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Edward J Steele, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Kenneth A Augustyn, Rohana Chandrajith, John P Coghlan, S G Coulson, Sudipto Ghosh, Mark Gillman, Reginald M Gorczynski, Brig Klyce, Godfrey Louis, Kithsiri Mahanama, Keith R Oliver, Julio Padron, Jiangwen Qu, John A Schuster, W E Smith, Duane P Snyder, Julian A Steele, Brent J Stewart, Robert Temple, Gensuke Tokoro, Christopher A Tout, Alexander Unzicker, Milton Wainwright, Jamie Wallis, Daryl H Wallis, Max K Wallis, John Wetherall, D T Wickramasinghe, J T Wickramasinghe, N Chandra Wickramasinghe, Yongsheng Liu
We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H- W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Letizia Zullo, Ambra Buschiazzo, Michela Massollo, Mattia Riondato, Alessia Democrito, Cecilia Marini, Fabio Benfenati, Gianmario Sambuceti
This study aimed at developing a method for administration of18 F-Fludeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) in the common octopus and micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) bio-distribution assay for the characterization of glucose metabolism in body organs and regenerating tissues. Methods: Seven animals (two with one regenerating arm) were anesthetized with 3.7% MgCl2 in artificial seawater. Each octopus was injected with 18-30 MBq of isosmotic18 F-FDG by accessing the branchial heart or the anterior vena cava. After an uptake time of ~50 minutes, the animal was sacrificed, placed on a bed of a micro-PET scanner and submitted to 10 min static 3-4 bed acquisitions to visualize the entire body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Hanna M Butler-Struben, Samantha M Brophy, Nasira A Johnson, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rogério Mendes, Ove Schimmer, Helena Vieira, João Pereira, Bárbara Teixeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nozomi Ueyama, Keita Sugimoto, Yuta Kudo, Ken-Ichi Onodera, Yuko Cho, Keiichi Konoki, Toshio Nishikawa, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
Tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1) is a potent neurotoxin that is widely found in both of terrestrial and marine animals. However, the biosynthetic pathway and genes for TTX have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we proposed that TTX originates from a monoterpene, based on the structures of cyclic guanidino compounds commonly found in toxic newts. However, these compounds have not been detected in marine organisms. Instead, a series of deoxy analogues of TTX were found in toxic marine animals. In this study, we further screened for TTX-related compounds in marine animals...
March 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
José F Domínguez-Contreras, Adrian Munguia-Vega, Bertha P Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Francisco J García-Rodríguez, Melanie Culver, Hector Reyes-Bonilla
The fishery for octopus in Northwest Mexico has increased to over 2,000 tons annually, but to date the specific composition of the catch has been ignored. With at least three main species targeted by artisanal fisheries in the region with distinct life histories, the lack of basic biological information about the distribution, metapopulation size and structure of each species could impede effective fisheries management to avoid overexploitation. We tested if different life histories of three species of octopus could help predict observed patterns of genetic diversity, population dynamics, structure and connectivity and how this information could be relevant to the sustainable management of the fishery...
2018: PeerJ
Peter Morse, Shannon R Kjeldsen, Mark G Meekan, Mark I Mccormick, Julian K Finn, Christine L Huffard, Kyall R Zenger
The southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Hoyle, 1883) lacks a planktonic dispersal phase, yet ranges across Australia's southern coastline. This species' brief and holobenthic life history suggests gene flow might be limited, leaving distant populations prone to strong genetic divergence. This study used 17,523 genome-wide SNP loci to investigate genetic structuring and local adaptation patterns of H. maculosa among eight sampling sites along its reported range. Within sites, interrelatedness was very high, consistent with the limited dispersal of this taxon...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Gustavo Sanchez, Davin H E Setiamarga, Surangkana Tuanapaya, Kittichai Tongtherm, Inger E Winkelmann, Hannah Schmidbaur, Tetsuya Umino, Caroline Albertin, Louise Allcock, Catalina Perales-Raya, Ian Gleadall, Jan M Strugnell, Oleg Simakov, Jaruwat Nabhitabhata
Comprising more than 800 extant species, the class Cephalopoda (octopuses, squid, cuttlefish, and nautiluses) is a fascinating group of marine conchiferan mollusks. Recently, the first cephalopod genome (of Octopus bimaculoides ) was published, providing a genomic framework, which will enable more detailed investigations of cephalopod characteristics, including developmental, morphological, and behavioural traits. Meanwhile, a robust phylogeny of the members of the subclass Coleoidea (octopuses, squid, cuttlefishes) is crucial for comparative and evolutionary studies aiming to investigate the group's traits and innovations, but such a phylogeny has proven very challenging to obtain...
2018: PeerJ
Taemook Kim, Hogyu David Seo, Lothar Hennighausen, Daeyoup Lee, Keunsoo Kang
Octopus-toolkit is a stand-alone application for retrieving and processing large sets of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data with a single step. Octopus-toolkit is an automated set-up-and-analysis pipeline utilizing the Aspera, SRA Toolkit, FastQC, Trimmomatic, HISAT2, STAR, Samtools, and HOMER applications. All the applications are installed on the user's computer when the program starts. Upon the installation, it can automatically retrieve original files of various epigenomic and transcriptomic data sets, including ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq, DNase-seq, MeDIP-seq, MNase-seq and RNA-seq, from the gene expression omnibus data repository...
