keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Trophic

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079180/the-herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-methyl-salicylate-and-menthol-positively-affect-growth-and-pathogenicity-of-entomopathogenic-fungi
#1
Yongwen Lin, Muhammad Qasim, Mubasher Hussain, Komivi Senyo Akutse, Pasco Bruce Avery, Chandra Kanta Dash, Liande Wang
Some herbivore-induced-plant volatiles (HIPVs) compounds are vital for the functioning of an ecosystem, by triggering multi-trophic interactions for natural enemies, plants and herbivores. However, the effect of these chemicals, which play a crucial role in regulating the multi-trophic interactions between plant-herbivore-entomopathogenic fungi, is still unknown. To fill this scientific gap, we therefore investigated how these chemicals influence the entomopathogenic fungi growth and efficacy. In this study, Lipaphis erysimi induced Arabidopsis thaliana HIPVs were collected using headspace system and detected with GC-MS, and then analyzed the effects of these HIPVs chemicals on Lecanicillium lecanii strain V3450...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079133/mechanical-transgressive-segregation-and-the-rapid-origin-of-trophic-novelty
#2
Roi Holzman, C Darrin Hulsey
Hybrid phenotypes are often intermediate between those of parental species. However, hybridization can generate novel phenotypes when traits are complex. For instance, even when the morphologies of individual musculo-skeletal components do not segregate outside the parental range in hybrid offspring, complex functional systems can exhibit emergent phenotypes whose mechanics exceed the parental values. To determine if transgression in mechanics could facilitate divergence during an adaptive radiation, we examined three functional systems in the trophic apparatus of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077025/total-mercury-levels-in-commercial-fish-species-from-italian-fishery-and-aquaculture
#3
Gabriella Di Lena, Irene Casini, Roberto Caproni, Andrea Fusari, Elena Orban
Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analyzed by Thermal Decomposition-Amalgamation-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0...
January 11, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#4
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076419/stability-of-a-coevolving-host-parasite-system-peaks-at-intermediate-productivity
#5
Xin-Feng Zhao, Yi-Qi Hao, Quan-Guo Zhang
Habitat productivity may affect the stability of consumer-resource systems, through both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. We hypothesize that coevolving consumer-resource systems show more stable dynamics at intermediate resource availability, while very low-level resource supply cannot support sufficiently large populations of resource and consumer species to avoid stochastic extinction, and extremely resource-rich environments may promote escalatory arms-race-like coevolution that can cause strong fluctuations in species abundance and even extinction of one or both trophic levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073566/mixotrophy-in-the-phototrophic-dinoflagellate-takayama-helix-family-kareniaceae-predator-of-diverse-toxic-and-harmful-dinoflagellates
#6
Hae Jin Jeong, Jin Hee Ok, An Suk Lim, Ji Eun Kwon, So Jin Kim, Sung Yeon Lee
Takayama spp. are phototrophic dinoflagellates belonging to the family Kareniaceae and have caused fish kills in several countries. Understanding their trophic mode and interactions with co-occurring phytoplankton species are critical steps in comprehending their ecological roles in marine ecosystems, bloom dynamics, and dinoflagellate evolution. To investigate the trophic mode and interactions of Takayama spp., the ability of Takayama helix to feed on diverse algal species was examined, and the mechanisms of prey ingestion were determined...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073551/the-common-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-microcystis-is-prone-to-a-wide-array-of-microbial-antagonists
#7
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Wichelen, Pieter Vanormelingen, Geoffrey A Codd, Wim Vyverman
Many degraded waterbodies around the world are subject to strong proliferations of cyanobacteria - notorious for their toxicity, high biomass build-up and negative impacts on aquatic food webs - the presence of which puts serious limits on the human use of affected water bodies. Cyanobacterial blooms are largely regarded as trophic dead ends since they are a relatively poor food source for zooplankton. As a consequence, their population dynamics are generally attributed to changes in abiotic conditions (bottom-up control)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073535/new-oxylipins-produced-at-the-end-of-a-diatom-bloom-and-their-effects-on-copepod-reproductive-success-and-gene-expression-levels
#8
Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Vittoria Roncalli, Angela Amoresano, Carolina Fontanarosa, Mauro Bastianini, Federica Braga, Ylenia Carotenuto, Adrianna Ianora
Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. However, these unicellular organisms produce secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, collectively termed oxylipins, with negative effects on predators, such as copepods, that feed on them (e.g. reduction in survival, egg production and hatching success) and, indirectly, on higher trophic levels. Here, a multidisciplinary study (oxylipin measurements, copepod fitness, gene expression analyses, chlorophyll distribution, phytoplankton composition, physico-chemical characteristics) was carried out at the end of the spring diatom bloom in April 2011 in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) in order to deeply investigate copepod-diatom interactions, chemical communication and response pathways...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073508/mixotrophic-ability-of-the-phototrophic-dinoflagellates-alexandrium-andersonii-a-affine-and-a-fraterculus
#9
Kyung Ha Lee, Hae Jin Jeong, Ji Eun Kwon, Hee Chang Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Se Hyeon Jang, Jae Yeon Park, Eun Young Yoon, Jae Seong Kim
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. have received much attention due to their harmful effects on diverse marine organisms, including commercially important species. For minimizing loss due to red tides or blooms of Alexandrium spp., it is very important to understand the eco-physiology of each Alexandrium species and to predict its population dynamics. Its trophic mode (i.e., exclusively autotrophic or mixotrophic) is one of the most critical parameters in establishing prediction models. However, among the 35 Alexandrium species so far described, only six Alexandrium species have been revealed to be mixotrophic...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073507/evidence-of-freshwater-algal-toxins-in-marine-shellfish-implications-for-human-and-aquatic-health
