Read by QxMD icon Read


Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell precursors are the first defined stage in the generation of Schwann cells from the neural crest and represent the glial cell of embryonic nerves. Highly pure cultures of these cells can be obtained by enzymatic dissociation of nerves dissected from the limbs of 14- or 12-day-old rat and mouse embryos, respectively. Since Schwann cell precursors, unlike Schwann cells, are acutely dependent on axonal signals for survival, they require addition of trophic factors, typically β-neuregulin-1, for maintenance in cell culture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Beatriz V R Pereira, Gregorio Nolazco Matus, Monica Jones Costa, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Janaina Braga do Carmo, Bruno Nunes
Over time, many pollutants of anthropogenic origin have caused the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Among several characteristics, these compounds can reach the trophic chain, causing deleterious interactions with the biota. Pharmaceutical substances can be included in this scenario as emerging contaminants that reach the aquatic environment because of direct human and veterinary usage, and release by industrial effluents, as well as through domestic dumping of surplus drugs. The effects of these compounds on exposed organisms have been studied since the 1990s, but ecotoxicological data for such chemicals are still scarce especially concerning aquatic organisms from tropical regions...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sigrid Neumann-Leitão, Pedro A M C Melo, Ralf Schwamborn, Xiomara F G Diaz, Lucas G P Figueiredo, Andrea P Silva, Renata P S Campelo, Mauro de Melo Júnior, Nuno F A C Melo, Alejandro E S F Costa, Moacyr Araújo, Dóris R A Veleda, Rodrigo L Moura, Fabiano Thompson
At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2 ) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo, Priscila Lang Podratz, Eduardo Merlo, Isabela Valim Sarmento, Charles Santos da Costa, Oscar Mauricio Santamaria Niño, Rodrigo Alves Faria, Leandro Ceotto Freitas Lima, Jones Bernardes Graceli
Organotin (OTs) compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Irena F Creed, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Charles G Trick, Nancy B Grimm, Dag O Hessen, Jan Karlsson, Karen A Kidd, Emma Kritzberg, Diane M McKnight, Erika C Freeman, Oscar E Senar, Agneta Andersson, Jenny Ask, Martin Berggren, Mehdi Cherif, Reiner Giesler, Erin R Hotchkiss, Pirkko Kortelainen, Monica M Palta, Tobias Vrede, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer
Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM) - the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems - with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Luis A Buatois, John Almond, M Gabriela Mángano, Sören Jensen, Gerard J B Germs
Trace fossils of sediment bulldozers are documented from terminal Ediacaran strata of the Nama Group in Namibia, where they occur in the Spitskop Member of the Urusis Formation (Schwarzrand Subgroup). They consist of unilobate to bilobate horizontal to subhorizontal trace fossils describing scribbles, circles and, more rarely, open spirals and meanders, and displaying an internal structure indicative of active fill. Their presence suggests that exploitation of the shallow infaunal ecospace by relatively large bilaterians was already well underway at the dawn of the Phanerozoic...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tae Gwan Kim, Guy R Knudsen
Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p <0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Martin A Stapanian, Charles P Madenjian, Stuart A Batterman, Sergei M Chernyak, William H Edwards, Peter B McIntyre
We tested the hypothesis of the proportion of higher chlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners increasing with increasing trophic level by comparing the respective PCB homologue distributions in an omnivore, white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni), and a top predator, coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch), from Lake Michigan. Adult females had the same congener and homologue proportions of total PCB concentration (ΣPCB) as adult males in both species. Hexachlorinated congeners comprised the largest proportion (32%) found in white sucker, followed by heptachlorinated (21%) and octochlorinated (18%) congeners...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
M I Gladyshev
For the first time, the quantity of protectors of cardiovascular deceases-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA), obtained through fish (Eurasian perch) catch in water bodies of different trophic status was determined. A formula was drawn to calculate the quantity of obtained EPA + DHA (kg km-2 year-1 ) depending on the concentration of total phosphorus in water. It is found that the maximum quantity of EPA + DHA can be obtained by humans from fish caught in mesotrophic water bodies...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Yves Cherel, Charline Parenteau, Paco Bustamante, Charles-André Bost
The poorly known winter foraging ecology of the king penguin, a major Southern Ocean consumer, was investigated at the subantarctic Crozet Islands where the largest global population breeds. Blood δ13 C and δ15 N values were used as proxies of the birds' foraging habitat and diet, respectively, and circulating prolactin levels helped in determining the birds' reproductive status. Plasma prolactin concentrations showed that king penguin adults of unknown breeding status ( n  = 52) that were present at the colony in winter were in fact breeders and failed breeders, but were not non -breeders...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Matthew B G J Brown, Chrissen E C Gemmill, Steven Miller, Priscilla M Wehi
