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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748644/diversity-and-stability-of-coral-endolithic-microbial-communities-at-a-naturally-high-pco2-reef
#1
Vanessa R Marcelino, Kathleen M Morrow, Madeleine J H van Oppen, David G Bourne, Heroen Verbruggen
The health and functioning of reef-building corals is dependent on a balanced association with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. The coral skeleton harbours numerous endolithic microbes, but their diversity, ecological roles and responses to environmental stress, including ocean acidification, are not well characterized. This study tests whether pH affects the diversity and structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal communities associated with skeletons of Porites spp. using targeted amplicon (16S rRNA gene, UPA and tufA) sequencing...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747697/live-reef-fish-displaying-physiological-evidence-of-cyanide-poisoning-are-still-traded-in-the-eu-marine-aquarium-industry
#2
Marcela C M Vaz, Valdemar I Esteves, Ricardo Calado
The illegal use of cyanide poisoning to supply live reef fish to several markets is one of the main threats to coral reefs conservation in the Indo-Pacific. The present study performed the first survey ever monitoring the marine aquarium trade in the EU for the presence of physiological evidence consistent with cyanide poisoning in live reef fish. This survey was also the first one worldwide employing a non-invasive sampling approach. Nearly 15% of the fish screened displayed physiological evidence of being illegally collected using cyanide poisoning (by testing positive for the presence of the thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) in their urine)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740755/identifying-genes-and-regulatory-pathways-associated-with-the-scleractinian-coral-calcification-process
#3
Eldad Gutner-Hoch, Hiba Waldman Ben-Asher, Ruth Yam, Aldo Shemesh, Oren Levy
Reef building corals precipitate calcium carbonate as an exo-skeleton and provide substratum for prosperous marine life. Biomineralization of the coral's skeleton is a developmental process that occurs concurrently with other proliferation processes that control the animal extension and growth. The development of the animal body is regulated by large gene regulatory networks, which control the expression of gene sets that progressively generate developmental patterns in the animal body. In this study we have explored the gene expression profile and signaling pathways followed by the calcification process of a basal metazoan, the Red Sea scleractinian (stony) coral, Stylophora pistillata...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736477/long-term-exposure-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide-does-not-alter-activity-levels-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-response-to-predator-chemical-cues
#4
Josefin Sundin, Mirjam Amcoff, Fernando Mateos-González, Graham D Raby, Fredrik Jutfelt, Timothy D Clark
ABSTRACT: Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733994/seasonal-recruitment-and-survival-strategies-of-palisada-cervicornis-comb-nov-ceramiales-rhodophyta-in-coral-reefs
#5
Ligia Collado-Vides, Alain Duran, Elizabeth Armenis, Valéria Cassano, Deron Burkepile, Andrew A Shantz, Laura Palma, Jhoana Díaz-Larrea, Abel Sentíes, Mutue Toyota Fujii
As marine tropical ecosystems deteriorate and lose biodiversity, their communities are shifting to being dominated by a few species, altering ecosystem's functioning and services. Macroalgae are becoming dominant on coral reefs, and are frequently observed outcompeting corals. Turf algal assemblages are the base of energy flow in these systems and one of the most abundant types of macroalgae on coral reefs, but little is known about their biology and diversity. Through molecular and morphological analyses, we identified the turf-forming species Laurencia cervicornis, and by studying seasonal recruitment and the impact of herbivorous fishes on its abundance, we describe its survival strategy...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733785/fertiliser-management-effects-on-dissolved-inorganic-nitrogen-in-runoff-from-australian-sugarcane-farms
#6
Grant Fraser, Ken Rohde, Mark Silburn
Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) movement from Australian sugarcane farms is believed to be a major cause of crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks which have reduced the Great Barrier Reef coral cover by ~21% (1985-2012). We develop a daily model of DIN concentration in runoff based on >200 field monitored runoff events. Runoff DIN concentrations were related to nitrogen fertiliser application rates and decreased after application with time and cumulative rainfall. Runoff after liquid fertiliser applications had higher initial DIN concentrations, though these concentrations diminished more rapidly in comparison to granular fertiliser applications...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727232/functional-genomic-analysis-of-corals-from-natural-co2-seeps-reveals-core-molecular-responses-involved-in-acclimatization-to-ocean-acidification
#7
