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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725947/individual-differences-in-dopamine-d-2-receptor-availability-correlate-with-reward-valuation
#1
Linh C Dang, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Jaime J Castrellon, Scott F Perkins, Ronald L Cowan, David H Zald
Reward valuation, which underlies all value-based decision-making, has been associated with dopamine function in many studies of nonhuman animals, but there is relatively less direct evidence for an association in humans. Here, we measured dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in vivo in humans to examine relations between individual differences in dopamine receptor availability and neural activity associated with a measure of reward valuation, expected value (i.e., the product of reward magnitude and the probability of obtaining the reward)...
May 3, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717334/the-role-of-striatal-dopamine-d-2-3-receptors-in-cognitive-performance-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Tanja Veselinović, Ingo Vernaleken, Hildegard Janouschek, Paul Cumming, Michael Paulzen, Felix M Mottaghy, Gerhard Gründer
OBJECTIVE: A considerable body of research links cognitive function to dopaminergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex, but less is known about cognition in relation to striatal dopamine D2/3 receptors in unmedicated patients with psychosis. METHODS: We investigated this association by obtaining PET recordings with the high-affinity D2/3 antagonist ligand [18 F] fallypride in 15 medication-free patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. On the day of PET scanning, we undertook comprehensive neuropsychological testing and assessment of psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
May 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703646/striatal-dopamine-release-and-impaired-reinforcement-learning-in-adults-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#3
Esther D A van Duin, Zuzana Kasanova, Dennis Hernaus, Jenny Ceccarini, Alexander Heinzel, Felix Mottaghy, Siamak Mohammadkhani-Shali, Oliver Winz, Michael Frank, Merrit C H Beck, Jan Booij, Inez Myin-Germeys, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk for developing psychosis. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is located in the deleted region and involved in dopamine (DA) breakdown. Impaired reinforcement learning (RL) is a recurrent feature in psychosis and thought to be related to abnormal striatal DA function. This study aims to examine RL and the potential association with striatal DA-ergic neuromodulation in 22q11DS...
April 24, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698491/brief-exposure-to-obesogenic-diet-disrupts-brain-dopamine-networks
#4
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, Jason M Williams, Michael A Siuta, Mohammed N Tantawy, Nicole K Speed, Christine Saunders, Aurelio Galli, Kevin D Niswender, Malcolm J Avison
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that insulin signaling, through the downstream signaling kinase Akt, is a potent modulator of dopamine transporter (DAT) activity, which fine-tunes dopamine (DA) signaling at the synapse. This suggests a mechanism by which impaired neuronal insulin receptor signaling, a hallmark of diet-induced obesity, may contribute to impaired DA transmission. We tested whether a short-term (two-week) obesogenic high-fat (HF) diet could reduce striatal Akt activity, a marker of central insulin, receptor signaling and blunt striatal and dopaminergic network responsiveness to amphetamine (AMPH)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658049/a-simple-microfluidic-platform-for-rapid-and-efficient-production-of-the-radiotracer-18-f-fallypride
#5
Xin Zhang, Fei Liu, Karla-Anne Knapp, Michael L Nickels, H Charles Manning, Leon M Bellan
Herein, we report the development of a simple, high-throughput and efficient microfluidic system for synthesizing radioactive [18F]fallypride, a PET imaging radiotracer widely used in medical research. The microfluidic chip contains all essential modules required for the synthesis and purification of radioactive fallypride. The radiochemical yield of the tracer is sufficient for multiple animal injections for preclinical imaging studies. To produce the on-chip concentration and purification columns, we employ a simple "trapping" mechanism by inserting rows of square pillars with predefined gaps near the outlet of microchannel...
