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Binyamin Hochner, David L Glanzman
Members of the phylum Mollusca demonstrate the animal kingdom's tremendous diversity of body morphology, size and complexity of the nervous system, as well as diversity of behavioral repertoires, ranging from very simple to highly flexible. Molluscs include Solenogastres, with their worm-like bodies and behavior (see phylogenetic tree; Figure 1); Bivalvia (mussels and clams), protected by shells and practically immobile; and the cephalopods, such as the octopus, cuttlefish and squid. The latter are strange-looking animals with nervous systems comprising up to half a billion neurons, which mediate the complex behaviors that characterize these freely moving, highly visual predators...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Thuy Nguyen-Phuong, Doanh Nguyen-Ngoc, Pierre Auger, Sidy Ly, Didier Jouffre
We present a mathematical model of two competing marine species that are harvested. We consider three models according to different levels of complexity, without and with species refuge and density-independent and density-dependent species movement between fishing area and refuge. We particularly study the effects of the fishing pressure on the outcome of the competition. We focus on conditions that allow an inferior competitor to invade as a result of fishing pressure. The model is discussed in relationship to the case of the thiof and the octopus along the Atlantic West African coast...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
Anna Di Cosmo, Gianluca Polese
Under a continuous changing environment, animals are challenged with stresses and stimuli which demanding adaptation at behavioral and physiological levels. The adaptation strategies are finely regulated by animal nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Although it's been established by now the usage of integrative approach to the study the endocrine and nervous systems (neuroendocrine), yet our understanding of how they cooperate with the immune system remains far from complete. The possible role that immune system plays as a component of the network has only been recognized recently...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Marie-Therese Nödl, Alexandra Kerbl, Manfred G Walzl, Gerd B Müller, Heinz Gert de Couet
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods are a highly derived class of molluscs that adapted their body plan to a more active and predatory lifestyle. One intriguing adaptation is the modification of the ventral foot to form a bilaterally symmetric arm crown, which constitutes a true morphological novelty in evolution. In addition, this structure shows many diversifications within the class of cephalopods and therefore offers an interesting opportunity to study the molecular underpinnings of the emergence of phenotypic novelties and their diversification...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Luke X Chong, Andrew Turpin, Allison M McKendrick
PURPOSE: To validate the performance of a new perimetric algorithm (Gradient-Oriented Automated Natural Neighbor Approach; GOANNA) in humans using a novel combination of computer simulation and human testing, which we call Artificial Scotoma Generation (ASG). METHODS: Fifteen healthy observers were recruited. Baseline conventional automated perimetry was performed on the Octopus 900. Visual field sensitivity was measured using two different procedures: GOANNA and Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing (ZEST)...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Michelle Davison, Todd J Treangen, Sergey Koren, Mihai Pop, Devaki Bhaya
The polymicrobial biofilm communities in Mushroom and Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are well characterized, yet little is known about the phage populations. Dominant species, Synechococcus sp. JA-2-3B'a(2-13), Synechococcus sp. JA-3-3Ab, Chloroflexus sp. Y-400-fl, and Roseiflexus sp. RS-1, contain multiple CRISPR-Cas arrays, suggesting complex interactions with phage predators. To analyze phage populations from Octopus Spring biofilms, we sequenced a viral enriched fraction. To assemble and analyze phage metagenomic data, we developed a custom module, VIRITAS, implemented within the MetAMOS framework...
2016: PloS One
Neyi Estrella-Gómez, Diana Escalante-Réndiz, Araceli González-Burgos, Delta Sosa-Cordero, Rafael Rojas-Herrera
OBJECTIVE: In this work we studied the microbiological quality of the red octopus given its important economic and social impact on the region South-Southeast of Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were taken in different areas of capture of the species and analyzed with biochemical tests described in the Mexican official standards, identifying strains belonging to the genus Vibrio, Salmonella and faecal coliforms, and E. coli O157: H7. We used the BAx System for the identification of microorganisms through their bacterial DNA...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
Rahul Vasudev, Upamanyu Rampal, Hiten Patel, Kunal Patel, Mahesh Bikkina, Fayez Shamoon
CONTEXT: Takotsubo translates to "octopus pot" in Japanese. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by a transient regional systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Catecholamine excess is the one most studied and favored theories explaining the pathophysiology of TTC. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 52-year-old Hispanic female admitted for venlafaxine-induced TTC with a review literature on all the cases of Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)-associated TTC published so far...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
N Zimmermann, A Hess, C Erb
Background: Analysis of the comparison of flicker perimetry with the prototype Pulsar and the new Octopus 600. Methods: Both eyes of 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were studied with 30° visual field flimmer perimetry (dynamic strategy) at the perimeters Pulsar and Octopus 600 (Haag-Streit). The evaluation was based on the mean defect (MD = mean deviation) and the defect depth (square root of lost variance = sLV). Results: In the t test for paired samples, the Pulsar perimetry showed significantly higher values than the Octopus 600 perimetry: right eye MD 4...
