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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161774/building-trophic-specializations-that-result-in-substantial-niche-partitioning-within-a-young-adaptive-radiation
#1
Luz Patricia Hernandez, Dominique Adriaens, Christopher H Martin, Peter C Wainwright, Bert Masschaele, Manuel Dierick
Dietary partitioning often accompanies the increased morphological diversity seen during adaptive radiations within aquatic systems. While such niche partitioning would be expected in older radiations, it is unclear how significant morphological divergence occurs within a shorter time period. Here we show how differential growth in key elements of the feeding mechanism can bring about pronounced functional differences among closely related species. An incredibly young adaptive radiation of three Cyprinodon species residing within hypersaline lakes in San Salvador Island, Bahamas, has recently been described...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161512/trophodynamics-of-organic-pollutants-in-pelagic-and-benthic-food-webs-of-lake-dianchi-importance-of-ingested-sediment-as-uptake-route
#2
Senrong Fan, Beili Wang, Hang Liu, Shixiong Gao, Tong Li, Shuran Wang, Yong Liu, Xueqin Liu, Yi Wan
Habitat is of great importance in determining the trophic transfer of pollutants in freshwater ecosystems; however, the major factors influencing chemical trophodynamics in pelagic and benthic food webs remain unclear. This study investigated the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and substituted PAHs (s-PAHs) in two plankton species, six invertebrate species, and ten fish species collected from Lake Dianchi in southern China. Relatively high concentrations of PAHs and s-PAHs were detected with total concentrations of 11...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161457/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-cyg12-is-required-for-the-acclimation-to-hypoxia-and-trophic-regimes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#3
Melis Düner, Jan Lambertz, Carolin Mügge, Anja Hemschemeier
Oxygenic phototrophs frequently encounter environmental conditions that result in intracellular energy crises. Growth of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in hypoxia in the light depends on acclimatory responses of which the induction of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow is essential. The microalga cannot grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2 ) in the dark, although it possesses an elaborate fermentation metabolism. Not much is known about how the microalga senses and signals the lack of O2 or about its survival strategies during energy crises...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161314/conventional-and-technical-diving-surveys-reveal-elevated-biomass-and-differing-fish-community-composition-from-shallow-and-upper-mesophotic-zones-of-a-remote-united-states-coral-reef
#4
Roldan C Muñoz, Christine A Buckel, Paula E Whitfield, Shay Viehman, Randy Clark, J Christopher Taylor, Brian P Degan, Emma L Hickerson
The world's coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m) studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at deeper depths. The few previous studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems have shown variation across locations in depth-specific species composition and assemblage shifts, potentially a response to differences in habitat or light availability/water clarity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160172/neural-differentiation-of-spheroids-derived-from-hipsc-msc-co-culture
#5
Liqing Song, Ang-Chen Tsai, Xuegang Yuan, Julie Bejoy, Sébastien Sart, Teng Ma, Yan Li
Organoids, the condensed 3-D tissues emerged at the early stage of organogenesis, are a promising approach to regenerate functional and vascularized organ mimics. While incorporation of heterotypic cell types such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitors aid neural organ development, the interactions of secreted factors during neurogenesis have not been well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the composition and structure of 3-D hybrid spheroids of hiPSCs and hMSCs on dorsal cortical differentiation and the secretion of extracellular matrices and trophic factors in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156934/-short-chain-fatty-acids-butyric-acid-and-intestinal-diseases
#6
David Manrique Vergara, María Eugenia González Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. OBJECTIVES: To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. METHODS: Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#7
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155726/visualization-and-live-imaging-of-oligodendrocyte-organelles-in-organotypic-brain-slices-using-adeno-associated-virus-and-confocal-microscopy
#8
Lauritz Hagen Kennedy, Johanne Egge Rinholm
Neurons rely on the electric insulation and trophic support of myelinating oligodendrocytes. Despite the importance of oligodendrocytes, the advanced tools currently used to study neurons, have only partly been taken on by oligodendrocyte researchers. Cell type-specific staining by viral transduction is a useful approach to study live organelle dynamics. This paper describes a protocol for visualizing oligodendrocyte mitochondria in organotypic brain slices by transduction with adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying genes for mitochondrial targeted fluorescent proteins under the transcriptional control of the myelin basic protein promoter...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152888/the-sensitivity-of-breeding-songbirds-to-changes-in-seasonal-timing-is-linked-to-population-change-but-cannot-be-directly-attributed-to-the-effects-of-trophic-asynchrony-on-productivity
#9
Samantha E Franks, James W Pearce-Higgins, Sian Atkinson, James R Bell, Marc S Botham, Tom M Brereton, Richard Harrington, David I Leech
A consequence of climate change has been an advance in the timing of seasonal events. Differences in the rate of advance between trophic levels may result in predators becoming mismatched with prey availability, reducing fitness and potentially driving population declines. Such "trophic asynchrony" is hypothesized to have contributed to recent population declines of long-distance migratory birds in particular. Using spatially extensive survey data from 1983 to 2010 to estimate variation in spring phenology from 280 plant and insect species and the egg-laying phenology of 21 British songbird species, we explored the effects of trophic asynchrony on avian population trends and potential underlying demographic mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152200/resource-partitioning-facilitates-coexistence-in-sympatric-cetaceans-in-the-california-current
