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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331517/tofu-whey-wastewater-is-a-promising-basal-medium-for-microalgae-culture
#1
Shi-Kai Wang, Xu Wang, Jing Miao, Yong-Ting Tian
Tofu whey wastewater (TWW) is an abundant, nutrient riched and safety wastewater and is regarded as an excellent alternative medium in fermentation. In this study, the feasibility of algal cultivation using TWW as the basal medium was investigated. Results indicated that through simple pH adjustment, TWW presented a better culture performance at autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic modes compared with that of regular green algae medium, BG-11. The biomass productivities of Chlorella pyrenoidosa at each trophic mode were 4...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331284/effects-of-an-experimental-heat-wave-on-fatty-acid-composition-in-two-mediterranean-seagrass-species
#2
Pedro Beca-Carretero, Freddy Guihéneuf, Lázaro Marín-Guirao, Jaime Bernardeau-Esteller, Rocío García-Muñoz, Dagmar B Stengel, Juan M Ruiz
Global warming is emerging as one of the most critical threats to terrestrial and marine species worldwide. This study assessed the effects of simulated warming events in culture on two seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, which play a key role in coastal ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. Changes in fatty acids as key metabolic indicators were assessed in specimens from two geographical populations of each species adapted to different in situ temperature regimes. Total fatty acid (TFA) content and composition were compared in C...
January 10, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329621/first-parasitological-histopathological-and-molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-vogeli-rausch-and-bernstein-1972-from-cuniculus-paca-linnaeus-1766-in-the-cerrado-biome-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil
#3
Fernanda Bittencourt-Oliveira, Paulo Teixeira, Alba Alencar, Rodrigo Menezes, Christiane Corrêa, Leandro Neves, Fernanda Almeida, Daniel Daipert-Garcia, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Rosângela Rodrigues-Silva
Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328987/total-mercury-content-in-commercial-swordfish-xiphias-gladius-from-different-fao-fishing-areas
#4
Mauro Esposito, Antonella De Roma, Raffaella La Nucara, Giuseppe Picazio, Pasquale Gallo
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affect human and ecosystem health. It is transferred through trophic level and bio magnification in the food chain. In this study, total Hg was measured in the muscular tissue of samples of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from different FAO fishing areas and imported in Italy between 2014 and 2017. Total mercury concentrations of muscular tissues were determined using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. In order to assess the health risk associated with human consumption of this fish, the Hg intake values were calculated and compared with those of provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) (0...
January 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328509/high-refuge-availability-on-coral-reefs-increases-the-vulnerability-of-reef-associated-predators-to-overexploitation
#5
Alice Rogers, Julia L Blanchard, Steven P Newman, Charlie S Dryden, Peter J Mumby
Refuge availability and fishing alter predator-prey interactions on coral reefs, but our understanding of how they interact to drive food web dynamics, community structure and vulnerability of different trophic groups is unclear. Here, we apply a size-based ecosystem model of coral reefs, parameterized with empirical measures of structural complexity, to predict fish biomass, productivity and community structure in reef ecosystems under a broad range of refuge availability and fishing regimes. In unfished ecosystems, the expected positive correlation between reef structural complexity and biomass emerges, but a non-linear effect of predation refuges is observed for the productivity of predatory fish...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327452/regenerative-effects-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#6
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326051/-investigation-methods-to-explore-g-protein-coupled-receptor-regulated-translatome
#7
Aurélie Tréfier, Florian Guillou, Pascale Crépieux
With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, identifying the translatome, which includes genome-wide ribosome-associated mRNAs, provides new opportunities to define faithfully the protein repertoire of a cell, as opposed to transcriptomic approaches. In addition, the role that extracellular signals such as hormonal modulations could play on the translatome remains to be deciphered. In particular, the regulation of the translatome by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is still poorly described, albeit the trophic role that many receptors of this family play in their target cells...