April 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554302/ventral-striatal-d2-3-receptor-availability-is-associated-with-impulsive-choice-behavior-as-well-aslimbic-corticostriatal-connectivity
#6
Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541577/-18-f-fallypride-characterization-of-striatal-and-extrastriatal-d-2-3-receptors-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Adam J Stark, Christopher T Smith, Kalen J Petersen, Paula Trujillo, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Manus J Donahue, Robert M Kessler, Ariel Y Deutch, David H Zald, Daniel O Claassen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by widespread degeneration of monoaminergic (especially dopaminergic) networks, manifesting with a number of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Regional alterations to dopamine D2/3 receptors in PD patients are documented in striatal and some extrastriatal areas, and medications that target D2/3 receptors can improve motor and non-motor symptoms. However, data regarding the combined pattern of D2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions in PD are limited...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531537/injected-human-muscle-precursor-cells-overexpressing-pgc-1-%C3%AE-enhance-functional-muscle-regeneration-after-trauma
#8
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Thomas Betzel, Ivana Dinulovic, Stefanie D Krämer, Roger Schibli, Tullio Sulser, Christoph Handschin, Simon M Ametamey, Daniel Eberli
While many groups demonstrated new muscle tissue formation after muscle precursor cell (MPC) injection, the capacity of these cells to heal muscle damage, for example, sphincter in stress urinary incontinence, in long-term is still limited. Therefore, the first goal of our project was to optimize the functional regenerative potential of hMPC by genetic modification to overexpress human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (hPGC-1 α ), key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520821/practical-microscale-one-pot-radiosynthesis-of-18-f-labeled-probes
#9
Ren Iwata, Claudio Pascali, Kazunori Terasaki, Yoichi Ishikawa, Shozo Furumoto, Kazuhiko Yanai
High specific activity is often a significant requirement for radiopharmaceuticals. To achieve that with fluorine-18 (18 F)-labeled probes, it is mandatory to start from no-carrier-added fluoride and to reduce to a minimum the amount of precursor in order to decrease the presence of any pseudocarrier. In the present study, a feasible and efficient method for microscale one-pot radiosynthesis of 18 F-labeled probes is described. It allows a substantial reduction in precursor, solvent, and reagents, thus reducing also possible side reaction in the case of base-sensitive precursors...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509680/-18-f-fallypride-pet-ct-analysis-of-the-dopamine-d%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-receptor-in-the-hemiparkinsonian-rat-brain-following-intrastriatal-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-injection
#10
Teresa Mann, Jens Kurth, Alexander Hawlitschka, Jan Stenzel, Tobias Lindner, Stefan Polei, Alexander Hohn, Bernd J Krause, Andreas Wree
Intrastriatal injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) results in improved motor behavior of hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats, an animal model for Parkinson's disease. The caudate-putamen (CPu), as the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia loop, is fundamentally involved in motor function and directly interacts with the dopaminergic system. To determine receptor-mediated explanations for the BoNT-A effect, we analyzed the dopamine D₂/D₃ receptor (D₂/D₃R) in the CPu of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemi-PD rats by [18 F]fallypride-PET/CT scans one, three, and six months post-BoNT-A or -sham-BoNT-A injection...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483278/nigrostriatal-and-mesolimbic-d-2-3-receptor-expression-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-compulsive-reward-driven-behaviors
#11
Adam J Stark, Christopher T Smith, Ya-Chen Lin, Kalen J Petersen, Paula Trujillo, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Hakmook Kang, Manus J Donahue, Robert M Kessler, David H Zald, Daniel O Claassen
The nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopamine networks regulate reward-driven behavior. Regional alterations to mesolimbic dopamine D2/3 receptor expression are described in drug-seeking and addiction disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are frequently prescribed D2 -like dopamine agonist (DAgonist) therapy for motor symptoms, yet a proportion develop clinically significant behavioral addictions characterized by impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs). Until now, changes in D2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions have not been concurrently quantified in this population...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336065/optimization-of-18-f-syntheses-using-19-f-reagents-at-tracer-level-concentrations-and-lc-ms-ms-analysis-improved-synthesis-of-18-f-mdl100907
#12
Xiang Zhang, Ryan Dunlow, Burchelle N Blackman, Rolf E Swenson
Traditional radiosynthetic optimization faces the challenges of high radiation exposure, cost and inability to perform serial reactions due to tracer decay. To accelerate tracer development, we have developed a strategy to simulate radioactive 18 F-syntheses by using tracer-level (nanomolar) non-radioactive 19 F-reagents and LC-MS/MS analysis. The methodology was validated with fallypride synthesis under tracer-level 19 F-conditions, which showed reproducible and comparable results with radiosynthesis, and proved the feasibility of this process...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334326/predicting-the-dopamine-d-2-receptor-occupancy-of-ropinirole-in-rats-using-positron-emission-tomography-and-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling
#13
Chenrong Huang, Ziteng Wang, Linsheng Liu, Xiaoxue Liu, Ji Dong, Qingqing Xu, Bin Zhang, Liyan Miao
1. The purpose of this study was to measure dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy (RO) as a marker of the clinical efficacy of ropinirole in rats via positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-fallypride as the radiotracer and to explore the relationship between dopamine RO and the plasma concentration of ropinirole via pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. 2. Plasma was collected from 16 rats treated with one of four doses of ropinirole. For the time-dependent study, the data of 16 rats in the 15 mg/kg dose group at four time points were averaged, and another 24 rats were divided into three dose groups (5 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg) for the dose-dependent study; the animals were assessed via 18 F-fallypride PET scans...
