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Manganese brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594872/calcium-calmodulin-stimulated-adenylyl-cyclases-1-and-8-regulate-reward-related-brain-activity-and-ethanol-consumption
#1
Kelly E Bosse, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Ajay T Eapen, Jennifer L Charlton, Laura L Susick, Kirt Desai, Bruce A Berkowitz, Shane A Perrine, Alana C Conti
Evidence suggests a predictive link between elevated basal activity within reward-related networks (e.g., cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic networks) and vulnerability for alcoholism. Both calcium channel function and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A-mediated signaling are critical modulators of reward neurocircuitry and reward-related behaviors. Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (AC) 1 and 8 are sensitive to activity-dependent increases in intracellular calcium and catalyze cAMP production...
March 28, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579278/subchronic-manganese-exposure-impairs-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-rat-hippocampus
#2
Sherleen Xue-Fu Adamson, Xubo Shen, Wendy Jiang, Vivien Lai, Xiaoting Wang, Jonathan H Shannahan, Jason R Cannon, Jinhui Chen, Wei Zheng
Adult neurogenesis takes place in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) in the frontal cortex and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG), and functions to supply newborn neurons for normal brain functionality. Subchronic Mn exposure is known to disrupt adult neurogenesis in the SVZ. This study was designed to determine whether Mn exposure disturbed neurogenesis within the adult HDG. Adult rats (10 weeks old) received a single dose of BrdU at the end of 4-wk Mn exposure to label the proliferating cells...
March 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569203/mancozeb-exposure-results-in-manganese-accumulation-and-nrf2-related-antioxidant-responses-in-the-brain-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#3
Dennis Guilherme Costa-Silva, Andressa Rubim Lopes, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Luana Paganotto Leandro, Mauro Eugênio Medina Nunes, Nelson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Giulianna Echeveria Macedo, Ana Paula Saidelles, Cassiana Aguiar, Morgana Doneda, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores, Thais Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Manganese (Mn)-containing dithiocarbamates such as Mancozeb (MZ) have been shown to induce oxidative stress-related toxicity in rodents and humans. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects induced by MZ in fish. In this study, carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to non-lethal waterborne concentrations of MZ, and oxidative stress parameters as well as metal accumulation in fish brains were evaluated. The experimental groups were as follows: control, MZ 5 mg/L, and MZ 10 mg/L. Fish were exposed for 7 days, and then brain was removed and prepared for subsequent analysis of antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of Nrf2 and phosphoNrf2...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568799/susceptibility-to-oxidative-stress-is-determined-by-genetic-background-in-neuronal-cell-cultures
#4
Mattias Günther, Faiez Al Nimer, Fredrik Piehl, Mårten Risling, Tiit Mathiesen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a deleterious and multifactorial secondary inflammatory response in the brain. Oxidative stress from the inflammation likely contributes to the brain damage although it is unclear to which extent. A largely unexplored approach is to consider phenotypic regulation of oxidative stress levels. Genetic polymorphism influences inflammation in the central nervous system and it is possible that the antioxidative response differs between phenotypes and affects the severity of the secondary injury...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545824/the-impact-of-environmental-mn-exposure-on-insect-biology
#5
REVIEW
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545576/age-related-changes-in-eye-brain-and-visuomotor-behavior-in-the-dba-2j-mouse-model-of-chronic-glaucoma
#6
Xiao-Ling Yang, Yolandi van der Merwe, Jeffrey Sims, Carlos Parra, Leon C Ho, Joel S Schuman, Gadi Wollstein, Kira L Lathrop, Kevin C Chan
Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and age are major risk factors for glaucoma, their effects on glaucoma pathogenesis remain unclear. This study examined the onset and progression of glaucomatous changes to ocular anatomy and physiology, structural and physiological brain integrity, and visuomotor behavior in the DBA/2J mice via non-invasive tonometry, multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optokinetic assessments from 5 to 12 months of age. Using T2-weighted MRI, diffusion tensor MRI, and manganese-enhanced MRI, increasing IOP elevation at 9 and 12 months old coincided with anterior chamber deepening, altered fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity of the optic nerve and optic tract, as well as reduced anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway respectively in the DBA/2J mice...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544758/lentiviral-mediated-klotho-up-regulation-improves-aging-related-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-mice
#7
Hong-Jing Zhou, Chen-Ye Zeng, Ting-Ting Yang, Fang-Yi Long, Xi Kuang, Jun-Rong Du
AIMS: Oxidative stress caused by aging aggravates neuropathological changes and cognitive deficits. Klotho, an anti-aging protein, shows an anti-oxidative effect. The aims of the present study were to determine the potential therapeutic effect of klotho in aging-related neuropathological changes and memory impairments in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice, and identify the potential mechanism of these neuroprotective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lentiviral was used to deliver and sustain the expression of klotho...
