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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#1
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#2
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076681/computational-modeling-of-neurotransmitter-release-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-non-linear-approaches-to-predicting-stimulation-evoked-dopamine-release
#3
James K Trevathan, Ali Yousefi, Hyung Ook Park, John J Bartoletta, Kip A Ludwig, Kendall H Lee, J Luis Lujan
Neurochemical changes evoked by electrical stimulation of the nervous system have been linked to both therapeutic and undesired effects of neuromodulation therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hypertension, tinnitus, and many other indications. In fact, interest in better understanding the role of neurochemical signaling in neuromodulation therapies has been a focus of recent government- and industry-sponsored programs whose ultimate goal is to usher in an era of personalized medicine by creating neuromodulation therapies that respond to real-time changes in patient status...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065827/gastric-bypass-surgery-recruits-a-gut-ppar-%C3%AE-striatal-d1r-pathway-to-reduce-fat-appetite-in-obese-rats
#4
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Constantin A Hintschich, Thi-Ai Diep, Karen Kleberg, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Luis A Tellez, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Jens Teichert, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust, Harald S Hansen, Ivan E de Araujo, Ute Krügel, Wiebke K Fenske
Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions...
January 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063683/diphasic-dyskinesias-during-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-lcig-infusion-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Meloni Mario, Solla Paolo, Mascia Mario Marcello, Marrosu Francesco, Cannas Antonino
OBJECTIVES: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG) is indicated in patients with advanced levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD) for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Here we describe 4 PD patients who developed disabling diphasic dyskinesias after LCIG initiation. METHODS: The clinical data of 33 PD patients consecutively treated with LCIG therapy were obtained through direct clinical observation and detailed review of medical records...
December 31, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059145/a-markov-state-based-quantitative-kinetic-model-of-sodium-release-from-the-dopamine-transporter
#6
Asghar M Razavi, George Khelashvili, Harel Weinstein
The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family of membrane proteins that are responsible for reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to terminate a neuronal signal and enable subsequent neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. The release of one sodium ion from the crystallographically determined sodium binding site Na2 had been identified as an initial step in the transport cycle which prepares the transporter for substrate translocation by stabilizing an inward-open conformation...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057720/elevated-striatal-dopamine-function-in-immigrants-and-their-children-a-risk-mechanism-for-psychosis
#7
Alice Egerton, Oliver D Howes, Sylvain Houle, Kwame McKenzie, Lucia R Valmaggia, Michael R Bagby, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Michael A P Bloomfield, Miran Kenk, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Ivonne Suridjan, Chistopher A Chaddock, Toby T Winton-Brown, Paul Allen, Pablo Rusjan, Gary Remington, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Philip K McGuire, Romina Mizrahi
Migration is a major risk factor for schizophrenia but the neurochemical processes involved are unknown. One candidate mechanism is through elevations in striatal dopamine synthesis and release. The objective of this research was to determine whether striatal dopamine function is elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants and the relationship with psychosis. Two complementary case-control studies of in vivo dopamine function (stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity) in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants were performed in Canada and the United Kingdom...
January 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057530/effects-of-nucleus-accumbens-amphetamine-administration-on-performance-in-a-delay-discounting-task
#8
Caitlin A Orsini, Marci R Mitchell, Sara C Heshmati, Kristy G Shimp, Megan S Spurrell, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Chronic administration of cocaine can cause pronounced and enduring cognitive alterations such as increases in impulsive choice. Chronic cocaine can also result in enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to reward-related cues. It is possible that this enhanced DA release in the NAc is a mechanism by which cocaine increases impulsive choice. To date, however, the specific role of DA in the NAc in impulsive choice is unclear. To begin to address this, rats received acute microinjections of the indirect DA agonist amphetamine directly into the NAc prior to testing in a delay discounting task in which rats chose between a small, immediate and a large, delayed food reward...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053327/ventral-tegmental-area-cellular-heterogeneity-connectivity-and-behaviour
#9
Marisela Morales, Elyssa B Margolis
Dopamine-releasing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have central roles in reward-related and goal-directed behaviours. VTA dopamine-releasing neurons are heterogeneous in their afferent and efferent connectivity and, in some cases, release GABA or glutamate in addition to dopamine. Recent findings show that motivational signals arising from the VTA can also be carried by non-dopamine-releasing projection neurons, which have their own specific connectivity. Both dopamine-releasing and non-dopamine-releasing VTA neurons integrate afferent signals with local inhibitory or excitatory inputs to generate particular output firing patterns...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053028/activation-of-pedunculopontine-glutamate-neurons-is-reinforcing
#10
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Johnathan Wu, Cindy Punta, Nivedita Ramajayam, Xinyi Shen, Lauren Faget, Varoth Lilascharoen, Byung Kook Lim, Thomas S Hnasko
: Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053019/biological-mechanisms-whereby-social-exclusion-may-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-psychosis-a-narrative-review
#11
Jean-Paul Selten, Jan Booij, Bauke Buwalda, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The purpose of this review is to examine whether a contribution of social exclusion to the pathogenesis of psychosis is compatible with the dopamine hypothesis and/or the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Humans experience social exclusion as defeating. An animal model for defeat is the resident-intruder paradigm. The defeated animal shows evidence of an increased sensitivity to amphetamine, increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and increased firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
January 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#12
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#13
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039330/dissecting-the-influence-of-two-structural-substituents-on-the-differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-methamphetamine-and-mephedrone-on-dopamine-nerve-endings-with-the-use-of-4-methylmethamphetamine-and-methcathinone
#14
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. While MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared to METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, 2 analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038309/diazepam-inhibits-electrically-evoked-and-tonic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-reverses-the-effect-of-amphetamine
#15
Alexander Gomez-A, Amanda Maino Fiorenza, Suelen Lucio Boschen, Adam H Sugi, Danielle Beckman, Sergio T Ferreira, Kendall H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Claudio Da Cunha
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that not only it causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine action on increasing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in tonic and electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane anesthetized adult male Swiss mice...
