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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306727/biodistribution-and-pet-imaging-of-pharmacokinetics-of-manganese-in-mice-using-manganese-52
#1
A Lake Wooten, Tolulope A Aweda, Benjamin C Lewis, Rebecca B Gross, Suzanne E Lapi
Manganese is essential to life, and humans typically absorb sufficient quantities of this element from a normal healthy diet; however, chronic, elevated ingestion or inhalation of manganese can be neurotoxic, potentially leading to manganism. Although imaging of large amounts of accumulated Mn(II) is possible by MRI, quantitative measurement of the biodistribution of manganese, particularly at the trace level, can be challenging. In this study, we produced the positron-emitting radionuclide 52Mn (t1/2 = 5.6 d) by proton bombardment (Ep<15 MeV) of chromium metal, followed by solid-phase isolation by cation-exchange chromatography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284465/neurological-disorders-in-liver-transplant-candidates-pathophysiology-and-clinical-assessment
#2
REVIEW
Paolo Feltracco, Annachiara Cagnin, Cristiana Carollo, Stefania Barbieri, Carlo Ori
Compromised liver function, as a consequence of acute liver insufficiency or severe chronic liver disease may be associated with various neurological syndromes, which involve both central and peripheral nervous system. Acute and severe hyperammoniemia inducing cellular metabolic alterations, prolonged state of "neuroinflammation", activation of brain microglia, accumulation of manganese and ammonia, and systemic inflammation are the main causative factors of brain damage in liver failure. The most widely recognized neurological complications of serious hepatocellular failure include hepatic encephalopathy, diffuse cerebral edema, Wilson disease, hepatic myelopathy, acquired hepatocerebral degeneration, cirrhosis-related Parkinsonism and osmotic demyelination syndrome...
February 27, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282629/manganese-exposure-and-neurotoxic-effects-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Max Stanley Chartrand, Jan Aaseth
Manganese (Mn) is the fifth most abundant metal on earth. Although it is a well understood essential trace element, in excess, Mn is neurotoxic. Initial toxic symptoms associated with Mn are of psychiatric nature and are clinically defined as locura manganica. Neurological signs of Mn toxicity include dystonia, progressive bradykinesia, and disturbance of gait, slurring, and stuttering of speech with diminished volume. Studies indicate that children who ingested Mn in the drinking water (WMn) at or above a level of 0...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279842/tooth-manganese-as-a-biomarker-of-exposure-and-body-burden-in-rats
#4
Christine Austin, Cardius Richardson, Donald Smith, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Neonates and children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of excess manganese (Mn), but studies of Mn exposure during these developmental periods are hampered by a lack of validated biomarkers. Deciduous teeth may be used to assess Mn exposure during these developmental periods but require further validation to determine the relationship between tooth Mn, Mn in target tissues, and exposure. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship of tooth Mn concentrations with: (i) exposure dose, (ii) the timing/duration of exposure, and (iii) with Mn concentrations in blood, brain and bone...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246661/whole-brain-metallomic-analysis-of-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#5
B Knauer, P Majka, K J Watkins, A W R Taylor, D Malamanova, B Paul, Hsin-Hao Yu, A I Bush, D J Hare, D H Reser
Despite the importance of transition metals for normal brain function, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elemental species across the different tissue compartments of the primate brain. In this study, we employed laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry on PFA-fixed brain sections obtained from two adult common marmosets. Concurrent cytoarchitectonic, myeloarchitectonic, and chemoarchitectonic measurements allowed for identification of the major neocortical, archaecortical, and subcortical divisions of the brain, and precise localisation of iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations within each division...
March 1, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236167/cocaine-differentially-affects-synaptic-activity-in-memory-and-midbrain-areas-of-female-and-male-rats-an-in-vivo-memri-study
#6
Pablo D Perez, Gabrielle Hall, Jasenka Zubcevic, Marcelo Febo
Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been previously used to determine the effect of acute cocaine on calcium-dependent synaptic activity in male rats. However, there have been no MEMRI studies examining sex differences in the functional neural circuits affected by repeated cocaine. In the present study, we used MEMRI to investigate the effects of repeated cocaine on brain activation in female and male rats. Adult female and male rats were scanned at 4.7 Tesla three days after final treatment with saline, a single cocaine injection (15 mg kg(-1), i...