January 8, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325921/energy-flux-the-link-between-multitrophic-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-functioning
#8
REVIEW
Andrew D Barnes, Malte Jochum, Jonathan S Lefcheck, Nico Eisenhauer, Christoph Scherber, Mary I O'Connor, Peter de Ruiter, Ulrich Brose
Relating biodiversity to ecosystem functioning in natural communities has become a paramount challenge as links between trophic complexity and multiple ecosystem functions become increasingly apparent. Yet, there is still no generalised approach to address such complexity in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) studies. Energy flux dynamics in ecological networks provide the theoretical underpinning of multitrophic BEF relationships. Accordingly, we propose the quantification of energy fluxes in food webs as a powerful, universal tool for understanding ecosystem functioning in multitrophic systems spanning different ecological scales...
January 8, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324879/localized-zinc-distribution-in-shark-vertebrae-suggests-differential-deposition-during-ontogeny-and-across-vertebral-structures
#9
Vincent Raoult, Nicholas Howell, David Zahra, Victor M Peddemors, Daryl L Howard, Martin D de Jonge, Benjamin L Buchan, Jane E Williamson
The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324394/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-copepods
#10
REVIEW
Minghua Wang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Young Hwan Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Ocean acidification (OA) leads to significant changes in seawater carbon chemistry, broadly affects marine organisms, and considered as a global threat to the fitness of marine ecosystems. Due to the crucial role of copepods in marine food webs of transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the impacts of OA on biological traits of copepods such as growth and reproduction. Under OA stress, the copepods demonstrated species-specific and stage-dependent responses...
January 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322110/mixotrophic-transition-induced-lipid-productivity-in-chlorella-pyrenoidosa-under-stress-conditions-for-biodiesel-production
#11
Hari Prasad Ratnapuram, S S Vutukuru, Rajasri Yadavalli
Influence of mixotrophic mode and its transition to various trophic modes under stress conditions was assessed during two stage cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Significant lipid productivity was triggered under low light intensity, glucose + bicarbonate supplementation and nitrogen starvation. The association between biomass and lipid productivity, fatty acid composition during mixotrophic transition was critically evaluated. Biomass in growth phase (GP) and stress phase (SP) was 6.14 g/l and 5.14 g/l, respectively, in mixotrophic mode...
January 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321893/opposing-deer-and-caterpillar-foraging-preferences-may-prevent-reductions-in-songbird-prey-biomass-in-historically-overbrowsed-forests
#12
R Keating Godfrey, Ellen H Yerger, Timothy J Nuttle
Overbrowsing by ungulates decimates plant populations and reduces diversity in a variety of ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which changes to plant community composition influence other trophic levels are poorly understood. In addition to removal of avian nesting habitat, browsing is hypothesized to reduce bird density and diversity through reduction of insect prey on browse-tolerant hosts left behind by deer. In this study, we excluded birds from branches of six tree species to quantify differences in songbird prey removal across trees that vary in deer browse preference...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#13
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321855/hunting-mediated-predator-facilitation-and-superadditive-mortality-in-a-european-ungulate
#14
Benedikt Gehr, Elizabeth J Hofer, Mirjam Pewsner, Andreas Ryser, Eric Vimercati, Kristina Vogt, Lukas F Keller
Predator-prey theory predicts that in the presence of multiple types of predators using a common prey, predator facilitation may result as a consequence of contrasting prey defense mechanisms, where reducing the risk from one predator increases the risk from the other. While predator facilitation is well established in natural predator-prey systems, little attention has been paid to situations where human hunters compete with natural predators for the same prey. Here, we investigate hunting-mediated predator facilitation in a hunter-predator-prey system...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321604/trophic-transfer-and-individual-impact-of-nano-sized-polystyrene-in-a-four-species-freshwater-food-chain
#15
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Shin Woong Kim, Youn-Joo An