#10
Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Kelly M Zilliacus, John Calambokidis, Julia A Burrows, Jeremy A Goldbogen, James T Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A Croll
Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152174/tree-diversity-drives-diversity-of-arthropod-herbivores-but-successional-stage-mediates-detritivores
#11
Michael J O'Brien, Matteo Brezzi, Andreas Schuldt, Jia-Yong Zhang, Keping Ma, Bernhard Schmid, Pascal A Niklaus
The high tree diversity of subtropical forests is linked to the biodiversity of other trophic levels. Disentangling the effects of tree species richness and composition, forest age, and stand structure on higher trophic levels in a forest landscape is important for understanding the factors that promote biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Using a plot network spanning gradients of tree diversity and secondary succession in subtropical forest, we tested the effects of tree community characteristics (species richness and composition) and forest succession (stand age) on arthropod community characteristics (morphotype diversity, abundance and composition) of four arthropod functional groups...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151417/-effect-of-early-use-of-different-doses-of-enteral-nutrition-on-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#12
Jianting Gao, Qiuyan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the impact of initial low-dose (trophic type) enteral nutrition (EN) support on mechanical ventilation (MV) time, the incidence of complications and survival rate in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Forty-four patients with ARF undergoing MV admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Hangzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital from September 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into a trophic feeding group (n = 23, study group) and a standard-dose feeding group (n = 21, control group)...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150714/stochastic-lotka-volterra-food-chains
#13
Alexandru Hening, Dang H Nguyen
We study the persistence and extinction of species in a simple food chain that is modelled by a Lotka-Volterra system with environmental stochasticity. There exist sharp results for deterministic Lotka-Volterra systems in the literature but few for their stochastic counterparts. The food chain we analyze consists of one prey and [Formula: see text] predators. The jth predator eats the [Formula: see text]th species and is eaten by the [Formula: see text]th predator; this way each species only interacts with at most two other species-the ones that are immediately above or below it in the trophic chain...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149758/oligotrophy-as-a-major-driver-of-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-medium-to-high-trophic-level-consumers-a-marine-ecosystem-comparative-study
#14
Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#15
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146986/cascading-predator-effects-in-a-fijian-coral-reef-ecosystem
#16
Douglas B Rasher, Andrew S Hoey, Mark E Hay
Coral reefs are among Earth's best-studied ecosystems, yet the degree to which large predators influence the ecology of coral reefs remains an open and contentious question. Recent studies indicate the consumptive effects of large reef predators are too diffuse to elicit trophic cascades. Here, we provide evidence that such predators can produce non-consumptive (fear) effects that flow through herbivores to shape the distribution of seaweed on a coral reef. This trophic cascade emerged because reef topography, tidal oscillations, and shark hunting behaviour interact to create predictable "hot spots" of fear on the reef where herbivores withhold feeding and seaweeds gain a spatial refuge...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146204/mercury-exposure-and-short-term-consequences-on-physiology-and-reproduction-in-antarctic-petrels
#17
Alice Carravieri, Jérôme Fort, Arnaud Tarroux, Yves Cherel, Oliver P Love, Solène Prieur, Maud Brault-Favrou, Paco Bustamante, Sébastien Descamps
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antarctic seabirds, where increasing environmental perturbations challenge animal populations. This study focuses on the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica from Svarthamaren, Antarctica, where the world's largest breeding population is thought to be in decline...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145101/the-distribution-and-trends-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-mercury-in-marine-mammals-from-canada-s-eastern-arctic
#18
REVIEW
Tanya M Brown, Robie W Macdonald, Derek C G Muir, Robert J Letcher
Arctic contaminant research in the marine environment has focused on organohalogen compounds and mercury mainly because they are bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic. This review summarizes and discusses the patterns and trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Eastern Canadian Arctic relative to the rest of the Canadian Arctic. The review provides explanations for these trends and looks at the implications of climate-related changes on contaminants in these marine mammals in a region that has been reviewed little...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143886/rapid-in-situ-assessment-for-predicting-soil-quality-using-an-algae-soaked-disc-seeding-assay
#19
Sun-Hwa Nam, Jongmin Moon, Shin Woong Kim, Hakyeong Kim, Seung-Woo Jeong, Youn-Joo An
The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143779/regenerative-therapies-in-dry-eye-disease-from-growth-factors-to-cell-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Antonio J Villatoro, Viviana Fernández, Silvia Claros, Cristina Alcoholado, Manuel Cifuentes, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, José A Andrades, José Becerra
Dry eye syndrome is a complex and insidious pathology with a high level of prevalence among the human population and with a consequently high impact on quality of life and economic cost. Currently, its treatment is symptomatic, mainly based on the control of lubrication and inflammation, with significant limitations. Therefore, the latest research is focused on the development of new biological strategies, with the aim of regenerating affected tissues, or at least restricting the progression of the disease, reducing scar tissue, and maintaining corneal transparency...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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