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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088106/uv-a-induced-delayed-development-in-the-larvae-of-coral-seriatopora-caliendrum
#1
Jie Zhou, Tung-Yung Fan, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Coral reefs are vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400nm). Not only do the fluxes of UVR fluctuate daily, they are also increasing due to global ocean and atmospheric changes. The deleterious effects of UVR on scleractinian corals have been intensively studied, but much less is known about the response of corals in the early pre-settlement phase. In this study, we tested how UVR exposure affects survival and development of Seriatopora caliendrum larvae and examined the photophysiological changes induced in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087656/conspecific-aggregations-mitigate-the-effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-calcification-of-the-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa
#2
Nicolas R Evensen, Peter J Edmunds
In densely populated communities, such as coral reefs, organisms can modify the physical and chemical environment for neighbouring individuals. We tested the hypothesis that colony density (12 colonies each placed∼0.5 cm apart versus∼8 cm apart) can modulate the physiological response (measured through rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration in the light and dark) of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa to pCO2 treatments (∼ 400 µatm and∼1200 µatm) by altering the seawater flow regimes experienced by colonies placed in aggregations within a flume at a single flow speed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077772/phylogenomics-provides-new-insight-into-evolutionary-relationships-and-genealogical-discordance-in-the-reef-building-coral-genus-acropora
#3
Natalie L Rosser, Luke Thomas, Sean Stankowski, Zoe T Richards, W Jason Kennington, Michael S Johnson
Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation is a long-standing goal of speciation research. In recently diverged populations, genealogical discordance may reveal genes and genomic regions that contribute to the speciation process. Previous work has shown that conspecific colonies of Acropora that spawn in different seasons (spring and autumn) are associated with highly diverged lineages of the phylogenetic marker PaxC Here, we used 10 034 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to generate a genome-wide phylogeny and compared it with gene genealogies from the PaxC intron and the mtDNA Control Region in 20 species of Acropora, including three species with spring- and autumn-spawning cohorts...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074021/the-assimilation-of-diazotroph-derived-nitrogen-by-scleractinian-corals-depends-on-their-metabolic-status
#4
Vanessa N Bednarz, Renaud Grover, Jean-François Maguer, Maoz Fine, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
: Tropical corals are associated with a diverse community of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) providing the coral an additional source of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in oligotrophic waters. The overall activity of these diazotrophs changes depending on the current environmental conditions, but to what extent it affects the assimilation of diazotroph-derived N (DDN) by corals is still unknown. Here, in a series of (15)N2 tracer experiments, we directly quantified DDN assimilation by scleractinian corals from the Red Sea exposed to different environmental conditions...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072444/predator-effects-on-reef-fish-settlement-depend-on-predator-origin-and-recruit-density
#5
Cassandra E Benkwitt
During major life-history transitions animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native versus non-native) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070307/global-ecological-success-of-thalassoma-fishes-in-extreme-coral-reef-habitats
#6
Christopher J Fulton, Peter C Wainwright, Andrew S Hoey, David R Bellwood
Phenotypic adaptations can allow organisms to relax abiotic selection and facilitate their ecological success in challenging habitats, yet we have relatively little data for the prevalence of this phenomenon at macroecological scales. Using data on the relative abundance of coral reef wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) spread across three ocean basins and the Red Sea, we reveal the consistent global dominance of extreme wave-swept habitats by fishes in the genus Thalassoma, with abundances up to 15 times higher than any other labrid...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067281/spatial-competition-dynamics-between-reef-corals-under-ocean-acidification
#7
Rael Horwitz, Mia O Hoogenboom, Maoz Fine
Climate change, including ocean acidification (OA), represents a major threat to coral-reef ecosystems. Although previous experiments have shown that OA can negatively affect the fitness of reef corals, these have not included the long-term effects of competition for space on coral growth rates. Our multispecies year-long study subjected reef-building corals from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) to competitive interactions under present-day ocean pH (pH 8.1) and predicted end-of-century ocean pH (pH 7.6). Results showed coral growth is significantly impeded by OA under intraspecific competition for five out of six study species...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056064/marine-reserve-targets-to-sustain-and-rebuild-unregulated-fisheries
