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Elasmobranch

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785340/comparing-the-catch-composition-profitability-and-discard-survival-from-different-trammel-net-designs-targeting-common-spiny-lobster-palinurus-elephas-in-a-mediterranean-fishery
#1
Gaetano Catanese, Hilmar Hinz, Maria Del Mar Gil, Miquel Palmer, Michael Breen, Antoni Mira, Elena Pastor, Amalia Grau, Andrea Campos-Candela, Elka Koleva, Antoni Maria Grau, Beatriz Morales-Nin
In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF) and the use of a guarding net or greca , a mesh piece intended to reduce discards...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764943/microscopic-and-molecular-evidence-of-the-first-elasmobranch-adomavirus-the-cause-of-skin-disease-in-a-giant-guitarfish-rhynchobatus-djiddensis
#2
Jennifer A Dill, Alvin C Camus, John H Leary, Terry Fei Fan Ng
Only eight families of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are known to infect vertebrate animals. During an investigation of papillomatous skin disease in an elasmobranch species, the giant guitarfish ( Rhynchobatus djiddensis ), a novel virus, distinct from all known viral families in regard to particle size, morphology, genome organization, and helicase phylogeny was discovered. Large inclusion bodies containing 75-nm icosahedral viral particles were present within epithelial cell nuclei in the proliferative skin lesions...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756297/retinal-specializations-and-visual-ecology-in-an-animal-with-an-extremely-elaborate-pupil-shape-the-little-skate-leucoraja-raja-erinacea-mitchell-1825
#3
S Terrell Jinson, Jan Liebich, Stephen L Senft, Lydia M Mäthger
Investigating retinal specializations offers insights into eye functionality. Using retinal wholemount techniques, we investigated the distribution of retinal ganglion cells in the Little skate Leucoraja erinacea by (1) dye-backfilling into the optic nerve prior to retinal wholemounting; (2) Nissl-staining of retinal wholemounts. Retinas were examined for regional specializations (higher numbers) of ganglion cells that would indicate higher visual acuity in those areas. Total ganglion cell number were low compared to other elasmobranchs (backfilled: average 49,713 total ganglion cells, average peak cell density 1,315 ganglion cells mm-2 ; Nissl-stained: average 47,791 total ganglion cells, average peak cell density 1,319 ganglion cells mm-2 )...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755504/molecular-identification-of-shark-meat-from-local-markets-in-southern-brazil-based-on-dna-barcoding-evidence-for-mislabeling-and-trade-of-endangered-species
#4
Fernanda Almerón-Souza, Christian Sperb, Carolina L Castilho, Pedro I C C Figueiredo, Leonardo T Gonçalves, Rodrigo Machado, Larissa R Oliveira, Victor H Valiati, Nelson J R Fagundes
Elasmobranchs, the group of cartilaginous fishes that include sharks and rays, are especially vulnerable to overfishing due to low fecundity and late sexual maturation. A significant number of elasmobranch species are currently overexploited or threatened by fisheries activities. Additionally, several recent reports have indicated that there has been a reduction in regional elasmobranch population sizes. Brazil is an important player in elasmobranch fisheries and one of the largest importers of shark meat. However, carcasses entering the shark meat market have usually had their fins and head removed, which poses a challenge to reliable species identification based on the morphology of captured individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703988/artisanal-shark-fishing-in-milne-bay-province-papua-new-guinea-biomass-estimation-from-genetically-identified-shark-and-ray-fins
#5
S A Appleyard, W T White, S Vieira, B Sabub
Our study is the first detailed examination of species composition using DNA COI barcoding of elasmobranchs from an artisanal fishery of Papua New Guinea. The study is the first in the region to provide biomass estimates based on species confirmation following examination of dried fins. Over 20 species of elasmobranchs were identified from 623 fins from the artisanal fishery in Milne Bay Province of PNG, with Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and Carcharhinus melanopterus the most abundant species in the catches. Of concern, 21% of fins examined were from IUCN listed threatened species (Vulnerable or Endangered) with 8% of fins from the Endangered scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691698/food-approach-conditioning-and-discrimination-learning-using-sound-cues-in-benthic-sharks
#6
Catarina Vila Pouca, Culum Brown
The marine environment is filled with biotic and abiotic sounds. Some of these sounds predict important events that influence fitness while others are unimportant. Individuals can learn specific sound cues and 'soundscapes' and use them for vital activities such as foraging, predator avoidance, communication and orientation. Most research with sounds in elasmobranchs has focused on hearing thresholds and attractiveness to sound sources, but very little is known about their abilities to learn about sounds, especially in benthic species...
