Read by QxMD icon Read

Manganese brain

Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Yeon-Hui Jeong, Jin-Sun Park, Dong-Hyun Kim, Hee-Sun Kim
Lonchocarpine is a phenylpropanoid compound isolated from Abrus precatorius that has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiepileptic activities. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of lonchocarpine in brain glial cells and analyzed its molecular mechanisms. We found that lonchocarpine suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death in hydrogen peroxide-treated primary astrocytes. In addition, lonchocarpine increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which are all under the control of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling...
October 17, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Bruce A Berkowitz, Tiffany Schmidt, Robert H Podolsky, Robin Roberts
Purpose: In humans, rodents, and pigeons, the dark → light transition signals nonretinal brain tissue to increase choroidal thickness, a major control element of choroidal blood flow, and thus of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium function. However, it is unclear which photopigments in the retina relay the light signal to the brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that melanopsin (Opn4)-regulated phototransduction modulates light-evoked choroidal thickness expansion in mice. Methods: Two-month-old C57Bl/6 wild-type (B6), 4- to 5-month-old C57Bl/6/129S6 wild-type (B6 + S6), and 2-month-old melanopsin knockout (Opn4-/-) on a B6 + S6 background were studied...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
W Yu Ussov, M L Belyanin, A I Bezlepkin, O Yu Borodin, E E Bobrikova, N L Shimanovskii
Experimental study of a new paramagnetic complex Mn-DCTA is carried out. The complex (0.5 M manganese(II) solution with trans-1,2-diamine cyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; Cyclomang) was used for contrast magnetic resonance imaging visualization of CNS involvement in dogs with severe forms of Babesia canis infection. CNS injuries were visualized in all cases, with highly intense contrasting at the expense of Mn-DCTA accumulation at the periphery of the damaged zone. Quantitative evaluation of the paramagnetic accumulation in the focus showed that the amplification index wa s 1...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jolyn Fernandes, Li Hao, Kaiser M Bijli, Joshua D Chandler, Michael Orr, Xin Hu, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
Manganese (Mn) is an abundant redox-active metal with well-characterized mitochondrial accumulation and neurotoxicity due to excessive exposures. Mn is also an essential co-factor for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein, superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and the range for adequate intake established by the Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board is 20% of the interim guidance value for toxicity by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, leaving little margin for safety. To study toxic mechanisms over this critical dose range, we treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a series of MnCl2 concentrations (from 0 to 100 μM) and measured cellular content to compare to human brain Mn content...
October 4, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Soheila Adeli, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Gholamreza Tavoosidana, Morteza Karimian, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
Brain oxidative status is a crucial factor in the development of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Klotho, an anti-aging protein, diminishes oxidative stress by the induction of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Thus, the substances that increase klotho expression could be considered as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease when the oxidative imbalance is present. Statins are suggested to up-regulate klotho expression. We examined the effect of simvastatin (5mg/kg, daily for 3weeks) on hippocampal klotho and MnSOD expression in the cognitive declined animal model induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV)-streptozotocin (STZ) administration...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Sándor Harangi, Edina Baranyai, Milán Fehér, Csilla Noémi Tóth, Petra Herman, László Stündl, István Fábián, Béla Tóthmérész, Edina Simon
Many oxbows are contaminated by Fe and Mn as a consequence of the elemental concentration of sediment and water originating from the Upper Tisza Region of Hungary. The phenomenon is partly caused by anthropogenic activities and mainly due to the geochemical characteristics of the region. The effects of Fe and Mn on the aquatic ecosystem of these wetlands were investigated in a model experiments in this study. Survival, individual body weight and the elemental concentrations of organs were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles reared in Fe and Mn contaminated media (treatment 1: Fe 0...
September 28, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Ha Ram Bae, Dae Hyun Kim, Min Hi Park, Bonggi Lee, Min Jo Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Seong Min Kim, Dong Soon Im, Hae Young Chung
β-Hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body that is used as an energy source in organs such as the brain, muscle, and heart when blood glucose is low, is produced by fatty acid oxidation in the liver under the fasting state. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of misfolded protein in the ER. ER stress is known to induce the NOD-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome, which mediates activation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, whose maturation is caspase-1-dependent...
September 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Kang Liu, Xin Shi, Tingjian Wang, Penghui Ai, Wei Gu, Ling Ye
Herein, we present the first example of manganese carbonate (MnCO3) nanoparticles (NPs) featuring intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging capacity by Terbium (Tb) doping. The Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs were prepared by one-step thermal decomposition of Mn-oleate precursor in the presence of Tb-oleate. The oleate capped Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs are in rhombohedral shape with an average size of about 13nm. When endowed with high water-dispersible via replacing oleate with carboxylic silane, the Tb-doped MnCO3 NPs exhibit distinct intrinsic PL originated from the doped Tb(3+) ions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Takamasa Ishii, Yumi Takanashi, Koichi Sugita, Masaki Miyazawa, Rintaro Yanagihara, Kayo Yasuda, Hiromi Onouchi, Noboru Kawabe, Munehiro Nakata, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Phil S Hartman, Naoaki Ishii
The etiology of astrocyte dysfunction is not well understood even though neuronal defects have been extensively studied in a variety of neuronal degenerative diseases. Astrocyte defects could be triggered by the oxidative stress that occurs during physiological aging. Here, we provide evidence that intracellular or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) at physiological levels can cause hippocampal (neuronal) dysfunctions. Specifically, we demonstrate that astrocyte defects occur in the hippocampal area of middle-aged Tet-mev-1 mice with the SDHC(V69E) mutation...