#8
Nils C Krueck, Gabby N Ahmadia, Hugh P Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A Treml, Peter J Mumby
Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054550/the-emergent-role-of-small-bodied-herbivores-in-pre-empting-phase-shifts-on-degraded-coral-reefs
#9
Caitlin D Kuempel, Andrew H Altieri
Natural and anthropogenic stressors can cause phase shifts from coral-dominated to algal-dominated states. In the Caribbean, over-fishing of large herbivorous fish and disease among the long-spined urchin, Diadema, have facilitated algal growth on degraded reefs. We found that diminutive species of urchin and parrotfish, which escaped die-offs and fishing pressure, can achieve abundances comparable to total herbivore biomass on healthier, protected reefs, and exert sufficient grazing function to pre-empt macroalgal dominance following mass coral mortality...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046102/the-effects-of-algal-turf-sediments-and-organic-loads-on-feeding-by-coral-reef-surgeonfishes
#10
Sterling B Tebbett, Christopher H R Goatley, David R Bellwood
Herbivorous and detritivorous fishes interact closely with the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) on coral reefs. While sediment and organic detrital loads within the EAM might influence this interaction, the responses of functionally distinct fishes to changing sediment and organic loads have not been investigated. Aquarium based feeding trials were performed to assess how different sediment and organic loads affected feeding by the highly abundant surgeonfishes, Ctenochaetus striatus, a detritivore, and Acanthurus nigrofuscus, a herbivore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040252/tropical-co2-seeps-reveal-the-impact-of-ocean-acidification-on-coral-reef-invertebrate-recruitment
#11
Ro Allen, Andrew Foggo, Katharina Fabricius, Annalisa Balistreri, Jason M Hall-Spencer
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification by reducing seawater pH and carbonate saturation levels. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that many larval and juvenile marine invertebrates are vulnerable to these changes in surface ocean chemistry, but challenges remain in predicting effects at community and ecosystem levels. We investigated the effect of ocean acidification on invertebrate recruitment at two coral reef CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. Invertebrate communities differed significantly between 'reference' (median pH7...
December 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040251/geochemical-partitioning-of-lead-in-biogenic-carbonate-sediments-in-a-coral-reef-depositional-environment
#12
Guillermo Horta-Puga
The fate of trace elements in reef depositional environments has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of Pb in sediments of the Veracruz Reef System, and its relation to local environmental sources. Lead was determined in four geochemical fractions: exchangeable (3.8±0.4μgg(-1)), carbonate (57.0±13.6μgg(-1)), organic matter (2.0±0.9μgg(-1)), and mineral (17.5±5.4μgg(-1)). For the mineral fraction, lead concentrations were higher in those reefs influenced by river discharge or by long-distance transport of terrigenous sediments...
December 28, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038886/current-challenges-in-photoprotection
#13
Henry W Lim, Maria-Ivonne Arellano-Mendoza, Fernando Stengel
Electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges all produce biologic effects. Ultraviolet filters are the most well-studied photoprotective measure for the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Because of the reported endocrinologic effects of oxybenzone in animal studies, its effects on coral reefs, and its photocontact allergy potential, its use has been minimized in many countries worldwide. New developments in topical antioxidants and oral and subcutaneous agents (eg, Polypodium leucotomos extract, afamelanotide, nicotinamide) with photoprotective and antiphotocarcinogenic properties could potentially provide addition modalities for protection against the effects of visible light and infrared radiation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034494/fighting-nemo-effect-of-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-ee2-on-aggressive-behavior-and-social-hierarchy-of-the-false-clown-anemonefish-amphiprion-ocellaris
#14
Te-Hao Chen, Chun-Yu Hsieh
Aggressive behavior is crucial for maintaining social hierarchy in anemonefish. Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as EE2 may affect fish social hierarchy via disrupting their aggression. In this study, we aimed to characterize the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on aggressive behavior and social hierarchy in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris). In the laboratory experiment, juvenile anemonefish were randomly distributed to separated tanks to form small colonies of three individuals and were fed with EE2-dosed diet (100ng/g food) or a control diet for 90d...