C D Kenkel, A Moya, J Strahl, C Humphrey, L K Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2 . In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the pattern of change was highly consistent between replicate populations, likely reflecting the core expression homeostasis response to ocean acidification...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727218/altered-sediment-biota-and-lagoon-habitat-carbonate-dynamics-due-to-sea-cucumber-bioturbation-in-a-high-pco2-environment
#8
Kennedy Wolfe, Francisco Vidal-Ramirez, Sophie Dove, Dione Deaker, Maria Byrne
The effects of global change on biological systems and functioning are already measureable, but how ecological interactions are being altered is poorly understood. Ecosystem resilience is strengthened by ecological functionality, which depends on trophic interactions between key species and resilience generated through biogenic buffering. Climate-driven alterations to coral reef metabolism, structural complexity and biodiversity are well documented, but the feedbacks between ocean change and trophic interactions of non-coral invertebrates are understudied...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724688/dopamine-d1-receptor-activation-leads-to-object-recognition-memory-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#9
Trevor J Hamilton, Martin Tresguerres, David I Kline
Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720387/the-other-microeukaryotes-of-the-coral-reef-microbiome
#10
REVIEW
T D Ainsworth, A J Fordyce, E F Camp
In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral-microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717388/heritability-of-behavioural-tolerance-to-high-co2-in-a-coral-reef-fish-is-masked-by-nonadaptive-phenotypic-plasticity
#11
Megan J Welch, Philip L Munday
Previous studies have demonstrated limited potential for acclimation of adversely affected olfactory behaviours in reef fishes under elevated CO 2, indicating that genetic adaptation will be required to maintain behavioural performance in the future. Adaptation depends on the presence of heritable phenotypic variation in the trait, which may differ between populations and environments. We used parent-offspring regressions to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of variation in behavioural tolerance to high CO 2 (754 μatm) in both field-collected and laboratory-reared families of Acanthochromis polyacanthus...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713652/fungi-associated-with-mesophotic-macroalgae-from-the-au-au-channel-west-maui-are-differentiated-by-host-and-overlap-terrestrial-communities
#12
Benjamin J Wainwright, Geoffrey L Zahn, Heather L Spalding, Alison R Sherwood, Celia M Smith, Anthony S Amend
Mesophotic coral ecosystems are an almost entirely unexplored and undocumented environment that likely contains vast reservoirs of undescribed biodiversity. Twenty-four macroalgae samples, representing four genera, were collected from a Hawaiian mesophotic reef at water depths between 65 and 86 m in the 'Au'au Channel, Maui, Hawai'i. Algal tissues were surveyed for the presence and diversity of fungi by sequencing the ITS1 gene using Illumina technology. Fungi from these algae were then compared to previous fungal surveys conducted in Hawaiian terrestrial ecosystems...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713348/engineering-strategies-to-decode-and-enhance-the-genomes-of-coral-symbionts
#13
Rachel A Levin, Christian R Voolstra, Shobhit Agrawal, Peter D Steinberg, David J Suggett, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Elevated sea surface temperatures from a severe and prolonged El Niño event (2014-2016) fueled by climate change have resulted in mass coral bleaching (loss of dinoflagellate photosymbionts, Symbiodinium spp., from coral tissues) and subsequent coral mortality, devastating reefs worldwide. Genetic variation within and between Symbiodinium species strongly influences the bleaching tolerance of corals, thus recent papers have called for genetic engineering of Symbiodinium to elucidate the genetic basis of bleaching-relevant Symbiodinium traits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710443/defying-dissolution-discovery-of-deep-sea-scleractinian-coral-reefs-in-the-north-pacific
#14
Amy R Baco, Nicole Morgan, E Brendan Roark, Mauricio Silva, Kathryn E F Shamberger, Kelci Miller
Deep-sea scleractinian coral reefs are protected ecologically and biologically significant areas that support global fisheries. The absence of observations of deep-sea scleractinian reefs in the Central and Northeast Pacific, combined with the shallow aragonite saturation horizon (ASH) and high carbonate dissolution rates there, fueled the hypothesis that reef formation in the North Pacific was improbable. Despite this, we report the discovery of live scleractinian reefs on six seamounts of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamount Chain at depths of 535-732 m and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) values of 0...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710419/generation-of-clade-and-symbiont-specific-antibodies-to-characterize-marker-molecules-during-cnidaria-symbiodinium-endosymbiosis
#15
Kao-Jean Huang, Zi-Yu Huang, Ching-Yen Lin, Li-Hsueh Wang, Pin-Hsiang Chou, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Hsing-Hui Li
