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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644993/long-term-toxicity-of-surface-charged-polystyrene-nanoplastics-to-marine-planktonic-species-dunaliella-tertiolecta-and-artemia-franciscana
#1
E Bergami, S Pugnalini, M L Vannuccini, L Manfra, C Faleri, F Savorelli, K A Dawson, I Corsi
Plastic pollution has been globally recognized as a critical issue for marine ecosystems and nanoplastics constitute one of the last unexplored areas to understand the magnitude of this threat. However, current difficulties in sampling and identifying nano-sized debris make hard to assess their occurrence in marine environment. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) are largely used as nanoplastics in ecotoxicological studies and although acute exposures have been already investigated, long-term toxicity on marine organisms is unknown...
June 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643454/polar-zoobenthos-blue-carbon-storage-increases-with-sea-ice-losses-because-across-shelf-growth-gains-from-longer-algal-blooms-outweigh-ice-scour-mortality-in-the-shallows
#2
David K A Barnes
One of the major climate-forced global changes has been white to blue to green; losses of sea ice extent in time and space around Arctic and West Antarctic seas has increased open water and the duration (though not magnitude) of phytoplankton blooms. Blueing of the poles has increases potential for heat absorption for positive feedback but conversely the longer phytoplankton blooms have increased carbon export to storage and sequestration by shelf benthos. However, ice shelf collapses and glacier retreat can calve more icebergs, and the increased open water allows icebergs more opportunities to scour the seabed, reducing zoobenthic blue carbon capture and storage...
June 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643284/hydroxyl-radical-mediated-degradation-of-diclofenac-revisited-a-computational-approach-to-assessment-of-reaction-mechanisms-and-by-products
#3
Sesil Agopcan Cinar, Asu Ziylan-Yavaş, Saron Catak, Nilsun H Ince, Viktorya Aviyente
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in water upon irradiation of the sample by UV light, ultrasound, electromagnetic radiation, and/or the addition of ozone or a semiconductor. Diclofenac (DCF), one of the emerging organic contaminants (EOC), is of environmental concern due to its abundancy in water and is known to be subjected to AOPs. The current study uses density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the mechanisms of the reactions between •OH and DCF leading to degradation by-products, P1-P9...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643176/a-promising-tool-in-retina-regeneration-current-perspectives-and-challenges-when-using-mesenchymal-progenitor-stem-cells-in-veterinary-and-human-ophthalmological-applications
#4
REVIEW
Anna Cislo-Pakuluk, Krzysztof Marycz
Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642697/targeting-microglial-activation-states-as-a-therapeutic-avenue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Sudhakar R Subramaniam, Howard J Federoff
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642608/ocean-acidification-as-a-driver-of-community-simplification-via-the-collapse-of-higher-order-and-rise-of-lower-order-consumers
#6
S Vizzini, B Martínez-Crego, C Andolina, A Massa-Gallucci, S D Connell, M C Gambi
Increasing oceanic uptake of CO2 is predicted to drive ecological change as both a resource (i.e. CO2 enrichment on primary producers) and stressor (i.e. lower pH on consumers). We use the natural ecological complexity of a CO2 vent (i.e. a seagrass system) to assess the potential validity of conceptual models developed from laboratory and mesocosm research. Our observations suggest that the stressor-effect of CO2 enrichment combined with its resource-effect drives simplified food web structure of lower trophic diversity and shorter length...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641410/modeling-aquatic-toxicity-through-chromatographic-systems
#7
Alejandro Fernandez-Pumarega, Susana Amézqueta, Sandra Farré, Laura Muñoz-Pascual, Michael H Abraham, Elisabet Fuguet, Marti Roses
Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637855/fear-of-the-human-super-predator-reduces-feeding-time-in-large-carnivores
#8
Justine A Smith, Justin P Suraci, Michael Clinchy, Ayana Crawford, Devin Roberts, Liana Y Zanette, Christopher C Wilmers