February 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jennifer C Case, Edward L White, Vytas SunSpiral, Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio
Continuum manipulators offer many advantages compared to their rigid-linked counterparts, such as increased degrees of freedom and workspace volume. Inspired by biological systems, such as elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, many continuum manipulators are made of multiple segments that allow large-scale deformations to be distributed throughout the body. Most continuum manipulators currently control each segment individually. For example, a planar cable-driven system is typically controlled by a pair of cables for each segment, which implies two actuators per segment...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
Xiumei Wei, Tianyu Zhao, Kete Ai, Huiying Li, Jiang Xu, Cheng Li, Qianqian Wang, Jianmin Yang, Ranran Zhang, Jialong Yang
Scavenger receptors are crucial for innate immunity owing to their prominent role in clearance of harmful endogenous factors, immune recognition, and more importantly, as co-receptors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to initiate downstream responses. At present, invertebrate scavenger receptors, especially their role in immune mechanisms, are largely unknown. We report here that scavenger receptors form a diverse superfamily in Octopus ocellatus, including at least five different members with distinct tissue expression patterns...
January 31, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ju Hyun Oh, Soo Yeong Hong, Heun Park, Sang Woo Jin, Yu Ra Jeong, Seung Yun Oh, Junyeong Yun, Hanchan Lee, Jung Wook Kim, Jeong Sook Ha
In this study, we demonstrate a fabrication of highly sensitive flexible temperature sensor with a bioinspired octopus-mimicking adhesive. A resistor-type temperature sensor consisting of a composite of poly(N isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM)-temperature sensitive hydrogel, poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate, and carbon nanotubes, exhibits a very high thermal sensitivity of 2.6%•ºC-1 between 25 and 40 °C so that the change in skin temperature of 0.5 °C can be accurately detected. At the same time, the polydimethylsiloxane adhesive layer of octopus-mimicking rim structure coated with pNIPAM, is fabricated through the formation of a single mold by utilizing undercut phenomenon in photolithography...
February 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hirofumi Hirakawa, Takeshi Terao, Ayako Inoue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Dipesh E Patel, Phillippa M Cumberland, Bronwen C Walters, Isabelle Russell-Eggitt, John Brookes, Maria Papadopoulos, Peng Tee Khaw, Ananth C Viswanathan, David Garway-Heath, Mario Cortina-Borja, Jugnoo S Rahi
Importance: There is limited evidence to support the development of guidance for visual field testing in children with glaucoma. Objective: To compare different static and combined static/kinetic perimetry approaches in children with glaucoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional, observational study recruiting children prospectively between May 2013 and June 2015 at 2 tertiary specialist pediatric ophthalmology centers in London, England (Moorfields Eye Hospital and Great Ormond Street Hospital)...
December 28, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
James Thompson
This article reconstructs the visual culture of politics in Edwardian London through a study of the 1907 London County Council election. It moves beyond the memorable account given in Graham Wallas's Human Nature in Politics to examine the actors, especially associations and newspapers, that participated in the election. Drawing upon newspapers, election addresses, cartoon, leaflets, and posters, the article argues that Edwardian London was a prime site in the application of new media for political communication...
December 13, 2017: 20 Century British History
Vanessa M Lopes, Rui Rosa, Pedro R Costa
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L...
February 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Xinghao Yang, Xiao Xiao, Dan Liu, Ribang Wu, Cuiling Wu, Jiang Zhang, Jiafeng Huang, Binqiang Liao, Hailun He
Collagenases are the most important group of commercially-produced enzymes. However, even though biological resources are abundant in the sea, very few of these commercially popular enzymes are from marine sources, especially from marine bacteria. We optimized the production of marine collagenases by Pseudoalteromonas sp. SJN2 and investigated the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates. Media components and culture conditions associated with marine collagenase production by Pseudoalteromonas sp. SJN2 were optimized by statistical methods, namely Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM)...
December 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
S C Cunha, L Trabalón, S Jacobs, M Castro, M Fernandez-Tejedor, K Granby, W Verbeke, C Kwadijk, F Ferrari, J Robbens, I Sioen, E Pocurull, A Marques, J O Fernandes, J L Domingo
In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species - mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch and plaice - were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)...
February 2018: Environmental Research
Jin-Jae Lee, Tae-Yoon Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Bong-Soo Kim
The small octopus (Octopus variabilis) is a popular seafood in many countries including South Korea. Because it is often consumed uncooked, the microorganisms in it often cause food poisoning. Therefore, analyzing the microbiome of the small octopus can help to understand the risk of food poisoning and manage octopus products better. A total of 40 small octopuses were collected from four sites in November and August. The microbiota was analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing, and the amount of bacteria was quantified by real-time PCR...
December 2017: Food Research International
Jonathan Dallas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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