March 12, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534932/resveratrol-a-natural-polyphenol-prevents-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairment-involvement-of-cytokine-modulation-and-neuroprotection
#8
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517182/influence-of-selected-dietary-components-on-the-functioning-of-the-human-nervous-system
#9
Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Ewa Stefańska, Lucyna Ostrowska
The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516356/neurotoxic-outcomes-of-subchronic-manganese-chloride-exposure-via-contaminated-water-in-adult-male-rats-and-the-potential-benefits-of-ebselen
#10
Walaa M El-Hady, Azza A A Galal
The neurological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure on adults consuming contaminated water remain unclear. Accordingly, the current experiment was planned to explore the neurotoxic consequences of subchronic Mn exposure via contaminated water and to examine whether ebselen (Ebs) improved these outcomes. Rats exposed to oral MnCl2 (50 mg/kg body weight) for 30 successive days exhibited reduced rearing and ambulation. Furthermore, Mn administration increased brain Mn concentrations and induced superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione depletion...
March 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505831/continuous-manganese-delivery-via-osmotic-pumps-for-manganese-enhanced-mouse-mri-does-not-impair-spatial-learning-but-leads-to-skin-ulceration
#11
Dulcie A Vousden, Elizabeth Cox, Rylan Allemang-Grand, Christine Laliberté, Lily R Qiu, Zsuzsa Lindenmaier, Brian J Nieman, Jason P Lerch
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a widely used technique in rodent neuroimaging studies. Traditionally, Mn2+ is delivered to animals via a systemic injection; however, this can lead to toxic effects at high doses. Recent studies have shown that subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps can be used to continuously deliver manganese chloride (MnCl2 ), and that they produce satisfactory contrast while circumventing many of the toxic side effects. However, neither the time-course of signal enhancement nor the effect of continuous Mn2+ delivery on behaviour, particularly learning and memory, have been well-characterized...
March 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490098/the-multiple-faces-of-the-metal-transporter-zip14-slc39a14
#12
Tolunay B Aydemir, Robert J Cousins
The SLC39A family of metal transporters was identified through homologies with the Zrt- and Irt-like (ZIP) proteins from yeast and plants. Of all the ZIP transporters, ZIP14 is arguably the most robustly characterized in terms of function at the integrative level. Mice with a global knockout of Zip14 are viable, thus providing the opportunity to conduct physiologic experiments. In mice, Zip14 expression is highly tissue specific, with the greatest abundance in the jejunum > liver > heart > kidney > white adipose tissue > skeletal muscle > spleen > pancreas...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488007/tinnitus-and-temporary-hearing-loss-result-in-differential-noise-induced-spatial-reorganization-of-brain-activity
#13
Antonela Muca, Emily Standafer, Aaron K Apawu, Farhan Ahmad, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Mirabela Hali, James Warila, Bruce A Berkowitz, Avril Genene Holt
Loud noise frequently results in hyperacusis or hearing loss (i.e., increased or decreased sensitivity to sound). These conditions are often accompanied by tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and changes in spontaneous neuronal activity (SNA). The ability to differentiate the contributions of hyperacusis and hearing loss to neural correlates of tinnitus has yet to be achieved. Towards this purpose, we used a combination of behavior, electrophysiology, and imaging tools to investigate two models of noise-induced tinnitus (either with temporary hearing loss or with permanent hearing loss)...
February 27, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486219/environmentally-relevant-manganese-overexposure-alters-neural-cell-morphology-and-differentiation-in-vitro
#14
Amy B Parsons-White, Nadja Spitzer
Manganese (Mn) is a trace metal and micronutrient that is necessary for neurological function. Because of its ability to cross the blood brain barrier, excessive amounts of Mn are neurotoxic and can lead to a neurological disorder, manganism. Environmental overexposure to Mn correlates with impaired cognitive development in children. Though symptoms of manganism and overexposure are well defined, the changes in cellular mechanisms underlying these symptoms are not fully understood. We used cultured adult neural stem cells (NSCs) from young adult rats as an accessible model to investigate the effect of Mn on cellular mechanisms underlying neural differentiation...