September 13, 2016: Aging Cell
V P B Grover, L Southern, J K Dyson, J U Kim, M M E Crossey, M Wylezinska-Arridge, N Patel, J A Fitzpatrick, A Bak-Bol, A D Waldman, G J Alexander, G F Mells, R W Chapman, D E J Jones, S D Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Brain change can occur in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), potentially as a result of cholestatic and/or inflammatory processes. This change is linked to systemic symptoms of fatigue and cognitive impairment. AIM: To identify whether brain change occurs early in PBC. If the change develops early and is progressive, it may explain the difficulty in treating these symptoms. METHODS: Early disease brain change was explored in 13 patients with newly diagnosed biopsy-proven precirrhotic PBC using magnetisation transfer, diffusion-weighted imaging and (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sirisha Nandipati, Irene Litvan
Parkinson's disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiaodan Yu, Limei Chen, Caifeng Wang, Xin Yang, Yu Gao, Ying Tian
This study aimed to examine the potential association between low-level prenatal manganese (Mn) exposure and 1-year-old children's neurodevelopment quotient (DQ) by using the Gesell Developmental Inventory (GDI) (motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Mn-induced cognitive impairments. A total of 377 mothers were recruited from a prospective birth cohort in rural northern China. Cord serum concentrations of Mn and BDNF were measured and children's DQ was evaluated...
November 2016: Chemosphere
Hui Chen, Yik Lung Chan, Long The Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Alicia De Rosa, Ing Tsyr Beh, Candice Chee, Brian Oliver, George Herok, Sonia Saad, Catherine Gorrie
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Mild TBI may lead to neuropsychiatric sequelae, including memory loss and motor impairment. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have a contributory role in several neurological disorders; however, their association with mitophagy in mild TBI is unclear. TBI was induced in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using a New York University Impactor (10g, impactor head 2.5mm diameter, weight drop 50mm) and compared to sham surgery controls...
August 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Xiang Tang, Di Wu, Li-Hua Gu, Bin-Bin Nie, Xin-Yang Qi, Yan-Juan Wang, Fang-Fang Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Feng Bai, Xiao-Chun Chen, Lin Xu, Qing-Guo Ren, Zhi-Jun Zhang
Dysfunction of neuronal activity is a major and early contributor to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate neuronal activity alterations at early stage of AD, we encompassed behavioral testing and in vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) in 5XFAD mice at early ages (1-, 2-, 3- and 5-month). The 5XFAD model over-express human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) harboring five familial AD mutations, which have a high APP expression correlating with a high burden and an accelerated accumulation of the 42 amino acid species of amyloid-β...
August 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Sreeja Purushothaman, R Renuka Nair
Oxidative stress is an important contributory factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension-induced hypertrophy. Mitochondrion is the major source of reactive oxygen species. Hence, protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertensive heart disease. Conventional antioxidants are not likely to be cardioprotective, as they cannot protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. EUK-134 is a salen-manganese complex with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity...
September 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ichio Aoki
The advent of functional contrast agents and nanoparticle drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is opening new pathways to understanding pathophysiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nitroxyl radical compounds are promising functional contrast agents for redox evaluation. We have developed a novel nitroxyl radical theranostic compound for noninvasive real-time imaging of blood-brain barrier-permeable antitumor drugs. Divalent manganese ions (Mn(2+)) can also be used as an intracellular functional MRI contrast agent...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Amy H Herring, Eric Van Buren, Scott Van Buren, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
INTRODUCTION: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) that at high exposure may co-influence welding-related neurotoxicity. The relationship between brain accumulation of these metals and neuropathology, especially in welders with subclinical exposure levels, is unclear. This study examined the microstructural integrity of basal ganglia (BG) regions in asymptomatic welders using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Subjects with (n = 43) and without (age- and gender-matched controls; n = 31) history of welding were studied...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Robert A Colvin, Qiaoling Jin, Barry Lai, Lech Kiedrowski
Increasing evidence suggests that metal dyshomeostasis plays an important role in human neurodegenerative diseases. Although distinctive metal distributions are described for mature hippocampus and cortex, much less is known about metal levels and intracellular distribution in individual hippocampal neuronal somata. To solve this problem, we conducted quantitative metal analyses utilizing synchrotron radiation X-Ray fluorescence on frozen hydrated primary cultured neurons derived from rat embryonic cortex (CTX) and two regions of the hippocampus: dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"