December 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035673/somatic-and-neuritic-spines-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunopositive-cells-of-rat-retina
#16
Anna Fasoli, James Dang, Aaron H Gouw, Jeffrey S Johnson, Alex Fogli Iseppe, Andrew T Ishida
Dopamine- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells (TH cells) modulate visually driven signals as they flow through retinal photoreceptor, bipolar, and ganglion cells. Previous studies suggested that TH cells release dopamine from varicose axons arborizing in the inner and outer plexiform layers after glutamatergic synapses depolarize TH cell dendrites in the inner plexiform layer and these depolarizations propagate to the varicosities. Although it has been proposed that these excitatory synapses are formed onto appendages resembling dendritic spines, spines have not been found on TH cells of most species examined to date or on TH cell somata which release dopamine when exposed to glutamate receptor agonists...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031402/presynaptic-gain-control-by-endogenous-cotransmission-of-dopamine-and-gaba-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#17
Christopher E Vaaga, Jordan T Yorgason, John T Williams, Gary L Westbrook
In the olfactory bulb, lateral inhibition mediated by local juxtaglomerular interneurons has been proposed as a gain control mechanism, important for de-correlating odorant responses. Among juxtaglomerular interneurons, short axon cells are unique as dual-transmitter neurons that release dopamine and GABA. To examine their intraglomerular function, we expressed channelrhodopsin under control of the DAT-cre promoter, and activated olfactory afferents within individual glomeruli. Optical stimulation of labeled cells triggered endogenous dopamine release as measured by cyclic voltammetry, and GABA release as measured by whole-cell GABAA receptor currents...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031268/distinct-roles-of-opioid-and-dopamine-systems-in-lateral-hypothalamic-intracranial-self-stimulation
#18
Soichiro Ide, Takehiro Takahashi, Yukio Takamatsu, George R Uhl, Hiroaki Niki, Ichiro Sora, Kazutaka Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Opioid and dopamine systems play crucial roles in reward. Similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of reward that are mediated by these two systems have remained largely unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in reward function in both µ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP KO) mice and dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice, important molecules in the opioid and dopamine systems. METHODS: Mice were implanted with electrodes into the right lateral hypothalamus (lh)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026009/transcriptomic-profiling-of-platelet-senescence-and-platelet-extracellular-vesicles
#19
Annika Pienimaeki-Roemer, Tatiana Konovalova, Melina M Musri, Alexander Sigruener, Alfred Boettcher, Gunter Meister, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Platelets (PLTs) are derived from megakaryocytes during PLT shedding. Senescent or activated PLTs are expanded in vascular and neurological diseases and release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs). A systematic analysis of regular messenger RNA (mRNA) and small RNA composition in PLTs and PL-EVs during in vitro PLT senescence has not yet been published. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We isolated PLTs, total PL-EVs, and PL-EV subsets on Days 0 and 5 from human stored donor platelet concentrates...
December 27, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025939/serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-and-female-sexual-dysfunction-fsd-hypothesis-on-its-association-and-options-of-treatment
#20
Nurul Azmi Mahamad Rappek, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Sazlina Kamarazaman, Srijit Das, Ruziana Masiran, Najwa Baharudin, Muhammad Hatta
Sexual dysfunctions are commonly seen in women on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The complexities of female sexual functioning are reflected through modulation of inter-playing factors like the neuropsychophysiological factors, inter-personal and relationship issue, psychiatric co-morbidities and physical disorder. The incidence of SSRIs-induced FSD is difficult to estimate because of the potentially confounding effects of SSRIs, presence of polypharmacy, marital effect, socio-cultural factors and due to the design and assessment problems in majority of the studies...
December 27, 2016: Current Drug Targets
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