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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930086/outbreaks-of-acropora-white-syndrome-and-terpios-sponge-overgrowth-combined-with-coral-mortality-in-palk-bay-southeast-coast-of-india
#1
T Thinesh, G Mathews, K Diraviya Raj, J K P Edward
Acropora white syndrome (AWS) and Terpios sponge overgrowth (TSO) are serious threats to coral communities in various regions; however, information on these 2 lesions in the Indian Ocean is much more limited than in the Indo-Pacific. The present study revealed the impact of these lesions on the Palk Bay reef, India, and covered an area of 7 km2. In total, 1930 colonies were permanently monitored to assess incidences of AWS and TSO and consequent mortality for a period of 1 yr. TSO affected 5 coral genera and caused 20...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928944/polyp-bailout-in%C3%A2-pocillopora-damicornis-following-thermal-stress
#2
Alexander J Fordyce, Emma F Camp, Tracy D Ainsworth
Polyp bailout is an established but understudied coral stress response that involves the detachment of individual polyps from the colonial form as means of escaping unfavourable conditions. This may influence both the mortality and asexual recruitment of coral genotypes across a range of species. It was first described by Goreau & Goreau (1959) and has been observed in response to numerous stressors including high salinity and low pH. However, polyp bailout has not previously been described in association with thermal stress and the coral bleaching response, which is becoming increasingly common around the world...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919890/pathobiomes-differ-between-two-diseases-affecting-reef-building-coralline-algae
#3
Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Maggy M Nugues, Gaëlle Quéré, Pierre E Galand
Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in coral reef ecosystems. Two diseases affecting CCA have recently been investigated: coralline white band syndrome (CWBS) and coralline white patch disease (CWPD). These diseases can trigger major losses in CCA cover on tropical coral reefs, but their causative agents remain unknown. Here, we provide data from the first investigation of the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased CCA tissues. We show that Neogoniolithon mamillare diseased tissues had distinct microbial communities compared to healthy tissues and demonstrate that CWBS and CWPD were associated with different pathobiomes, indicating that they had different disease causations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919883/a-pcr-based-assay-targeting-the-major-capsid-protein-gene-of-a-dinorna-like-ssrna-virus-that-infects-coral-photosymbionts
#4
Jose Montalvo-Proaño, Patrick Buerger, Karen D Weynberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#5
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915923/season-but-not-symbiont-state-drives-microbiome-structure-in-the-temperate-coral-astrangia-poculata
#6
Koty H Sharp, Zoe A Pratte, Allison H Kerwin, Randi D Rotjan, Frank J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding the associations among corals, their photosynthetic zooxanthella symbionts (Symbiodinium), and coral-associated prokaryotic microbiomes is critical for predicting the fidelity and strength of coral symbioses in the face of growing environmental threats. Most coral-microbiome associations are beneficial, yet the mechanisms that determine the composition of the coral microbiome remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized microbiome diversity in the temperate, facultatively symbiotic coral Astrangia poculata at four seasonal time points near the northernmost limit of the species range...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913420/ghost-reefs-nautical-charts-document-large-spatial-scale-of-coral-reef-loss-over-240-years
#7
Loren McClenachan, Grace O'Connor, Benjamin P Neal, John M Pandolfi, Jeremy B C Jackson
Massive declines in population abundances of marine animals have been documented over century-long time scales. However, analogous loss of spatial extent of habitat-forming organisms is less well known because georeferenced data are rare over long time scales, particularly in subtidal, tropical marine regions. We use high-resolution historical nautical charts to quantify changes to benthic structure over 240 years in the Florida Keys, finding an overall loss of 52% (SE, 6.4%) of the area of the seafloor occupied by corals...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912462/impacts-of-light-limitation-on-corals-and-crustose-coralline-algae
#8
Pia Bessell-Browne, Andrew P Negri, Rebecca Fisher, Peta L Clode, Ross Jones