Insects are important but overlooked components of forest ecosystems in New Zealand. For many insect species, information on foraging patterns and trophic relationships is lacking. We examined diet composition and selectivity in a large-bodied insect, the Auckland tree wētā Hemideina thoracica , in three habitat zones in a lowland New Zealand forest. We asked whether H. thoracica selectively forage from available plant food sources, and whether these choices were lipid-rich compared to nonpreferred available plants...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Christien P Laber, Jonathan E Hunter, Filipa Carvalho, James R Collins, Elias J Hunter, Brittany M Schieler, Emmanuel Boss, Kuldeep More, Miguel Frada, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Christopher M Brown, Liti Haramaty, Justin Ossolinski, Helen Fredricks, Jozef I Nissimov, Rebecca Vandzura, Uri Sheyn, Yoav Lehahn, Robert J Chant, Ana M Martins, Marco J L Coolen, Assaf Vardi, Giacomo R DiTullio, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Kay D Bidle
Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100 km) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Ariel A Salas, Peng Li, Kelli Parks, Charitharth V Lal, Camilia R Martin, Waldemar A Carlo
Background: Due to insufficient evidence, extremely preterm infants (≤28 wk of gestation) rarely receive early progressive feeding (small increments of feeding volumes between 1 and 4 d after birth). We hypothesized that early progressive feeding increases the number of full enteral feeding days in the first month after birth. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of early progressive feeding in extremely preterm infants...
February 24, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Birgit Gansfort, Jana Uthoff, Walter Traunspurger
Investigations of the interplay of organisms in an ecological community are a prerequisite to understanding the processes that shape the structures of those communities. Among several types of interactions, interest in the positive interactions of species that compete for the same resource has grown, as they may provide a mechanism enabling coexistence. In the laboratory experiment described herein, the effects of interspecific interaction on the population growth of two bacterial-feeding nematode species, Panagrolaimus cf...
March 10, 2018: Oecologia
Maryam Safahani, Hadi Aligholi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Djalali, Hamideh Pishva, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Ali Gorji, Fariba Koohdani
OBJECTIVE: Adult hypothalamic neurogenesis has been considered a central regulator of energy balance. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, influences the body fat mass and reduces the amount of adipose tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of RSV on dynamic of hypothalamic neurons in a diet-induced obesity model of mice. METHODS: Apoptosis, neurogenesis, the expression of the main trophic factors, and the fate of newborn cells were evaluated in the hypothalamus of adult male C57 BL/6 J mice fed a normal diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or an HF diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg RSV (HF + RSV) for 6 wk...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
Valentina Filimonova, Marleen De Troch, Fernando Gonçalves, João C Marques, Sérgio M Marques, Ana M M Gonçalves, Frederik De Laender
Pesticides and metals are often used in agriculture and are therefore often simultaneously discharged to nearby estuarine and marine areas. The effects of this organic-inorganic chemical mixture on food quality of aquatic organisms are currently unknown. In this study we test if a mixture of copper (inorganic) and the herbicide Primextra® Gold TZ (organic) affects the quality of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the copepod Acartia tonsa - two key species that fuel the local food-web. We quantified quality (i...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Paula M Calvo, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as VEGF-A, was discovered due to its vasculogenic and angiogenic activity, but a neuroprotective role for VEGF was later proven for lesions and disorders. In different models of motoneuronal degeneration, VEGF administration leads to a significant reduction of motoneuronal death. However, there is no information about the physiological state of spared motoneurons. We examined the trophic role of VEGF on axotomized motoneurons with recordings in alert animals using the oculomotor system as the experimental model, complemented with a synaptic study at the confocal microscopy level...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Mathias Rathe, Rene L Shen, Per T Sangild
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mucositis is a common adverse effect of cytotoxic anticancer treatment with serious implications for the quality of life, morbidity and mortality of cancers patients. Although, evidence supporting the use of certain treatments exists there is no gold standard for preventing or treating mucositis. Current management strategies are scarce with recommendations referring primarily to specific cytotoxic treatment regimens in certain clinical scenarios. RECENT FINDINGS: Trophic factors may contribute to preserve epithelial integrity, function, and accelerate regeneration after chemotherapeutic treatment...
March 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
March 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"