February 24, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452138/exposure-to-low-level-of-lead-during-preweaning-period-increases-metallothionein-3-expression-and-dysregulates-divalent-cation-levels-in-the-brain-of-young-rats
#15
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446158/a-neuroscience-perspective-of-the-gut-theory-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Lisa M Smith, Louise C Parr-Brownlie
Parkinson's disease is caused by complex interactions between environmental factors and a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include exposure to pesticides and toxins, heavy metals and accumulation of iron and/or manganese in the brain. However, accumulating evidence indicates that gut-brain health and function is impaired in Parkinson's disease, often a decade before motor symptoms are diagnosed. We present the gut-brain theory of Parkinson's disease and summarise the peripheral and central nervous system pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by many Parkinson's patients, the route by which gut-brain dysfunction may occur, and changes in gut microbiota that are associated with disease expression...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437953/slc39a14-deficiency-alters-manganese-homeostasis-and-excretion-resulting-in-brain-manganese-accumulation-and-motor-deficits-in-mice
#17
Supak Jenkitkasemwong, Adenike Akinyode, Elizabeth Paulus, Ralf Weiskirchen, Shintaro Hojyo, Toshiyuki Fukada, Genesys Giraldo, Jessica Schrier, Armin Garcia, Christopher Janus, Benoit Giasson, Mitchell D Knutson
Solute carrier family 39, member 14 (SLC39A14) is a transmembrane transporter that can mediate the cellular uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese (Mn). Studies of Slc39a14 knockout ( Slc39a14 -/- ) mice have documented that SLC39A14 is required for systemic growth, hepatic zinc uptake during inflammation, and iron loading of the liver in iron overload. The normal physiological roles of SLC39A14, however, remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report that Slc39a14 -/- mice spontaneously display dramatic alterations in tissue Mn concentrations, suggesting that Mn is a main physiological substrate for SLC39A14...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429640/neurotoxicity-of-manganese-indications-for-future-research-and-public-health-intervention-from-the-manganese-2016-conference
#18
EDITORIAL
Roberto G Lucchini, Michael Aschner, Philip J Landrigan, Joan M Cranmer
Manganese is an essential trace element, but also at high levels a neurotoxicant. Manganese neurotoxicity has been extensively studied since its discovery in highly exposed workers. The International conference MANGANESE2016 held at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York provided relevant updates on manganese research in relation to both occupational and environmental exposures. Epidemiological, toxicological and cellular studies reported at the conference have yielded new insights on mechanisms of manganese toxicity and on opportunities for preventive intervention...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402131/neurotoxicity-linked-to-dysfunctional-metal-ion-homeostasis-and-xenobiotic-metal-exposure-redox-signaling-and-oxidative-stress
#19
Carla Garza-Lombo, Yanahi Posadas, Liliana Quintanar, Maria E Gonsebatt, Rodrigo Franco
SIGNIFICANCE: Essential metals such as copper, iron, manganese and zinc play a role as cofactors in the activity of a wide range of processes involved in cellular homeostasis and survival, as well as during organ and tissue development. Throughout our lifespan, humans are also exposed to xenobiotic metals from natural and anthropogenic sources including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. It is well recognized that alterations in the homeostasis of essential metals and an increased environmental/occupational exposure to xenobiotic metals is linked to several neurological disorders including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental alterations...
February 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399073/relaxin-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-and-apoptosis-via-the-notch1-pathway
#20
Xiao Wei, Yuan Yang, Yin-Jiu Jiang, Jian-Ming Lei, Jing-Wen Guo, Hua Xiao
The present study aimed to investigate the role of relaxin (RLX) on high glucose (HG)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis, as well as the possible molecular mechanism. H9c2 cells were exposed to 33 mmol/l HG with or without RLX (100 nmol/ml). Cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, cell hypertrophy and the levels of Notch1, hairy and enhancer of split 1 (hes1), atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), cytochrome C and caspase-3 were assessed in cardiomyocytes...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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