April 24, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677704/morphology-of-a-hidden-tube-resin-injection-and-ct-scanning-reveal-the-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-spiracle-in-the-japanese-bullhead-shark-heterodontus-japonicus-chondrichthyes-heterodontiformes-heterodontidae
#7
Taketeru Tomita, Minoru Toda, Kei Miyamoto, Keiichi Ueda, Kazuhiro Nakaya
The spiracle of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) is a gill-slit-derived tube located behind the eye. Its inner structure was well studied in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century, but its entire morphology has rarely been characterized and is poorly understood. The present study shows the three-dimensional morphology of the spiracular tube for the first time, using resin injection and CT scanning, in the Japanese bullhead shark. The spiracular tube is characterized by the presence of two caeca (dorsal and ventral spiracular caeca) on the medial wall of the spiracular tube and the presence of a pseudobranch on the anterior wall...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663690/cranial-pair-0-the-nervus-terminalis
#8
Angel Peña-Melian, Juan Pablo Cabello-de la Rosa, Maria Jose Gallardo-Alcañiz, Julia Vaamonde-Gamo, Fernanda Relea-Calatayud, Lucia Gonzalez-Lopez, Patricia Villanueva-Anguita, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662086/persistence-of-the-abcc6-genes-and-the-emergence-of-the-bony-skeleton-in-vertebrates
#9
Bruna Parreira, João C R Cardoso, Rita Costa, Ana Rita Couto, Jácome Bruges-Armas, Deborah M Power
The ATP-binding cassette transporter 6 (ABCC6) gene encodes a cellular transmembrane protein transporter (MRP6) that is involved in the regulation of tissue calcification in mammals. Mutations in ABCC6 are associated with human ectopic calcification disorders. To gain insight into its evolution and involvement in tissue calcification we conducted a comparative analysis of the ABCC6 gene and the related gene ABCC1 from invertebrates to vertebrates where a bony endoskeleton first evolved. Taking into consideration the role of ABCC6 in ectopic calcification of human skin we analysed the involvement of both genes in the regeneration of scales, mineralized structures that develop in fish skin...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563648/development-and-application-of-a-machine-learning-algorithm-for-classification-of-elasmobranch-behaviour-from-accelerometry-data
#10
L R Brewster, J J Dale, T L Guttridge, S H Gruber, A C Hansell, M Elliott, I G Cowx, N M Whitney, A C Gleiss
Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification. We assessed the performance of several machine learning (ML) classifiers to discern five behaviours performed by accelerometer-equipped juvenile lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) at Bimini, Bahamas (25°44'N, 79°16'W)...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549563/phylogenetic-evidence-for-an-ancestral-coevolution-between-a-major-clade-of-coccidian-parasites-and-elasmobranch-hosts
#11
Raquel Xavier, Joana L Santos, Ana Veríssimo
Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest jawed vertebrates and are also reported to be the hosts of some of the most basal lineages of Cestoda and Aporocotylidae (Digenea) parasites. Recently a phylogenetic analysis of the coccidia (Apicomplexa) infecting marine vertebrates revealed that the lesser spotted dogfish harbours parasite lineages basal to Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and the group formed by Schellackia Reichenow, 1919, Lankesterella Ames, 1923, Caryospora Leger, 1904 and Isospora Schneider, 1881. In the present study we have found additional lineages of coccidian parasites infecting the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus Mitchill and the blue shark Prionace glauca Linnaeus...
May 2018: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530311/monogenean-parasite-cultures-current-techniques-and-recent-advances
#12
Kate Suzanne Hutson, Alexander Karlis Brazenor, David Brendan Vaughan, Alejandro Trujillo-González
Global expansion in fish production and trade of aquatic ornamental species requires advances in aquatic animal health management. Aquatic parasite cultures permit diverse research opportunities to understand parasite-host dynamics and are essential to validate the efficacy of treatments that could reduce infections in captive populations. Monogeneans are important pathogenic parasites of captured captive fishes and exhibit a single-host life cycle, which makes them amenable to in vivo culture. Continuous cultures of oviparous monogenean parasites provide a valuable resource of eggs, oncomiracidia (larvae) and adult parasites for use in varied ecological and applied scientific research...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528459/molecular-phylogeny-and-dating-reveal-a-terrestrial-origin-in-the-early-carboniferous-for-ascaridoid-nematodes
#13
Liang Li, Liang Lü, Steven A Nadler, David I Gibson, Lu-Ping Zhang, Hui-Xia Chen, Wen-Ting Zhao, Yan-Ning Guo
Ascaridoids are among the commonest groups of zooparasitic nematodes (roundworms) and occur in the alimentary canal of all major vertebrate groups, including humans. They have an extremely high diversity and are of major socio-economic importance. However, their evolutionary history remains poorly known. Here we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Ascaridoidea. Our results divided the Ascaridoidea into six monophyletic major clades, i.e. the Heterocheilidae, Acanthocheilidae, Anisakidae, Ascarididae, Toxocaridae and Raphidascarididae, among which the Heterocheilidae, rather than the Acanthocheilidae, represents the sister clade to the remaining ascaridoids...
