of amphetamine. However, the mechanisms behind this modulatory effect are currently unknown. We hypothesized that naltrexone would diminish the striatal dopamine release induced by amphetamine, which is considered an important mechanism behind many of its stimulant properties. We used positron emission tomography and the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [(11)C]raclopride in healthy subjects to study the dopaminergic effects of an amphetamine injection after pretreatment with naltrexone or placebo...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438467/the-role-of-impulsivity-in-psychostimulant-and-stress-induced-dopamine-release-review-of-human-imaging-studies
#8
REVIEW
Wendy M Bosker, Irene Neuner, N Jon Shah
Drug addiction is a debilitating disorder and its pivotal problem is the high relapse rate. To solve this problem, the aim is to prevent people from becoming addicted in the first place. One of the key questions that is still unanswered is why some people become addicted to drugs and others, who take drugs regularly, do not. In recent years extensive research has been done to untangle the many factors involved in this disorder. Here, we review some of the factors that are related to dopamine, i.e., impulsivity and stress (hormones), and aim to integrate this into a neurobiological model...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437187/synergy-between-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cell-conditioned-medium-and-knockout-serum-replacement-converts-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-dopamine-secreting-neurons
#9
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh, Mehrnoosh Hasan Shahriari, Abbas Aliaghaei, Sanaz Hasani
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have great capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origins as well as nonmesodermal lineages, including neural cells. This valuable feature paves the way for the therapeutic application of hADSCs for neurodegenerative maladies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the capacity of choroid plexus epithelial cell-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) alone or cocktailed with knockout serum (KS) to induce dopaminergic (DAergic) differentiation of hADSCs. To this end, hADSCs from lipoaspirate were phenotypically characterized and shown to maintain mesodermal multipotency so that selected media easily differentiated them into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes...
April 27, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436251/sirolimus-coating-on-heparinized-stents-prevents-restenosis-and-thrombosis
#10
In-Ho Bae, Kyung Seob Lim, Dae Sung Park, Jae-Won Shim, So-Youn Lee, Eun-Jae Jang, Jun-Kyu Park, Ju-Han Kim, Myung Ho Jeong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of sirolimus coating on the occurrence of restenosis and thrombosis with heparinized stents. Heparin and dopamine were conjugated by chemical bonding and anchored on the stent surface by a mussel-inspired adhesion mechanism. Subsequently, sirolimus was coated with poly lactic-glycolic acid on the heparinized stent surface. The heparin was well attached to the surface, and the surface was smooth after sirolimus coating. The smoothness of the surface was maintained after expansion of the stent...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432029/suppression-of-reward-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-animal-models-of-depression-differential-responses-to-drug-treatment
#11
Saki Minami, Hiroshi Satoyoshi, Soichiro Ide, Takeshi Inoue, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder, suggesting that the brain reward system may be dysfunctional in this condition. Neurochemical changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are not fully understood in animal models of depression. We investigated reward (30% sucrose intake)-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the effect of chronic treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (5mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice daily for 3 weeks) in two animal models of depression...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429210/prenatal-hyperhomocysteinemia-impairs-hypothalamic-regulation-of-reproductive-cycles-in-rat-progeny
#13
A V Arutyunyan, I V Zaloznyaya, G O Kerkeshko, Yu P Milyutina, A V Korenevskii
Effects of prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia on hypothalamic regulation of estrous cycles were studied in female rats. In mature rats exposed to prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia, changes in the catecholamine content in hypothalamic areas responsible for the formation of the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone were revealed: the level of norepinephrine in the medial preoptic area decreased and concentration of dopamine in the median eminence with arcuate nuclei increased. Administration of melatonin attenuated the observed changes, which can be related to neuroprotective effects of this hormone determined by its antioxidant properties...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427888/dopamine-elevates-intracellular-zinc-concentration-in-cultured-rat-embryonic-cortical-neurons-through-the-camp-nitric-oxide-signaling-cascade
#14
Hui-Hsing Hung, Lung-Sen Kao, Pei-Shan Liu, Chien-Chang Huang, De-Ming Yang, Chien-Yuan Pan
Zinc ion (Zn(2+)), the second most abundant transition metal after iron in the body, is essential for neuronal activity and also induces toxicity if the concentration is abnormally high. Our previous results show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to dopamine elevates intracellular Zn(2+) concentrations ([Zn(2+)]i) and induces autophagosome formation but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we characterized the signaling pathway responsible for the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn(2+)]i and the effect of [Zn(2+)]i in modulating the autophagy in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#15
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421605/cholinergic-glutamatergic-co-transmission-in-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-new-mechanisms-regulating-striatal-computation
#16
REVIEW
Ornela Kljakic, Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado
It is well established that neurons secrete neuropeptides and ATP with classical neurotransmitters; however, certain neuronal populations are also capable of releasing two classical neurotransmitters by a process named co-transmission. Although there has been progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying co-transmission, the individual regulation of neurotransmitter secretion and the functional significance of this neuronal 'bilingualism' is still unknown. Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) have been shown to secrete glutamate (Glu) in addition to acetylcholine (ACh) and are recognized for their role in the regulation of striatal circuits and behavior...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420969/acquisition-maintenance-and-relapse-like-alcohol-drinking-lessons-from-the-uchb-rat-line
#17
REVIEW
Yedy Israel, Eduardo Karahanian, Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, Marcelo Ezquer, Mario Rivera-Meza, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, María E Quintanilla
This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%-95%) for rats to display ethanol's reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol intake. Acetaldehyde binds non-enzymatically to dopamine forming salsolinol, a compound that is self-administered...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420965/dopamine-a-modulator-of-circadian-rhythms-in-the-central-nervous-system
#18
REVIEW
Kirill S Korshunov, Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#19
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood.Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 (major alleles: L- (8 repeats) and H- (9 repeats)) on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411274/posterior-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-pathways-to-the-amygdala-target-inhibitory-and-excitatory-systems-with-opposite-functions
#20
Basilis Zikopoulos, Malin Hoistad, Yohan John, Helen Barbas
The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys we found that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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