February 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230106/longitudinal-assessments-of-normal-and-perilesional-tissues-in-focal-brain-ischemia-and-partial-optic-nerve-injury-with-manganese-enhanced-mri
#7
Kevin C Chan, Iris Y Zhou, Stanley S Liu, Yolandi van der Merwe, Shu-Juan Fan, Victor K Hung, Sookja K Chung, Wu-Tian Wu, Kwok-Fai So, Ed X Wu
Although manganese (Mn) can enhance brain tissues for improving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments, the underlying neural mechanisms of Mn detection remain unclear. In this study, we used Mn-enhanced MRI to test the hypothesis that different Mn entry routes and spatiotemporal Mn distributions can reflect different mechanisms of neural circuitry and neurodegeneration in normal and injured brains. Upon systemic administration, exogenous Mn exhibited varying transport rates and continuous redistribution across healthy rodent brain nuclei over a 2-week timeframe, whereas in rodents following photothrombotic cortical injury, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, Mn preferentially accumulated in perilesional tissues expressing gliosis or oxidative stress within days...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222320/antioxidant-polymorphisms-do-not-influence-the-risk-of-epilepsy-or-its-drug-resistance-after-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#8
Katarina Esih, Katja Goričar, Vita Dolžan, Zvonka Rener-Primec
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate if common functional antioxidant polymorphisms are associated with epilepsy after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and catalase (CAT) represent the primary defence mechanism against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence suggests that genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes could influence susceptibility to epilepsy, but to date the relationship between them remains unclear...
February 3, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220999/drosophila-divalent-metal-ion-transporter-malvolio-is-required-in-dopaminergic-neurons-for-feeding-decisions
#9
E Søvik, A LaMora, G Seehra, A B Barron, J G Duncan, Y Ben-Shahar
Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive...
February 21, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213125/reduced-bioavailable-manganese-causes-striatal-urea-cycle-pathology-in-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model
#10
Terry Jo V Bichell, Michal Wegrzynowicz, K Grace Tipps, Emma M Bradley, Michael A Uhouse, Miles Bryan, Kyle Horning, Nicole Fisher, Karrie Dudek, Timothy Halbesma, Preethi Umashanker, Andrew D Stubbs, Hunter K Holt, Gunnar F Kwakye, Andrew M Tidball, Roger J Colbran, Michael Aschner, M Diana Neely, Alba Di Pardo, Vittorio Maglione, Alexander Osmand, Aaron B Bowman
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene (HTT), resulting in profound striatal neurodegeneration through an unknown mechanism. Perturbations in the urea cycle have been reported in HD models and in HD patient blood and brain. In neurons, arginase is a central urea cycle enzyme, and the metal manganese (Mn) is an essential cofactor. Deficient biological responses to Mn, and reduced Mn accumulation have been observed in HD striatal mouse and cell models. Here we report in vivo and ex vivo evidence of a urea cycle metabolic phenotype in a prodromal HD mouse model...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212723/redox-dynamics-of-manganese-as-a-mitochondrial-life-death-switch
#11
REVIEW
Matthew Ryan Smith, Jolyn Fernandes, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
Sten Orrenius, M.D., Ph.D., pioneered many areas of cellular and molecular toxicology and made seminal contributions to our knowledge of oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) metabolism, organellar functions and Ca(+2)-dependent mechanisms of cell death, and mechanisms of apoptosis. On the occasion of his 80(th) birthday, we summarize current knowledge on redox biology of manganese (Mn) and its role in mechanisms of cell death. Mn is found in all organisms and has critical roles in cell survival and death mechanisms by regulating Mn-containing enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or affecting expression and activity of caspases...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205254/manganese-and-selenium-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-seriously-ill-children
#12
Tomáš Franěk, Karel Kotaška, Richard Průša
BACKGROUND: The homeostasis of essential trace elements such as selenium and manganese may be altered in patients with severe diseases of various etiologies (trauma brain injuries, tumors, leukemias, lymphomas, neurological diseases). METHODS: Concentration of manganese and selenium were determined in cerebrospinal fluid by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 50 hospitalized children with various clinical ethiologies including oncological, neurological, and brain related diseases...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193543/reduction-of-manganese-intake-improves-neuropsychological-manifestations-in-rats-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Ying Li, Li Hong Mei, Jin Wei Qiang, Chang Xue Ji, Shuai Ju
Brain manganese deposition is led by liver dysfunction and/or portal-systemic shunting in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Manganese is toxic and can cause cognitive disorders and extrapyramidal symptoms. Thus, reduction of manganese intake might be considered as a potential treatment strategy for MHE. In this study we aimed to investigate whether low- or no-manganese feed can improve the neuropsychological manifestations in MHE rats. Rats with MHE were established by partially ligating the portal vein and fed a manganese diet (MHE-M, 10mg per kg feed; n=24), a no-manganese diet (MHE-N; n=24) and a half-manganese diet (MHE-H; n=24) for 2, 4, 6 and 8weeks, with six rats in each subgroup...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183032/manganese-neurotoxicity-and-protective-effects-of-resveratrol-and-quercetin-in-preclinical-research
#14
Maciej Gawlik, Małgorzata B Gawlik, Irena Smaga, Małgorzata Filip
BACKGROUND: Exposure to Mn results in a neurological syndrome known as manganism. METHODS: We examined how 4-week Mn exposure (20mg/kg MnCl2po, 5days/week) induces neurotoxic effects in rats. Oxidized-to-reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, vitamin E content and caspase-3 activity were measured in several rat brain structures. Further, we examined protective effects of the polyphenols: resveratrol (R) or quercetin (QCT) against Mn-induced neurotoxicity...