The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is responsible for the formation of coral reefs. Changes in molecules have been identified during the process of cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, the complexity of the molecular interaction has prevented the establishment of a mechanistic explanation of cellular regulation in this mutualistic symbiosis. To date, no marker molecules have been identified to specifically represent the symbiotic status. Because the endosymbiotic association occurs in the symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs), whole cells of isolated SGCs were used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to screen possible molecular candidates of symbiotic markers...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707327/environmental-drivers-of-coral-reef-carbonate-production-and-bioerosion-a-multi-scale-analysis
#16
Nyssa J Silbiger, Megan J Donahue, Russell E Brainard
The resilience of coral reefs depends on the balance between reef growth and reef breakdown, and their responses to changing environmental conditions. Across the 2500 km Hawaiian Archipelago, we quantified rates of carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion at regional, island, site, and within-site spatial scales and tested how carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion rates respond to environmental conditions across different spatial scales. Overall, there were four major outcomes from this study: 1) bioerosion rates were generally higher in the populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) than the remote, protected Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), while carbonate production rates did not vary significantly between the two regions; 2) variability in carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion rates was greatest at the smallest within-reef spatial scale; 3) carbonate production and bioerosion rates were associated with distinct sets of environmental parameters; and 4) the strongest correlates of carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion rates were different between the MHI region and the NWHI region: in the MHI, the dominant correlates were % cover of macroalgae and herbivorous fish biomass for carbonate production and bioerosion, respectively, whereas in the NWHI, the top correlates were total alkalinity and benthic cover...
July 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704691/inhibition-in-fertilisation-of-coral-gametes-following-exposure-to-nickel-and-copper
#17
Francesca Gissi, Jenny Stauber, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Peter L Harrison, Dianne F Jolley
The mining and production of nickel in tropical regions have the potential to impact on ecologically valuable tropical marine ecosystems. Currently, few data exist to assess the risks of nickel exposure to tropical ecosystems and to derive ecologically relevant water quality guidelines. In particular, data are lacking for keystone species such as scleractinian corals, which create the complex structural reef habitats that support many other marine species. As part of a larger study developing risk assessment tools for nickel in the tropical Asia-Pacific region, we investigated the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in three species of scleractinian corals: Acropora aspera, Acropora digitifera and Platygyra daedalea...
July 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704387/abundance-of-commercially-important-reef-fish-indicates-different-levels-of-over-exploitation-across-shelves-of-the-u-s-virgin-islands
#18
Elizabeth Kadison, Marilyn Brandt, Richard Nemeth, Justin Martens, Jeremiah Blondeau, Tyler Smith
The United States Virgin Islands are comprised of two separate insular platforms separated by the deep water Anegada Passage. Although managed by the same regulations, as one fishery, several physical and spatial differences exist between the two northern shelf islands, St. Thomas and St. John, and isolated St. Croix. Based on two long-term fisheries independent datasets, collected by the U.S. Virgin Islands Territorial Coral Reef Monitoring Program and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, there were significant differences between the northern USVI and St...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702013/nitrogen-fixation-aligns-with-nifh-abundance-and-expression-in-two-coral-trophic-functional-groups
#19
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian Wild, Christian R Voolstra
Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701471/effects-of-hypoxia-and-ocean-acidification-on-the-upper-thermal-niche-boundaries-of-coral-reef-fishes
#20
Rasmus Ern, Jacob L Johansen, Jodie L Rummer, Andrew J Esbaugh
Rising ocean temperatures are predicted to cause a poleward shift in the distribution of marine fishes occupying the extent of latitudes tolerable within their thermal range boundaries. A prevailing theory suggests that the upper thermal limits of fishes are constrained by hypoxia and ocean acidification. However, some eurythermal fish species do not conform to this theory, and maintain their upper thermal limits in hypoxia. Here we determine if the same is true for stenothermal species. In three coral reef fish species we tested the effect of hypoxia on upper thermal limits, measured as critical thermal maximum (CTmax)...
July 2017: Biology Letters
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