#10
Corinne M Gibble, Melissa B Peacock, Raphael M Kudela
The occurrence of freshwater harmful algal bloom toxins impacting the coastal ocean is an emerging threat, and the potential for invertebrate prey items to concentrate toxin and cause harm to human and wildlife consumers is not yet fully recognized. We examined toxin uptake and release in marine mussels for both particulate and dissolved phases of the hepatotoxin microcystin, produced by the freshwater cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. We also extended our experimental investigation of particulate toxin to include oysters (Crassostrea sp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#11
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071701/simultaneous-abrupt-shifts-in-hydrology-and-fish-assemblage-structure-in-a-floodplain-lake-in-the-central-amazon
#12
Cristhiana P Röpke, Sidinéia Amadio, Jansen Zuanon, Efrem J G Ferreira, Cláudia Pereira de Deus, Tiago H S Pires, Kirk O Winemiller
Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070811/encaged-chironomus-riparius-larvae-in-assessment-of-trace-metal-bioavailability-and-transfer-in-a-landfill-leachate-collection-pond
#13
Frédéric Gimbert, Quentin Petitjean, Ahmed Al-Ashoor, Céline Cretenet, Lotfi Aleya
Household wastes may constitute a vector of environmental contamination when buried, in particular through degradation and production of leachates containing significant trace metal (TM) concentrations that may constitute a serious risk to biota. The objectives of this study were to assess the bioavailability and transfer potential of various TMs present in water and sediments in a reservoir receiving landfill leachates. An active biomonitoring approach was adopted consisting of exposing naive laboratory organisms in cages deployed in the field...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070307/global-ecological-success-of-thalassoma-fishes-in-extreme-coral-reef-habitats
#14
Christopher J Fulton, Peter C Wainwright, Andrew S Hoey, David R Bellwood
Phenotypic adaptations can allow organisms to relax abiotic selection and facilitate their ecological success in challenging habitats, yet we have relatively little data for the prevalence of this phenomenon at macroecological scales. Using data on the relative abundance of coral reef wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) spread across three ocean basins and the Red Sea, we reveal the consistent global dominance of extreme wave-swept habitats by fishes in the genus Thalassoma, with abundances up to 15 times higher than any other labrid...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070302/are-life-history-events-of-a-northern-breeding-population-of-cooper-s-hawks-influenced-by-changing-climate
#15
Robert N Rosenfield, Madeline G Hardin, John Bielefeldt, Edward R Keyel
Numerous studies have demonstrated earlier timing of spring migration and egg-laying in small passerines, but documentation of such responses to recent climate change in the life histories of higher trophic feeding birds such as raptors is relatively scarce. Raptors may be particularly susceptible to possible adverse effects of climate change due to their longer generation turnover times and lower reproductive capacity, which could lead to population declines because of an inability to match reproductive timing with optimal brood rearing conditions...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070298/community-structure-affects-trophic-ontogeny-in-a-predatory-fish
#16
Javier Sánchez-Hernández, Antti P Eloranta, Anders G Finstad, Per-Arne Amundsen
While most studies have focused on the timing and nature of ontogenetic niche shifts, information is scarce about the effects of community structure on trophic ontogeny of top predators. We investigated how community structure affects ontogenetic niche shifts (i.e., relationships between body length, trophic position, and individual dietary specialization) of a predatory fish, brown trout (Salmo trutta). We used stable isotope and stomach content analyses to test how functional characteristics of lake fish community compositions (competition and prey availability) modulate niche shifts in terms of (i) piscivorous behavior, (ii) trophic position, and (iii) individual dietary specialization...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070291/an-exotic-parasitoid-provides-an-invasional-lifeline-for-native-parasitoids
#17
Joanna K Konopka, Tim Haye, Tara Gariepy, Peter Mason, David Gillespie, Jeremy N McNeil
The introduction of an exotic species may alter food webs within the ecosystem and significantly affect the biodiversity of indigenous species at different trophic levels. It has been postulated that recent introduction of the brown marmorated stinkbug (Halyomorpha halys (Stål)) represents an evolutionary trap for native parasitoids, as they accept H. halys egg masses as a host but produce no viable progeny. Interspecific interactions between European egg parasitoid, Trissolcus cultratus (Mayr), and an Asian parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), were assessed by providing egg masses to T...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#18
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069369/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-in-the-vicinity-of-an-expanded-polystyrene-material-manufacturing-plant-in-tianjin-china
#19
Hongkai Zhu, Kai Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Fei Wang, Yiming Yao
To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068760/a-laboratory-scale-microbial-food-chain-to-study-bioaccumulation-biomagnification-and-ecotoxicity-of-cadmium-telluride-quantum-dots
#20
Govind Sharan Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar, Violet Aileen Senapati, Alok Kumar Pandey, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan
The increasing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products warrant a careful evaluation of their trophic transfer and consequent ecological impact. In the present study, a laboratory scale aquatic microbial food chain was established using bacteria (Escherichia coli) as a prey and ciliated protozoan (Paramecium caudatum) as a predator organism to determine the impact of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs). We observed that 29% of bacterivory potential of Paramecium was lost, including a ~12 h of delay in doubling time on exposure to 25 mg/L of CdTe QD (~4 nm) as compared to control...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
keyword
keyword
66108
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"