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I Loaiza, M De Troch, G De Boeck
Scallops and their potential predators were collected in Sechura Bay and in front of the Illescas Reserved Zone (north Peru), during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 2016, and analyzed for the metals chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). This study showed that ~20% of the molluscs exceeded the maximum residual levels (MRLs) for human consumption in inorganic As, while ~30% of the crustaceans did. For Cd, around 10% and 40% of the molluscs and the crustaceans were above the MRLs, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sarah Campbell
When soft robotics first emerged, it was defined (as breakthroughs often are) by what it was that its traditional counterparts were not, i.e., soft. A decade in, the nomenclature remains apt. The pliant materials used in soft robotics are often both a defining trait and a source of advantage. Soft robots continue to make headlines with their ability to squeeze, octopus-like, through narrow crevices; change shape; and survive impacts that would crush a traditional rigid robot. They distinguish themselves from their hard counterparts with their damage resilience, complex movements, and suitability for use with the human body...
May 2018: IEEE Pulse
Conghui Liu, Bo Liu, Yan Zhang, Fan Jiang, Yuwei Ren, Shuqu Li, Hengchao Wang, Wei Fan
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), a mechanism that shares genetic material between the host and donor from separated offspring branches, has been described as a means of producing novel and beneficial phenotypes for the host organisms. However, in molluscs, the second most diverse group, the existence of HGT is still controversial. In the present study, 12 HGT genes were identified from California two-spot octopus Octopus bimaculoides based on a similarity search, phylogenetic construction, gene composition analysis and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) validation...
May 5, 2018: Gene
Liping Huo, Miaomiao Bao, Zhenming Lv, Changfeng Chi, Tianming Wang, Huihui Liu
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study a novel isoform of MyD88 in Sepiella japonica (SjMyD88) was cloned and functionally characterized (GenBank accession no. AQY56781.1). The complete cDNA sequence of SjMyD88 was 1912 bp and contained a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding 338 amino acid residues, which was similar to its mollusk orthologues in the length. BLASTp analysis suggested the deduced amino acids sequence of SjMyD88 shared high identity to the known MyD88, for instance, 64% identity with Octopus bimaculoides...
May 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Giovanna G Altobelli, Susan Van Noorden, Vincenzo Cimini
The existence of both calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) and neuropeptides in the retina and brain of various species of vertebrates and invertebrates is well documented. Octopus retina is particularly interesting because it represents a case of convergent evolution. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of two CBPs, calretinin and calbindin, in Octopus retina using morphology, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Calretinin-like immunoreactivity was found in the photoreceptor cells, but unexpectedly also in the supporting cells...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ran Xu, Xiaodong Zheng
High concentration of ammonia is a common issue in the aquaculture industry and often causes detrimental effects to aquatic products. Exploring expression regulation of genes involved in acute ammonia stress can help to understand the molecular mechanisms of ammonia response. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with proper reference genes is an effective way to normalize the expression of target genes. To identify the most suitable reference genes for Octopus minor (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda) under acute ammonia stress and the normal culturing, nine candidate genes were selected for the validation: OD, RPS18b, RPL29, RPS5, EF-1α, RPL6, AA4, ACT, TUB...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Valeria Maselli, Fenglian Xu, Naweed I Syed, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Octopus vulgaris is a unique model system for studying complex behaviors in animals. It has a large and centralized nervous system made up of lobes that are involved in controlling various sophisticated behaviors. As such, it may be considered as a model organism for untangling the neuronal mechanisms underlying behaviors-including learning and memory. However, despite considerable efforts, Octopus lags behind its other counterparts vis-à-vis its utility in deciphering the cellular, molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying various behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rylan Kautz, David D Ordinario, Vivek Tyagi, Priyam Patel, Tam N Nguyen, Alon A Gorodetsky
Cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish) have long fascinated scientists and the general public alike due to their complex behavioral characteristics and remarkable camouflage abilities. As such, these animals are explored as model systems in neuroscience and represent a well-known commercial resource. Herein, selected literature examples related to the electrical properties of cephalopod-derived biopolymers (eumelanins, chitosans, and reflectins) and to the use of these materials in voltage-gated devices (i...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Terence J Quinn, Iain Livingstone, Alexander Weir, Robert Shaw, Andrew Breckenridge, Christine McAlpine, Claire M Tarbert
Background: Visual impairment affects up to 70% of stroke survivors. We designed an app (StrokeVision) to facilitate screening for common post stroke visual issues (acuity, visual fields, and visual inattention). We sought to describe the test time, feasibility, acceptability, and accuracy of our app-based digital visual assessments against (a) current methods used for bedside screening and (b) gold standard measures. Methods: Patients were prospectively recruited from acute stroke settings...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Pamela Imperadore, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch, Graziano Fiorito
Octopus and cephalopods are able to regenerate injured tissues. Recent advancements in the study of regeneration in cephalopods appear promising encompassing different approaches helping to decipher cellular and molecular machinery involved in the process. However, lack of specific markers to investigate degenerative/regenerative phenomena and inflammatory events occurring after damage is limiting these studies. Label-free multiphoton microscopy is applied for the first time to the transected pallial nerve of Octopus vulgaris Various optical contrast methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) have been used...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Guang Yang, Bowei Zhang, Jianyong Feng, Huanhuan Wang, Mingbo Ma, Kang Huang, Jilei Liu, Srinivasan Madhavi, Ze Xiang Shen, Yizhong Huang
VS4 anode materials with controllable morphologies from hierarchical microflower, octopus-like structure, sea grass-like structure, to urchin-like structure have been successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal synthesis method using different alcohols as solvents. Their structures and electrochemical properties with various morphologies are systematically investigated and the structure-property relationship is established. Experimental results reveal the significant dependence of physical features such as the morphology, crystallite size, and specific surface area on the Li+ ion storage in VS4...