August 10, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Wei-Hung Tan, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Guo Wu, Min-Han Lin, Chiao-Che Chen, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Chi-Yuan Chou
Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sung Ryeol Kim, Hye Jung Park, Kyung Hee Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jung-Won Park
Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25...
August 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Lodewijk van Walraven, Floor Driessen, Judith van Bleijswijk, Anneke Bol, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, Joop W P Coolen, Oscar G Bos, Adriaan Gittenberger, Niels Schrieken, Victor T Langenberg, Henk W van der Veer
For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area...
2016: Marine Biology
Scott I Kavanaugh, Pei-San Tsai
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like molecule was previously identified in a gastropod, Aplysia californica, and named ap-GnRH. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of a putative ap-GnRH receptor (ap-GnRHR) and functionally authenticated this receptor as a bona fide ap-GnRHR. This receptor contains two potential translation start sites, each accompanied by a Kozak sequence, suggesting the translation of a long and a short form of the receptor is possible. The putative ap-GnRHR maintains the conserved structural motifs of GnRHR-like receptors and shares 45% sequence identity with the octopus GnRHR...
2016: PloS One
Kosei Shinohara, Muka Moriyama, Noriaki Shimada, Takeshi Yoshida, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and the characteristics of peripheral pigmented streaks in the eyes with pathologic myopia. METHODS: The widefield fundus images of 375 eyes (203 patients) with pathologic myopia were examined. The characteristics of the pigmented streaks existing in the peripheral fundus were analyzed. The spatial relationships between the steep edge of a staphyloma and the distribution of the streaks were also determined. RESULTS: Peripheral streaks were observed in 165 of the 375 eyes (44...
August 2016: Retina
Paul S Katz
Recent research on molluscan nervous systems provides a unique perspective on the evolution of neural circuits. Molluscs evolved large, encephalized nervous systems independently from other phyla. Homologous body-patterning genes were re-specified in molluscs to create a plethora of body plans and nervous system organizations. Octopuses, having the largest brains of any invertebrate, independently evolved a learning circuit similar in organization and function to the mushroom body of insects and the hippocampus of mammals...
July 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Brooke L Whitelaw, Jan M Strugnell, Pierre Faou, Rute R da Fonseca, Nathan E Hall, Mark Norman, Julian Finn, Ira R Cooke
This study provides comprehensive proteomic profiles from the venom producing posterior salivary glands of octopus (superorder Octopodiformes) species. A combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify 1703 proteins from the posterior salivary gland of the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa and 1300 proteins from the posterior salivary gland of the southern sand octopus, Octopus kaurna. The two proteomes were broadly similar; clustering of proteins into orthogroups revealed 937 that were shared between species...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Florian Maderspacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Alexander L Stubbs, Christopher W Stubbs
We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide "color-blind" animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vera Thiel, Jason M Wood, Millie T Olsen, Marcus Tank, Christian G Klatt, David M Ward, Donald A Bryant
Microbial-mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park have been studied for nearly 50 years. The emphasis has mostly focused on the chlorophototrophic bacterial organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In contrast, the diversity and metabolic functions of the heterotrophic community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are not well understood. In this study we analyzed the orange-colored undermat of the microbial community of Mushroom Spring using metagenomic and rRNA-amplicon (iTag) analyses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Takuya Numata, Chota Matsumoto, Sachiko Okuyama, Fumi Tanabe, Shigeki Hashimoto, Hiroki Nomoto, Yoshikazu Shimomura
PURPOSE: To extrapolate the optimal test point resolution for assessment of glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects including subtle functional defects, we performed high-resolution perimetry with the 0.5 degrees test point resolution. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects were 11 eyes of 11 normal volunteers and 16 eyes of 16 glaucomatous patients. Octopus 900 custom test was used to measure 61 points with the test point resolution of 0.5 degrees on the temporal meridian of 45 degrees within the eccentricity of 30 degrees...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
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