December 26, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028593/quantification-of-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dmsp-in-acropora-spp-of-reef-building-coral-using-mass-spectrometry-with-deuterated-internal-standard
#15
Hilton B Swan, Elisabeth S M Deschaseaux, Graham B Jones, Bradley D Eyre
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in scleractinian coral is usually analysed indirectly as dimethylsulfide (DMS) using gas chromatography (GC) with a sulfur-specific detector. We developed a headspace GC method for mass spectral analysis of DMSP in branching coral where hexa-deuterated DMSP (d 6 -DMSP) was added to samples and standards to optimise the analytical precision and quantitative accuracy. Using this indirect HS-GC-MS method, we show that common coral sample handling techniques did not alter DMSP concentrations in Acropora aspera and that endogenous DMS was insignificant compared to the store of DMSP in A...
December 27, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027580/effects-of-predation-and-nutrient-enrichment-on-the-success-and-microbiome-of-a-foundational-coral
#16
Elizabeth C Shaver, Andrew A Shantz, Ryan McMinds, Deron E Burkepile, Rebecca L Vega Thurber, Brian R Silliman
By inflicting damage to prey tissues, consumer species may increase stress in prey hosts and reduce overall fitness (i.e., primary effects, such as growth or reproduction) or cause secondary effects by affecting prey interactions with other species such as microbes. However, little is known about how abiotic conditions affect the outcomes of these biotic interactions. In coral reef communities, both nutrient enrichment and predation have been linked to reduced fitness and disease facilitation in corals, yet no study to date has tested their combined effects on corals or their associated microbial communities (i...
December 27, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018855/genome-sequencing-of-three-bacteria-associated-to-black-band-disease-from-a-colombian-reef-building-coral
#17
Juan Henao, Hermes Pérez, Deisy Abril, Katterine Ospina, Adriana Piza, Kelly Botero, Cristhian Rincón, Jhon Donato, Andrea Hurtado, Erika García, Vanessa Otero, Alexander Del Risco, Brenda Guerra, Yina Cifuentes, Alvaro Ordoñez, Daniel Rojas, Karen Suarez, Daniel Osorio, Andrés Pinzón
We announce the draft genome sequence of three Gram-negative bacteria isolated from coral tissues affected with the black band disease (BBD), identified with the NCBI's Assembly Database accession numbers: MBQF, MAYB and MBQE. These genome drafts constitute an useful tool for the characterisation of these bacteria and for the understanding of the relationship between the microbial consortia associated with the disease and the onset and progression of the pathology.
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006006/the-gulf-of-aden-intermediate-water-intrusion-regulates-the-southern-red-sea-summer-phytoplankton-blooms
#18
Denis Dreano, Dionysios E Raitsos, John Gittings, George Krokos, Ibrahim Hoteit
Knowledge on large-scale biological processes in the southern Red Sea is relatively limited, primarily due to the scarce in situ, and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets. During summer, adverse atmospheric conditions in the southern Red Sea (haze and clouds) have long severely limited the retrieval of satellite ocean colour observations. Recently, a new merged ocean colour product developed by the European Space Agency (ESA)-the Ocean Color Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI)-has substantially improved the southern Red Sea coverage of Chl-a, allowing the discovery of unexpected intense summer blooms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005174/predator-identity-and-time-of-day-interact-to-shape-the-risk-reward-trade-off-for-herbivorous-coral-reef-fishes
#19
Laura B Catano, Mark B Barton, Kevin M Boswell, Deron E Burkepile
Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators occur as prey alters their habitat use and foraging decisions to avoid predation. Although NCEs are recognized as being important across disparate ecosystems, the factors influencing their strength and importance remain poorly understood. Ecological context, such as time of day, predator identity, and prey condition, may modify how prey species perceive and respond to risk, thereby altering NCEs. To investigate how predator identity affects foraging of herbivorous coral reef fishes, we simulated predation risk using fiberglass models of two predator species (grouper Mycteroperca bonaci and barracuda Sphyraena barracuda) with different hunting modes...
December 22, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004835/genomes-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbionts-highlight-evolutionary-adaptations-conducive-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle
#20
M Aranda, Y Li, Y J Liew, S Baumgarten, O Simakov, M C Wilson, J Piel, H Ashoor, S Bougouffa, V B Bajic, T Ryu, T Ravasi, T Bayer, G Micklem, H Kim, J Bhak, T C LaJeunesse, C R Voolstra
Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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