Turbidity associated with elevated suspended sediment concentrations can significantly reduce underwater light availability. Understanding the consequences for sensitive organisms such as corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA), requires an understanding of tolerance levels and the time course of effects. Adult colonies of Acropora millepora and Pocillopora acuta, juvenile P. acuta, and the CCA Porolithon onkodes were exposed to six light treatments of ~0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.4, 1.1 and 4.3 mol photons m(-2) d(-1), and their physiological responses were monitored over 30 d...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904144/low-recruitment-due-to-altered-settlement-substrata-as-primary-constraint-for-coral-communities-under-ocean-acidification
#9
Katharina E Fabricius, Sam H C Noonan, David Abrego, Lindsay Harrington, Glenn De'ath
The future of coral reefs under increasing CO2 depends on their capacity to recover from disturbances. To predict the recovery potential of coral communities that are fully acclimatized to elevated CO2, we compared the relative success of coral recruitment and later life stages at two volcanic CO2 seeps and adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Our field experiments showed that the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral recruitment rates were up to an order of magnitude greater than the effects on the survival and growth of established corals...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895945/excess-labile-carbon-promotes-the-expression-of-virulence-factors-in-coral-reef-bacterioplankton
#10
Anny Cárdenas, Matthew J Neave, Mohamed Fauzi Haroon, Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Christian Wild, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra
Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows...
September 12, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894640/coral-larvae-for-restoration-and-research-a-large-scale-method-for-rearing-acropora-millepora-larvae-inducing-settlement-and-establishing-symbiosis
#11
F Joseph Pollock, Sefano M Katz, Jeroen A J M van de Water, Sarah W Davies, Margaux Hein, Gergely Torda, Mikhail V Matz, Victor H Beltran, Patrick Buerger, Eneour Puill-Stephan, David Abrego, David G Bourne, Bette L Willis
Here we describe an efficient and effective technique for rearing sexually-derived coral propagules from spawning through larval settlement and symbiont uptake with minimal impact on natural coral populations. We sought to maximize larval survival while minimizing expense and daily husbandry maintenance by experimentally determining optimized conditions and protocols for gamete fertilization, larval cultivation, induction of larval settlement by crustose coralline algae, and inoculation of newly settled juveniles with their dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893981/u-th-dating-reveals-regional-scale-decline-of-branching-acropora-corals-on-the-great-barrier-reef-over-the-past-century
#12
Tara R Clark, George Roff, Jian-Xin Zhao, Yue-Xing Feng, Terence J Done, Laurence J McCook, John M Pandolfi
Hard coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is on a trajectory of decline. However, little is known about past coral mortality before the advent of long-term monitoring (circa 1980s). Using paleoecological analysis and high-precision uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating, we reveal an extensive loss of branching Acropora corals and changes in coral community structure in the Palm Islands region of the central GBR over the past century. In 2008, dead coral assemblages were dominated by large, branching Acropora and living coral assemblages by genera typically found in turbid inshore environments...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893194/de-novo-metatranscriptome-assembly-and-coral-gene-expression-profile-of-montipora-capitata-with-growth-anomaly
#13
Monika Frazier, Martin Helmkampf, M Renee Bellinger, Scott M Geib, Misaki Takabayashi
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals are a vital component of coral reef ecosystems, and of significant cultural and economic value worldwide. As anthropogenic and natural stressors are contributing to a global decline of coral reefs, understanding coral health is critical to help preserve these ecosystems. Growth anomaly (GA) is a coral disease that has significant negative impacts on coral biology, yet our understanding of its etiology and pathology is lacking. In this study we used RNA-seq along with de novo metatranscriptome assembly and homology assignment to identify coral genes that are expressed in three distinct coral tissue types: tissue from healthy corals ("healthy"), GA lesion tissue from diseased corals ("GA-affected") and apparently healthy tissue from diseased corals ("GA-unaffected")...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892853/tracking-trace-elements-into-complex-coral-reef-trophic-networks
#14
Marine J Briand, Paco Bustamante, Xavier Bonnet, Carine Churlaud, Yves Letourneur
