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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908749/a-new-role-for-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-control-of-male-rat-sexual-behavior-expression
#1
Gabriela Rodríguez-Manzo, Ana Canseco-Alba
GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABAA receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#2
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901187/interactions-between-prolactin-and-kisspeptin-to-control-reproduction
#3
Jose Donato, Renata Frazão
Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901065/pharmacological-characterization-of-a-high-affinity-p-tyramine-transporter-in-rat-brain-synaptosomes
#4
Mark D Berry, Shannon Hart, Anthony R Pryor, Samantha Hunter, Danielle Gardiner
p-Tyramine is an archetypal member of the endogenous family of monoamines known as trace amines, and is one of the endogenous agonists for trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR)1. While much work has focused on the function of TAAR1, very little is known about the regulation of the endogenous agonists. We have previously reported that p-tyramine readily crosses lipid bilayers and that its release from synaptosomes is non-exocytotic. Such release, however, showed characteristics of modification by one or more transporters...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899527/biased-agonists-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-suppress-pain-and-itch-without-causing-sedation-or-dysphoria
#5
Tarsis F Brust, Jenny Morgenweck, Susy A Kim, Jamie H Rose, Jason L Locke, Cullen L Schmid, Lei Zhou, Edward L Stahl, Michael D Cameron, Sarah M Scarry, Jeffrey Aubé, Sara R Jones, Thomas J Martin, Laura M Bohn
Agonists targeting the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) have been promising therapeutic candidates because of their efficacy for treating intractable itch and relieving pain. Unlike typical opioid narcotics, KOR agonists do not produce euphoria or lead to respiratory suppression or overdose. However, they do produce dysphoria and sedation, side effects that have precluded their clinical development as therapeutics. KOR signaling can be fine-tuned to preferentially activate certain pathways over others, such that agonists can bias signaling so that the receptor signals through G proteins rather than other effectors such as βarrestin2...
November 29, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896377/self-administration-and-behavioral-economics-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-in-male-rats
#6
S L Huskinson, J E Naylor, E A Townsend, J K Rowlett, B E Blough, K B Freeman
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones have become increasingly available as drugs of abuse. Distribution of these drugs is made possible by altering the chemical structures of prohibited cathinones and marketing them under misleading labels. Very little is known about the relative reinforcing effectiveness of new synthetic cathinones relative to known drugs of abuse. OBJECTIVE: We examined self-administration of three second-generation synthetic cathinones: alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC), and 4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP) relative to methamphetamine...
November 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889491/pramipexole-enhances-disadvantageous-decision-making-lack-of-relation-to-changes-in-phasic-dopamine-release
#7
Romina Pes, Sean C Godar, Andrew T Fox, Lauren M Burgeno, Hunter J Strathman, David P Jarmolowicz, Paola Devoto, Beth Levant, Paul E M Phillips, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato
Pramipexole (PPX) is a high-affinity D2-like dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that PPX increases the risk of problem gambling and impulse-control disorders in vulnerable patients. Although the molecular bases of these complications remain unclear, several authors have theorized that PPX may increase risk propensity by activating presynaptic dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic system, resulting in the reduction of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886263/nicotinic-and-opioid-receptor-regulation-of-striatal-dopamine-d2-receptor-mediated-transmission
#8
Aphroditi A Mamaligas, Yuan Cai, Christopher P Ford
In addition to dopamine neuron firing, cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) regulate dopamine release in the striatum via presynaptic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axon terminals. Synchronous activity of ChIs is necessary to evoke dopamine release through this pathway. The frequency-dependence of disynaptic nicotinic modulation has led to the hypothesis that nAChRs act as a high-pass filter in the dopaminergic microcircuit. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively stimulate either ChIs or dopamine terminals directly in the striatum...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876640/physiological-state-tunes-mesolimbic-signaling-lessons-from-sodium-appetite-and-inspiration-from-randall-r-sakai
#9
REVIEW
Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Sodium deficit poses a life-threatening challenge to body fluid homeostasis and generates a sodium appetite - the behavioral drive to ingest sodium. Dr. Randall R. Sakai greatly contributed to our understanding of the hormonal responses to negative sodium balance and to the central processing of these signals. Reactivity to the taste of sodium solutions and the motivation to seek and consume sodium changes dramatically with body fluid balance. Here, we review studies that collectively suggest that sodium deficit recruits the mesolimbic system to play a role in the behavioral expression of sodium appetite...