December 14, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155922/mapping-the-basal-ganglia-alterations-in-children-chronically-exposed-to-manganese
#15
Yi Lao, Laurie-Anne Dion, Guillaume Gilbert, Maryse F Bouchard, Gabriel Rocha, Yalin Wang, Natasha Leporé, Dave Saint-Amour
Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with neuromotor and neurocognitive deficits, but the exact mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity is still unclear. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in-vivo analysis of brain structures has become possible. Among different sub-cortical structures, the basal ganglia (BG) has been investigated as a putative anatomical biomarker in MR-based studies of Mn toxicity. However, previous investigations have yielded inconsistent results in terms of regional MR signal intensity changes...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146110/polyphenolic-extract-of-euphorbia-supina-attenuates-manganese-induced-neurotoxicity-by-enhancing-antioxidant-activity-through-regulation-of-er-stress-and-er-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#16
Entaz Bahar, Geum-Hwa Lee, Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Hwa-Young Lee, Min-Kyung Choi, Harun-Or Rashid, Ji-Ye Kim, Han-Jung Chae, Hyonok Yoon
Manganese (Mn) is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD)-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES) on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rat brain...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144805/quercetin-improves-neurobehavioral-performance-through-restoration-of-brain-antioxidant-status-and-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-manganese-treated-rats
#17
Isaac A Adedara, Valerie C Ego, Temitayo I Subair, Oluwasetemi Oyediran, Ebenezer O Farombi
The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin by assessing the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats sub-chronically treated with manganese alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was monitored using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment whereas the brain regions namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical analyses...
January 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133682/uhplc-q-tof-ms-based-plasma-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolic-perturbations-by-manganese-exposure-in-rat-models
#18
Hui Wang, Zhiqi Liu, Shengyi Wang, Dongan Cui, Xinke Zhang, Yongming Liu, Yihua Zhang
Although manganese (Mn) is an essential metal ion biological cofactor, high concentrations could potentially induce an accumulation in the brain and lead to manganism. However, there is no "gold standard" for manganism assessment due to a lack of objective biomarkers. We hypothesized that Mn-induced alterations are associated with metabolic responses to manganism. Here we use an untargeted metabolomics approach by performing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) on control and Mn-treated rat plasma, to identify metabolic disruptions under high Mn exposure conditions...
February 22, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119154/conductive-nanogel-interfaced-neural-microelectrode-arrays-with-electrically-controlled-in-situ-delivery-of-manganese-ions-enabling-high-resolution-memri-for-synchronous-neural-tracing-with-deep-brain-stimulation
#19
Wei-Chen Huang, Yu-Chih Lo, Chao-Yi Chu, Hsin-Yi Lai, You-Yin Chen, San-Yuan Chen
Chronic brain stimulation has become a promising physical therapy with increased efficacy and efficiency in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The application of deep brain electrical stimulation (DBS) combined with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) provides an unbiased representation of the functional anatomy, which shows the communication between areas of the brain responding to the therapy. However, it is challenging for the current system to provide a real-time high-resolution image because the incorporated MnCl2 solution through microinjection usually results in image blurring or toxicity due to the uncontrollable diffusion of Mn(2+)...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092161/estimation-of-ellagic-acid-and-or-repaglinide-effects-on-insulin-signaling-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-mediators-of-liver-pancreas-adipose-tissue-and-brain-in-insulin-resistant-type-2-diabetic-rats
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mohamed M Amin, Mahmoud S Arbid
Even though ellagic acid has previously been valued in many models of cancer, so far its full mechanistic effect as a natural antiapoptotic agent in the prevention of type 2 diabetes complications has not been completely elucidated, which was the goal of this study. We fed albino rats a high-fat fructose diet (HFFD) for 2 months to induce insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and then treated the rats with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) and/or repaglinide (0.5 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 2 weeks...
February 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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