April 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Danna Staaf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Science
Alex Zatopa, Steph Walker, Yigit Menguc
Soft robots are designed to utilize their compliance and contortionistic abilities to both interact safely with their environment and move through it in ways a rigid robot cannot. To more completely achieve this, the robot should be made of as many soft components as possible. Here we present a completely soft hydraulic control valve consisting of a 3D-printed photopolymer body with electrorheological (ER) fluid as a working fluid and gallium-indium-tin liquid metal alloy as electrodes. This soft 3D-printed ER valve weighs less than 10 g and allows for onboard actuation control, furthering the goal of an entirely soft controllable robot...
April 2, 2018: Soft Robotics
Igor Bascandziev, Nathan Tardiff, Deborah Zaitchik, Susan Carey
Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment)...
March 24, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Rabeb Ben Slama-Ben Salem, Naourez Ktari, Intidhar Bkhairia, Rim Nasri, Leticia Mora, Rim Kallel, Safa Hamdi, Kamel Jamoussi, Tahia Boudaouara, Abdelfettah El-Feki, Fidel Toldrá, Moncef Nasri
This study aims to examine the effects of non-hydrolyzed octopus (Octopus vulgaris) muscle proteins (NHOPs) and their hydrolysates (OPHs) on alloxan induced diabetes in Wistar rats (AIDR). Animals were allocated into seven groups of six rats each: control group (C), diabetic group (D) and diabetic rats treated with acarbose (D + Acar), non-hydrolyzed octopus proteins (D + NHOPs) and octopus proteins hydrolysates (D + OPHs) groups. The diabetic rats presented a significant increase in glycemic status such as α-amylase activity (in plasma, pancreas and intestine), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, as well as a significant decrease in the levels of plasma insulin and total hemoglobin compared to control group...
April 2018: Food Research International
J Sillero-Ríos, A Sureda, X Capó, M Oliver-Codorniú, P Arechavala-Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Annette L Mazzone, Robert A Baker, Kym McNicholas, Richard J Woodman, Michael Z Michael, Jonathan M Gleadle
A pilot study to measure and compare blood and urine microRNAs miR-210 and miR-16 in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Frequent serial blood and urine samples were taken from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB (n = 10) and undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery (n = 5) before, during, and after surgery. Circulating miR-210 and miR-16 levels were determined by relative quantification real-time polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Zilun Li, Henghui Yin, Mian Wang, Ridong Wu, Chenshu Liu, Chen Yao, Guangqi Chang
PURPOSE: To report the use of the octopus endograft technique to treat a patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old man was diagnosed with a contained rupture of a 9-cm type V TAAA. The presence of an occluded superior mesenteric artery (SMA), a stenotic celiac trunk, an enlarged inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and rich collaterals with the SMA and celiac trunk made endovascular repair with the octopus endograft technique appear feasible...
April 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Edward J Steele, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Kenneth A Augustyn, Rohana Chandrajith, John P Coghlan, S G Coulson, Sudipto Ghosh, Mark Gillman, Reginald M Gorczynski, Brig Klyce, Godfrey Louis, Kithsiri Mahanama, Keith R Oliver, Julio Padron, Jiangwen Qu, John A Schuster, W E Smith, Duane P Snyder, Julian A Steele, Brent J Stewart, Robert Temple, Gensuke Tokoro, Christopher A Tout, Alexander Unzicker, Milton Wainwright, Jamie Wallis, Daryl H Wallis, Max K Wallis, John Wetherall, D T Wickramasinghe, J T Wickramasinghe, N Chandra Wickramasinghe, Yongsheng Liu
We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events...
March 13, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Letizia Zullo, Ambra Buschiazzo, Michela Massollo, Mattia Riondato, Alessia Democrito, Cecilia Marini, Fabio Benfenati, Gianmario Sambuceti
This study aimed at developing a method for administration of 18 F-Fludeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) in the common octopus and micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) bio-distribution assay for the characterization of glucose metabolism in body organs and regenerating tissues. Methods: Seven animals (two with one regenerating arm) were anesthetized with 3.7% MgCl2 in artificial seawater. Each octopus was injected with 18-30 MBq of isosmotic 18 F-FDG by accessing the branchial heart or the anterior vena cava...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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