Large carnivores' fear of the human 'super predator' has the potential to alter their feeding behaviour and result in human-induced trophic cascades. However, it has yet to be experimentally tested if large carnivores perceive humans as predators and react strongly enough to have cascading effects on their prey. We conducted a predator playback experiment exposing pumas to predator (human) and non-predator control (frog) sounds at puma feeding sites to measure immediate fear responses to humans and the subsequent impacts on feeding...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637853/trophic-state-changes-can-affect-the-importance-of-methane-derived-carbon-in-aquatic-food-webs
#9
Jos Schilder, Maarten van Hardenbroek, Paul Bodelier, Emiliya P Kirilova, Markus Leuenberger, André F Lotter, Oliver Heiri
Methane-derived carbon, incorporated by methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been identified as a significant source of carbon in food webs of many lakes. By measuring the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C values) of particulate organic matter, Chironomidae and Daphnia spp. and their resting eggs (ephippia), we show that methane-derived carbon presently plays a relevant role in the food web of hypertrophic Lake De Waay, The Netherlands. Sediment geochemistry, diatom analyses and δ(13)C measurements of chironomid and Daphnia remains in the lake sediments indicate that oligotrophication and re-eutrophication of the lake during the twentieth century had a strong impact on in-lake oxygen availability...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637849/breaking-out-of-the-comfort-zone-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-as-a-driver-of-trophic-flows-in-a-benthic-consumer-of-the-humboldt-current-ecosystem
#10
José M Riascos, Marco A Solís, Aldo S Pacheco, Manuel Ballesteros
The trophic flow of a species is considered a characteristic trait reflecting its trophic position and function in the ecosystem and its interaction with the environment. However, climate patterns are changing and we ignore how patterns of trophic flow are being affected. In the Humboldt Current ecosystem, arguably one of the most productive marine systems, El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the main source of interannual and longer-term variability. To assess the effect of this variability on trophic flow we built a 16-year series of mass-specific somatic production rate (P/B) of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), a species belonging to a former tropical fauna that thrived in this cold ecosystem...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636804/new-insights-into-global-biogeography-population-structure-and-natural-selection-from-the-genome-of-the-epipelagic-copepod-oithona
#11
Mohammed-Amin Madoui, Julie Poulain, Kevin Sugier, Marc Wessner, Benjamin Noel, Leo Berline, Karine Labadie, Astrid Cornils, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Lars Stemmann, Jean-Louis Jamet, Patrick Wincker
In the epipelagic ocean the genus Oithona is considered as one of the most abundant and widespread copepods and plays an important role in the trophic food web. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the Oithona and cyclopoid copepods genomics. Therefore, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of Oithona nana. The comparative genomic analysis integrating available copepod genomes highlighted the expansions of genes related to stress response, cell differentiation, and development, including genes coding Lin12-Notch-Repeat (LNR) domain proteins...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636346/halogenated-flame-retardants-in-predator-and-prey-fish-from-the-laurentian-great-lakes-age-dependent-accumulation-and-trophic-transfer
#12
Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Daryl McGoldrick, Sean M Backus
The identification, persistence, accumulation and trophic transfer of 25 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, 23 non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants (NPHFRs), 4 polybrominated-diphenoxybenzenes (PB-DiPhOBzs) and 6 methoxylated (MeO-) PB-DiPhOBzs were investigated in predator and prey fish collected in 2010 from sites in the North American Great Lakes of Ontario (n=26) and Erie (n=39). Regardless of locations or species, 20 PBDEs and 12 NPHFRs were quantifiable in at least one of the 65 analyzed samples, and polybrominated-1,4-diphenoxybenzenes (PB-DiPhOBzs) and MeO-PB-DiPhOBzs were not detectable in any of analyzed samples...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#13
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634330/increase-in-predation-risk-and-trophic-level-induced-by-nocturnal-visits-of-piscivorous-fishes-in-a-temperate-seagrass-bed
#14
Jun Shoji, Hiromichi Mitamura, Kotaro Ichikawa, Hikari Kinoshita, Nobuaki Arai
