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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444485/evaluation-of-kinetic-programs-in-various-automated-perimeters
#1
Shigeki Hashimoto, Chota Matsumoto, Mariko Eura, Sachiko Okuyama, Yoshikazu Shimomura
PURPOSE: Kinetic programs in four automated perimeters were evaluated and compared for their clinical usefulness using four simulated visual field (VF) patterns. METHODS: Using the results of conventional Goldmann manual kinetic perimetry (MKP), simulated fields with concentric contraction, a temporal residual island only, a small central island with a temporal island, and a ring scotoma were created. Four kinetic programs, Humphrey 750i Kinetic Test (Humphrey), OCULUS Twinfield 2 Kinetic Perimetry (OCULUS), OCTOPUS 900 Goldmann Kinetic Perimetry (OCTOPUS GKP), and Kowa AP-7000 Isopter (Kowa) were tested by the 4 simulated defect patterns using stimuli of V/4e, I/4e, I/3e, I/2e, and I/1e at speeds of 3 and 5°/s...
April 25, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441081/comparison-of-size-modulation-standard-automated-perimetry-and-conventional-standard-automated-perimetry-with-a-10-2-test-program-in-glaucoma-patients
#2
Kazunori Hirasawa, Natsumi Takahashi, Tsukasa Satou, Masayuki Kasahara, Kazuhiro Matsumura, Nobuyuki Shoji
PURPOSE: This prospective observational study compared the performance of size modulation standard automated perimetry with the Octopus 600 10-2 test program, with stimulus size modulation during testing, based on stimulus intensity and conventional standard automated perimetry, with that of the Humphrey 10-2 test program in glaucoma patients. METHODS: Eighty-seven eyes of 87 glaucoma patients underwent size modulation standard automated perimetry with Dynamic strategy and conventional standard automated perimetry using the SITA standard strategy...
April 25, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#3
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#4
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400734/embodied-organization-of-octopus-vulgaris-morphology-vision-and-locomotion
#5
Guy Levy, Binyamin Hochner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396639/going-up-or-sideways-perception-of-space-and-obstacles-negotiating-by-cuttlefish
#6
Gabriella Scatà, Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq, Ludovic Dickel, Steve McCusker, Nadav Shashar
While octopuses are mostly benthic animals, and squid prefer the open waters, cuttlefish present a special intermediate stage. Although their body structure resembles that of a squid, in many cases their behavior is mostly benthic. To test cuttlefish's preference in the use of space, we trained juvenile Sepia gibba and Sepia officinalis cuttlefish to reach a shelter at the opposite side of a tank. Afterwards, rock barriers were placed between the starting point and the shelter. In one experiment, direct paths were available both through the sand and over the rocks...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375221/comparison-of-methods-for-the-reduction-of-reconstructed-layers-in-atmospheric-tomography
#7
Daniela Saxenhuber, Günter Auzinger, Miska Le Louarn, Tapio Helin
For the new generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs), the computational effort for adaptive optics (AO) systems is demanding even for fast reconstruction algorithms. In wide-field AO, atmospheric tomography, i.e., the reconstruction of turbulent atmospheric layers from wavefront sensor data in several directions of view, is the crucial step for an overall reconstruction. Along with the number of deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors and their resolution, as well as the guide star separation, the number of reconstruction layers contributes significantly to the numerical effort...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373845/perfused-gills-reveal-fundamental-principles-of-ph-regulation-and-ammonia-homeostasis-in-the-cephalopod-octopus-vulgaris
#8
Marian Y Hu, Po-Hsuan Sung, Ying-Jey Guh, Jay-Ron Lee, Pung-Pung Hwang, Dirk Weihrauch, Yung-Che Tseng
In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood [Formula: see text] concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete [Formula: see text] via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/[Formula: see text] homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369460/from-reads-to-operational-taxonomic-units-an-ensemble-processing-pipeline-for-miseq-amplicon-sequencing-data
#9
Mohamed Mysara, Mercy Njima, Natalie Leys, Jeroen Raes, Pieter Monsieurs
The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided microbial ecologists with an efficient approach to assess bacterial diversity at an unseen depth, particularly with the recent advances in the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. However, analyzing such high-throughput data is posing important computational challenges, requiring specialized bioinformatics solutions at different stages during the processing pipeline, such as assembly of paired-end reads, chimera removal, correction of sequencing errors, and clustering of those sequences into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs)...