This study investigated the trophic transfer, individual impact, and embryonic uptake of fluorescent nano-sized polystyrene plastics (nanoplastics) through direct exposure in a freshwater ecosystem, with a food chain containing four species. The alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, water flea Daphnia magna, secondary-consumer fish Oryzias sinensis, and end-consumer fish Zacco temminckii were used as test species. In the trophic transfer test, algae were exposed to 50 mg/L nanoplastics, defined as plastic particles <100 nm in diameter; higher trophic level organisms were exposed through their diet...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321488/bt-cotton-producing-cry1ac-and-cry2ab-does-not-harm-two-parasitoids-cotesia-marginiventris-and-copidosoma-floridanum
#16
Jun-Ce Tian, Xiang-Ping Wang, Yang Chen, Jörg Romeis, Steven E Naranjo, Richard L Hellmich, Ping Wang, Anthony M Shelton
Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) is an important lepidopteran pest on many vegetable and greenhouse crops, and some field crops. Although there are no commercial transgenic Bt vegetable or greenhouse crops, T. ni is a target of Bollgard II cotton, which produces Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. We expand on previous work that examined the effect of Bt crops on parasitoids using Bt-resistant lepidopteran populations as hosts. Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab-resistant T. ni larvae were used to eliminate host quality effects and to evaluate the direct effects of Bt cotton on the parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) and Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson)...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321063/first-clinical-case-report-of-local-microinjection-of-autologous-fat-and-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-for-perianal-fistula-in-crohn-s-disease
#17
Cécile Philandrianos, Mélanie Serrero, Fanny Grimaud, Jérémy Magalon, Carine Visée, Mélanie Velier, Pauline Francois, Pierre Orsoni, Guy Magalon, Jean-Charles Grimaud, Ariadne Desjeux, Julie Véran, Florence Sabatier
Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for perianal Crohn's fistulas refractory to conventional therapy, which are an extremely morbid complication and a true therapeutic challenge. Autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF) is an easily accessible source of cells with angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and regenerative properties. Here, we describe a case involving a patient with severe perianal Crohn's fistulas refractory to the best medical and surgical practices who received local treatment with ADSVF and microfat...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320633/bioaccumulation-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-alternative-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-a-vegetation-caribou-wolf-food-chain-of-the-canadian-arctic
#18
Adam David Morris, Derek Muir, Keith Solomon, Camilla Teixeira, Mark Duric, Xiaowa Wang
The trophodynamics of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative HFRs were investigated in the terrestrial, vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst Region of northern Canada. The greatest concentrations in vegetation (geometric mean of lichens, moss, grasses, willow, and mushrooms) were of the order 2,4,6-tribromophenyl allyl ether (TBP-AE) (10 ng g-1 lw) > BDE47 (5.5 ng g-1 lw) > BDE99 (3.9 ng g-1 lw) > BDE100 (0.82 ng g-1 lw) > 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz) (0...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316114/on-the-prevalence-and-dynamics-of-inverted-trophic-pyramids-and-otherwise-top-heavy-communities
#19
REVIEW
Douglas J McCauley, Gabriel Gellner, Neo D Martinez, Richard J Williams, Stuart A Sandin, Fiorenza Micheli, Peter J Mumby, Kevin S McCann
Classically, biomass partitioning across trophic levels was thought to add up to a pyramidal distribution. Numerous exceptions have, however, been noted including complete pyramidal inversions. Elevated levels of biomass top-heaviness (i.e. high consumer/resource biomass ratios) have been reported from Arctic tundra communities to Brazilian phytotelmata, and in species assemblages as diverse as those dominated by sharks and ants. We highlight two major pathways for creating top-heaviness, via: (1) endogenous channels that enhance energy transfer across trophic boundaries within a community and (2) exogenous pathways that transfer energy into communities from across spatial and temporal boundaries...
January 9, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315779/trophic-transfer-of-cadmium-from-duckweed-lemna-minor-l-to-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#20
Yan Xue, Willie J G M Peijnenburg, Jin Huang, Dengjun Wang, Yan Jin
The transfer of the toxic heavy metal Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to the freshwater fish tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. Concentrations of Cd in different chemical forms in duckweed and in different tissues (gut, edible muscle, and remnants) of tilapia, i.e., ethanol-extractable (FE ), HCl-extractable (FHCl ), and residual fractions (FR ) were quantified, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of Cd in the tilapia body were calculated. Simple linear regression analysis was used to unravel the correlation and accumulation mechanisms of Cd along the short food chain...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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