The majority of surveys on food webs of aquatic ecosystems have been conducted during the day owning to difficulties in sampling animals at night. In this study, to examine diurnal changes in predator-prey interactions in a temperate seagrass Zostera marina bed, a quantitative day/night survey of fish, the dominant animal community, coupled with acoustic telemetry of their predators, was conducted. The number of species, abundance, and biomass of piscivorous predators and mean trophic level during the night were significantly higher than those in the day in all seasons...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633407/exploring-fungus-plant-n-transfer-in-a-tripartite-ant-plant-fungus-mutualism
#15
Céline Leroy, Alain Jauneau, Yves Martinez, Armelle Cabin-Flaman, David Gibouin, Jérôme Orivel, Nathalie Séjalon-Delmas
Background and Aims: The plant Hirtella physophora , the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus and a fungus, Trimmatostroma sp., form a tripartite association. The ants manipulate both the plant trichomes and the fungus to build galleries under the stems of their host plant used to capture prey. In addition to its structural role, the fungus also improves nutrient uptake by the host plant. But it still remains unclear whether the fungus plays an indirect or a direct role in transferring nutrients to the plant...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632900/native-predator-invasive-prey-trophic-interactions-in-tierra-del-fuego-the-beginning-of-biological-resistance
#16
Simón P Castillo, Ramiro D Crego, Jaime E Jiménez, Ricardo Rozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631712/-the-molecular-mechanisms-and-morphological-manifestations-of-leiomyoma-reduction-induced-by-selective-progesterone-receptor-modulators
#17
T A Demura, Z V Revazova, E A Kogan, L V Adamyan
AIM: to investigate the molecular mechanisms and morphological substrate of reduced uterine leiomyoma in patients receiving the selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) ulipristal acetate for 3 months, by estimating the immunohistochemical expression of the markers steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1), nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR-1), ER, PgR, Ki-67, p16, TGF-β, and VEGF in tumor tissue. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 75 women with uterine leiomyoma, menorrhagias, and anemia...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631440/recognition-cascade-and-metabolite-transfer-in-a-marine-bacteria-phytoplankton-model-system
#18
Bryndan P Durham, Stephen P Dearth, Shalabh Sharma, Shady A Amin, Christa B Smith, Shawn R Campagna, E Virginia Armbrust, Mary Ann Moran
The trophic linkage between marine bacteria and phytoplankton in the surface ocean is a key step in the global carbon cycle, with almost half of marine primary production transformed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton within hours to weeks of fixation. Early studies conceptualized this link as the passive addition and removal of organic compounds from a shared seawater reservoir. Here we analyzed transcript and intracellular metabolite patterns in a two-member model system and found that the presence of a heterotrophic bacterium induced a potential recognition cascade in a marine phytoplankton species that parallels better-understood vascular plant response systems...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629524/endogenous-erythropoietin
#19
Steven J Korzeniewski, Athina Pappas
We sought to briefly describe current models of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) pleiotropic properties to make four points clear. First, endogenous EPO regulates erythroid cell apoptosis so that red blood cell production is balanced against the number of cells destroyed in order to maintain optimal tissue oxygen levels (i.e., consistent with provision of homeostatic functional signaling information). Second, preclinical and clinical studies alike provide additional evidence of other (i.e., extraerythropoietic) immune-related and growth/trophic properties...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628814/a-critical-evaluation-of-different-parameters-for-estimating-pharmaceutical-exposure-seeking-an-improved-environmental-risk-assessment
#20
André M P T Pereira, Liliana J G Silva, Celeste M Lino, Leonor M Meisel, Angelina Pena
A critical evaluation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) was performed on 16 of Portugal's most consumed pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents (WWEs), the main route for aquatic contamination. The predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were formulated based on the Guideline, after incorporating several refinements. The best approach was selected by comparing the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) to the PECs in WWEs. Finally, risk was assessed by comparing PECs to predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs)...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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