November 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872689/role-of-nitric-oxide-on-dopamine-release-and-morphine-dependency
#10
REVIEW
Amir Arash Motahari, Hedayat Sahraei, Gholam Hossein Meftahi
The catastrophic effects of opioids use on public health and the economy are documented clearly in numerous studies. Repeated morphine administration can lead to either a decrease (tolerance) or an increase (sensitization) in its behavioral and rewarding effects. Morphine-induced sensitization is a major problem and plays an important role in abuse of the opioid drugs. Studies reported that morphine may exert its effects by the release of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a potent neuromodulator, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872581/a-trigger-for-opioid-misuse-chronic-pain-and-stress-dysregulate-the-mesolimbic-pathway-and-kappa-opioid-system
#11
REVIEW
Nicolas Massaly, Jose A Morón, Ream Al-Hasani
Pain and stress are protective mechanisms essential in avoiding harmful or threatening stimuli and ensuring survival. Despite these beneficial roles, chronic exposure to either pain or stress can lead to maladaptive hormonal and neuronal modulations that can result in chronic pain and a wide spectrum of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. By inducing allostatic changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, both chronic pain and stress disorders affect the rewarding values of both natural reinforcers, such as food or social interaction, and drugs of abuse...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870780/the-activation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-5-receptors-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-increases-dopamine-extracellular-levels
#12
Carla Ferrada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Jorge Abarca, Katia Gysling
The mesocorticolimbic circuit projects to the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, among others, and it originates in the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA receives glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex and several subcortical regions. The glutamate released activates dopaminergic neurons and its action depends on the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. VTA dopaminergic neurons release dopamine (DA) from axon terminals in the innervated regions and somatodendritically in the VTA itself...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866999/the-5-ht1a-1b-receptor-agonist-eltoprazine-increases-both-catecholamine-release-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-decreases-motivation-for-reward-and-waiting-impulsivity-but-increases-stopping-impulsivity
#13
S Mechiel Korte, Jolanda Prins, Filip S Van den Bergh, Ronald S Oosting, Rudy Dupree, Gerdien A H Korte-Bouws, Koen G C Westphal, Berend Olivier, Damiaan A Denys, Alexis Garland, Onur Güntürkün
The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate, however, also increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a significant role in motivation, pleasure, and reward...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853201/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-dopamine-system
#14
Michael A P Bloomfield, Abhishekh H Ashok, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
The effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid-dopamine interactions that take place, there is conflicting evidence from human and animal studies concerning the effects of THC on the dopamine system...
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845187/basolateral-amygdalar-d2-receptor-activation-is-required-for-the-companions-exerted-suppressive-effect-on-the-cocaine-conditioning
#15
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chian-Fang G Cherng, Lung Yu, Ching-Yi Wang
The presence of companions renders decreases in cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) magnitude. Limbic systems are widely believed to underlie the modulation of accumbal dopamine release and cocaine conditioning. Thus, this study aimed to assess whether intact basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), dorsal hippocampus (DH), and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP...
November 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836486/immunochemical-localization-of-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-2-vmat2-in-mouse-brain
#16
Rachel A Cliburn, Amy R Dunn, Kristen A Stout, Carlie A Hoffman, Kelly M Lohr, Alison I Bernstein, Emily J Winokur, James Burkett, Yvonne Shmitz, William M Caudle, Gary W Miller
Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, SLC18A2) is a transmembrane transporter protein that packages dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine into vesicles in preparation for neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. VMAT2 function and related vesicle dynamics have been linked to susceptibility to oxidative stress, exogenous toxicants, and Parkinson's disease. To address a recent depletion of commonly used antibodies to VMAT2, we generated and characterized a novel rabbit polyclonal antibody generated against a 19 amino acid epitope corresponding to an antigenic sequence within the C-terminal tail of mouse VMAT2...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833522/histamine-h3-receptors-and-its-antagonism-as-a-novel-mechanism-for-antipsychotic-effect-a-current-preclinical-clinical-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Danish Mahmood
Histamine H3 receptors are present as autoreceptors on histaminergic neurons and as heteroreceptors on nonhistaminergic neurones. They control the release and synthesis of histamine and several other key neurotransmitters in the brain. H3 antagonism may be a novel approach to develop a new class of antipsychotic medications given the gathering evidence reporting therapeutic efficacy in several central nervous system disorders. Several medications such as cariprazine, lurasidone, LY214002, bexarotene, rasagiline, raloxifene, BL-1020 and ITI-070 are being developed to treat the negative symptoms and cognitive impairments of schizophrenia...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830576/structure-activity-relationships-of-synthetic-cathinones
#18
Richard A Glennon, Małgorzata Dukat
Until recently, there was rather little interest in the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of cathinone analogs because so few agents were available and because they represented a relatively minor drug abuse problem. Most of the early SAR was formulated on the basis of behavioral (e.g., locomotor and drug discrimination) studies using rodents. With the emergence on the clandestine market in the last few years of a large number of new cathinone analogs, termed "synthetic cathinones", and the realization that they likely act at dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin transporters as releasing agents (i...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829813/olanzapine-induced-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-after-its-chronic-administration-in-rats
#19
Rehmat Shah, Fazal Subhan, Gowhar Ali, Ihsan Ullah, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Khwaja Fawad
Objective: Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic acting mainly as a dopamine D2 and serotonine 5-HT2 receptors antagonist prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and various other psychiatric illnesses. Even though olanzapine is widely used in psychiatry, its effects on the architecture of pancreas, liver and kidneys are little known. The histology of pancreas especially has never been studied. For these reasons, the current study was designed to elucidate the toxic effects of chronic administration of olanzapine on pancreas, liver and kidneys and the enzymes released by these tissues in an escalating dose manner...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829203/precision-combination-therapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-via-biomimetic-polydopamine-polymer-core-shell-nanostructures
#20
Yanping Ding, Shishuai Su, Ruirui Zhang, Leihou Shao, Yinlong Zhang, Bin Wang, Yiye Li, Long Chen, Qun Yu, Yan Wu, Guangjun Nie
Photothermal-based combination therapy using functional nanomaterials shows great promise in eradication of aggressive tumors and improvement of drug sensitivity. The therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of drug combinations depend on the precise control of timely tumor-localized drug release. Here a polymer-dopamine nanocomposite is designed for combination therapy, thermo-responsive drug release and prevention of uncontrolled drug leakage. The thermo-sensitive co-polymer poly (2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-co-2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate-b-poly (D, l-lactide-co-glycolide) is constructed into core-shell structured nanoparticles for co-encapsulation of two cytotoxic drugs and absorption of small interfering RNAs against survivin...
November 2, 2016: Biomaterials
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