March 14, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303246/simultaneous-pet-mri-confirms-that-cerebral-blood-flow-does-not-confound-pet-neuroreceptor-activation-studies
#14
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen, Jussi Hirvonen
Positron emission tomography (PET) and endogenous competition paradigms are widely used for studying neuroreceptor activation in humans in vivo. Changes in cerebral blood triggered by the experimentation, such as amphetamine administration, could influence both tracer delivery and washout, thus biasing the results. A recent study tested this assumption in baboons by measuring radiotracer binding with PET while measuring simultaneously cerebral blood flow with arterial spin labeled functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233619/fto-affects-food-cravings-and-interacts-with-age-to-influence-age-related-decline-in-food-cravings
#15
Linh C Dang, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Christopher T Smith, Jaime J Castrellon, Scott F Perkins, Ronald L Cowan, Daniel O Claassen, David H Zald
The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) was the first gene identified by genome-wide association studies to correlate with higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity. FTO remains the locus with the largest and most replicated effect on body weight, but the mechanism whereby FTO affects body weight and the development of obesity is not fully understood. Here we tested whether FTO is associated with differences in food cravings and a key aspect of dopamine function that has been hypothesized to influence food reward mechanisms...
December 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233195/intact-striatal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-reward-learning-and-daily-life-reward-oriented-behavior-in-first-degree-relatives-of-individuals-with-psychotic-disorder
#16
Zuzana Kasanova, Jenny Ceccarini, Michael J Frank, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jan Booij, Esther van Duin, Henrietta Steinhart, Thomas Vaessen, Alexander Heinzel, Felix Mottaghy, Inez Myin-Germeys
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in reward learning in psychotic disorders have been proposed to be linked to dysregulated subcortical dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission, which in turn is a suspected mechanism for predisposition to psychosis. We therefore explored the striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward processing and its behavioral correlates in individuals at familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: We performed a DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in 16 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers, followed by a 6-day ecological momentary assessment study capturing reward-oriented behavior in the everyday life...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164208/performing-multi-step-chemical-reactions-in-microliter-sized-droplets-by-leveraging-a-simple-passive-transport-mechanism
#17
Jia Wang, Philip H Chao, Sebastian Hanet, R Michael van Dam
Despite the increasing importance of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in research and clinical management of disease, access to myriad new radioactive tracers is severely limited due to their short half-lives (which requires daily production) and the high cost and complexity of tracer production. The application of droplet microfluidics based on electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) to the field of radiochemistry can significantly reduce the amount of radiation shielding necessary for safety and the amount of precursor and other reagents needed for the synthesis...
December 5, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090626/partial-volume-correction-increases-estimated-dopamine-d2-like-receptor-binding-potential-and-reduces-adult-age-differences
#18
Christopher T Smith, Jennifer L Crawford, Linh C Dang, Kendra L Seaman, M Danica San Juan, Aishwarya Vijay, Daniel T Katz, David Matuskey, Ronald L Cowan, Evan D Morris, David H Zald, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
The relatively modest spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) increases the likelihood of partial volume effects such that binding potential (BPND ) may be underestimated. Given structural grey matter losses across adulthood, partial volume effects may be even more problematic in older age leading to overestimation of adult age differences. Here we examined the effects of partial volume correction (PVC) in two studies from different sites using different high-affinity D2-like radioligands (18 F-Fallypride, 11C-FLB457) and different PET camera resolutions (∼5 mm, 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071465/toward-whole-brain-dopamine-movies-a-critical-review-of-pet-imaging-of-dopamine-transmission-in-the-striatum-and-cortex
#19
Heather Liu, Yasmin Zakiniaeiz, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) circuit, comprising the mesolimbic and mesocortical DA pathways, plays a crucial role in reward, cognitive control, and motivation. The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [C-11]raclopride, has been used widely to image DA receptors and DA changes in the mesolimbic pathway before and after pharmacological and behavioral challenges. In certain circumstances, properties of traditional kinetic models-used to analyze dynamic PET data-are not well-suited to describing the effects of stimulus-induced DA release...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031113/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-small-animal-pet-shows-pre-and-post-synaptic-striatal-dopaminergic-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-hiv
#20
Sanhita Sinharay, Dianne Lee, Swati Shah, Siva Muthusamy, Georgios Z Papadakis, Xiang Zhang, Dragan Maric, William C Reid, Dima A Hammoud
INTRODUCTION: In vivo imaging biomarkers of various HIV neuropathologies, including dopaminergic dysfunction, are still lacking. Towards developing dopaminergic biomarkers of brain involvement in HIV, we assessed the pre and postsynaptic components of the dopaminergic system in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a well-characterized model of treated HIV+ patients, using small-animal PET imaging. METHODS: Fifteen to 18 month-old Tg and wild type (WT) rats were imaged with both [18F]-FP-CMT, a dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand (n=16), and [18F]-Fallypride, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor (D2/D3DR) ligand (n=16)...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
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