The integration, accumulation and transfer of trace elements across the main tropic levels of many food webs are poorly documented. This is notably the case for the complex trophic webs of coral reef ecosystems. Our results show that in the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia both abiotic (i.e. sediments) and biotic (i.e. primary producers, consumers and predators) compartments are contaminated by trace elements. However, our analyses revealed different contamination patterns from the sources of organic matter to the predators...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887778/mapping-sites-of-reef-vulnerability-along-lagoons-of-lakshadweep-archipelago-indian-ocean
#15
Ranith R, Senthilnathan L, Machendiranathan M, Thangaradjou T, Sasamal S K, Choudhury S B
Tissue degradation and mediated mortality have turned into a major threat to coral reef systems around the world. Detailed knowledge on interactions of prime biological factors that mediate tissue loss and mortality is of paramount importance in understanding the prevailing reef health scenario and to trial management actions. In the present study, a series of benthic surveys were conducted in Lakshadweep islands to understand the interactions of plausible biological factors in causing tissue loss and mediated mortality...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881940/predation-in-high-co2-waters-prey-fish-from-high-risk-environments-are-less-susceptible-to-ocean-acidification
#16
Maud C O Ferrari, Mark I McCormick, Sue-Ann Watson, Mark G Meekan, Philip L Munday, Douglas P Chivers
Most studies investigating the effects of anthropogenic environmental stressors do so in conditions that are often optimal for their test subjects, ignoring natural stressors such as competition or predation. As such, the quantitative results from such studies may often underestimate the lethality of certain toxic compounds. A well-known example of this concept is illustrated by the marked increase in the lethality of pesticides when larval amphibians are concurrently exposed to the odor of potential predators...
July 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878988/bias-associated-with-the-detectability-of-the-coral-eating-pest-crown-of-thorns-seastar-and-implications-for-reef-management
#17
Mohsen Kayal, Pauline Bosserelle, Mehdi Adjeroud
Outbreaks of the predator crown-of-thorns seastar (COTS) Acanthaster planci cause widespread coral mortality across the Indo-Pacific. Like many marine invertebrates, COTS is a nocturnal species whose cryptic behaviour during the day can affect its detectability, particularly in structurally complex reef habitats that provide many refuges for benthic creatures. We performed extensive day and night surveys of COTS populations in coral reef habitats showing differing levels of structural complexity and COTS abundance...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878236/sponge-bioerosion-on-changing-reefs-ocean-warming-poses-physiological-constraints-to-the-success-of-a-photosymbiotic-excavating-sponge
#18
Michelle Achlatis, Rene M van der Zande, Christine H L Schönberg, James K H Fang, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Sophie Dove
Excavating sponges are prominent bioeroders on coral reefs that in comparison to other benthic organisms may suffer less or may even benefit from warmer, more acidic and more eutrophic waters. Here, the photosymbiotic excavating sponge Cliona orientalis from the Great Barrier Reef was subjected to a prolonged simulation of both global and local environmental change: future seawater temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as for 2100 summer conditions under "business-as-usual" emissions), and diet supplementation with particulate organics...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877193/body-size-and-substrate-type-modulate-movement-by-the-western-pacific-crown-of-thorns-starfish-acanthaster-solaris
#19
Morgan S Pratchett, Zara-Louise Cowan, Lauren E Nadler, Ciemon F Caballes, Andrew S Hoey, Vanessa Messmer, Cameron S Fletcher, David A Westcott, Scott D Ling
The movement capacity of the crown-of-thorns starfishes (Acanthaster spp.) is a primary determinant of both their distribution and impact on coral assemblages. We quantified individual movement rates for the Pacific crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster solaris) ranging in size from 75-480 mm total diameter, across three different substrates (sand, flat consolidated pavement, and coral rubble) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The mean (±SE) rate of movement for smaller (<150 mm total diameter) A. solaris was 23...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875079/distribution-and-biological-implications-of-plastic-pollution-on-the-fringing-reef-of-mo-orea-french-polynesia
#20
Elizabeth J Connors
Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic < 5 mm) of the fringing reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo'orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo'orea...
2017: PeerJ
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