March 8, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514874/aquatic-acidification-a-mechanism-underpinning-maintained-oxygen-transport-and-performance-in-fish-experiencing-elevated-carbon-dioxide-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Kelly D Hannan, Jodie L Rummer
Aquatic acidification, caused by elevating levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is increasing in both freshwater and marine ecosystems worldwide. However, few studies have examined how acidification will affect oxygen (O2 ) transport and, therefore, performance in fishes. Although data are generally lacking, the majority of fishes investigated in this meta-analysis exhibited no effect of elevated CO2 at the level of O2 uptake, suggesting that they are able to maintain metabolic performance during a period of acidosis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510152/changes-in-sex-steroid-hormone-levels-reflect-the-reproductive-status-of-captive-female-zebra-sharks-stegostoma-fasciatum
#15
Ryo Nozu, Kiyomi Murakumo, Nagisa Yano, Rina Furuyama, Rui Matsumoto, Makio Yanagisawa, Keiichi Sato
Captive breeding in aquaria is a useful means for ex situ preservation of threatened elasmobranch species. To promote captive breeding, it is important to determine the female reproductive status. However, information regarding reproductive status in female elasmobranchs is limited. Here, we used zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, as a model for elasmobranch reproduction in captivity. We investigated the relationships among changes in the sex steroid hormone levels, follicle size, and egg-laying period to develop indicators for the female reproductive status...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505345/marine-leech-anticoagulant-diversity-and-evolution
#16
Michael Tessler, David Marancik, Donald Champagne, Alistair Dove, Alvin Camus, Mark E Siddall, Sebastian Kvist
Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482030/the-physiological-stress-response-of-the-atlantic-stingray-hypanus-sabinus-to-aerial-exposure
#17
Faith N Lambert, Jason R Treberg, W Gary Anderson, Catherine Brandt, Andrew N Evans
Although secondary stress physiology of elasmobranchs is fairly well studied, gaps remain in our understanding of species differences, including stress recovery. We examined the physiological stress response to air exposure in Atlantic stingrays (Hypanus sabinus) using a serial sampling method requiring minimal handling. Many elasmobranch stress studies exclusively quantify glucose, although there is evidence that elasmobranchs are unusually reliant on ketone bodies. Therefore, we also tested the hypothesis that ketone bodies play a significant role in the elasmobranch stress response by examining plasma β-hydroxybutyrate...
May 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463851/dna-based-identification-reveals-illegal-trade-of-threatened-shark-species-in-a-global-elasmobranch-conservation-hotspot
#18
Leonardo Manir Feitosa, Ana Paula Barbosa Martins, Tommaso Giarrizzo, Wagner Macedo, Iann Leonardo Monteiro, Romário Gemaque, Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes, Fernanda Gomes, Horácio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio, Rosália Souza, João Bráullio Sales, Luís Fernando Rodrigues-Filho, Lígia Tchaicka, Luís Fernando Carvalho-Costa
Here, we report trading of endangered shark species in a world hotspot for elasmobranch conservation in Brazil. Data on shark fisheries are scarce in Brazil, although the northern and northeastern regions have the highest indices of shark bycatch. Harvest is made primarily with processed carcasses lacking head and fins, which hampers reliable species identification and law enforcement on illegal catches. We used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and/or NADH2) to identify 17 shark species from 427 samples being harvested and marketed on the northern coast of Brazil...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462584/evolution-vertebrate-limb-control-over-420-million-years
#19
Sten Grillner
The neural circuits that control elasmobranch fins and the mammalian limbs have been found to exhibit striking similarities at the molecular, cellular and behavioral levels. The implication is that the neural substrate underlying limb control had already evolved 420 million years ago.
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432864/intestinal-granular-cells-of-a-cartilaginous-fish-thornback-ray-raja-clavata-morphological-characterization-and-expression-of-different-molecules
#20
B Sayyaf Dezfuli, M Manera, G Bosi, P Merella, J A DePasquale, L Giari
This investigation aims to fill gaps in our understanding of the intestinal immune cells of elasmobranchs. Whole digestive tracts of fifteen thornback ray Raja clavata were provided by a trawl fleet from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations were conducted on the spiral intestine. Three types of granular cells were identified; type I in epithelium, types II and III in lamina propria-submucosa, with each of them containing cytoplasmic granules with different ultrastructural characteristics...
April 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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