February 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356412/dynamic-masquerade-with-morphing-three-dimensional-skin-in-cuttlefish
#10
Deanna Panetta, Kendra Buresch, Roger T Hanlon
Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare. Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344325/the-giant-deep-sea-octopus-haliphron-atlanticus-forages-on-gelatinous-fauna
#11
H J T Hoving, S H D Haddock
Feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions of many deep-sea pelagic organisms are still unknown. This is also true for pelagic cephalopods, some of which are very abundant in oceanic ecosystems and which are known for their elaborate behaviors and central role in many foodwebs. We report on the first observations of the giant deep-sea octopus Haliphron atlanticus with prey. Using remotely operated vehicles, we saw these giant octopods holding medusae in their arms. One of the medusae could be identified as Phacellophora camtschatica (the egg-yolk jelly)...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335553/biosynthesis-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-octopus-vulgaris-molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterisation-of-a-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-and-an-elongation-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acid-4-protein
#12
Óscar Monroig, Rosa de Llanos, Inmaculada Varó, Francisco Hontoria, Douglas R Tocher, Sergi Puig, Juan C Navarro
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs)...
March 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319020/in%C3%A2-vitro-preparation-and-assessment-of-radical-reducing-peptide-from-octopus-aegina-using-digestive-proteases
#13
Sekar Sudhakar, Rasool Abdul Nazeer
Antioxidant peptides protect biological macromolecules against radical damages. The use of these peptides was evaluated using free radicals scavenging assays [2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl] with the help of UV-visible and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy methods. The Octopus aegina mantle protein were tested upon hydrolysis using gastrointestinal enzymes up to 12 h, where pepsin hydrolysate exhibited superior properties (DPPH: 44.39±0.67% and hydroxyl: 38.84±1.07%) compared with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315141/magnetoelastic-instability-in-soft-thin-films
#14
M Poty, F Weyer, G Grosjean, G Lumay, N Vandewalle
Ferromagnetic particles are incorporated in a thin soft elastic matrix. A lamella, made of this smart material, is studied experimentally and modeled. We show herein that thin films can be actuated using an external magnetic field applied through the system. The system is found to be switchable since subcritical pitchfork bifurcation is discovered in the beam shape when the magnetic field orientation is modified. Strong magnetoelastic effects can be obtained depending on both field strength and orientation...
March 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298896/spotmetrics-an-open-source-image-analysis-software-plugin-for-automatic-chromatophore-detection-and-measurement
#15
Stavros P Hadjisolomou, George El-Haddad
Coleoid cephalopods (squid, octopus, and sepia) are renowned for their elaborate body patterning capabilities, which are employed for camouflage or communication. The specific chromatic appearance of a cephalopod, at any given moment, is a direct result of the combined action of their intradermal pigmented chromatophore organs and reflecting cells. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the cephalopod coloration system by video recording and analyzing the activation of individual chromatophores in time. The fact that adult cephalopods have small chromatophores, up to several hundred thousand in number, makes measurement and analysis over several seconds a difficult task...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272991/risk-estimation-to-human-health-caused-by-the-mercury-content-of-sushi-and-sashimi-sold-in-japanese-restaurants-in-brazil
#16
Jeanne Clécia Alves, Esther Lima de Paiva, Raquel Fernanda Milani, Eduardo Bearzoti, Marcelo Antonio Morgano, Késia Diego Quintaes
Although fish is a healthy alternative for meat, it can be a vehicle for mercury (Hg), including in its most toxic organic form, methylmercury (MeHg). The objective of the present study was to estimate the risk to human health caused by the consumption of sushi and sashimi as commercialized by Japanese food restaurants in the city of Campinas (SP, Brazil). The total Hg content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with thermal decomposition and amalgamation, and the MeHg content calculated considering that 90% of the total Hg is in the organic form...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263544/smart-actuators-and-adhesives-for-reconfigurable-matter
#17
Hyunhyub Ko, Ali Javey
Biological systems found in nature provide excellent stimuli-responsive functions. The camouflage adaptation of cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish), rapid stiffness change of sea cucumbers, opening of pine cones in response to humidity, and rapid closure of Venus flytraps upon insect touch are some examples of nature's smart systems. Although current technologies are still premature to mimic these sophisticated structures and functions in smart biological systems, recent work on stimuli-responsive programmable matter has shown great progress...
March 6, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251828/enriched-environment-increases-pcna-and-parp1-levels-in-octopus-vulgaris-central-nervous-system-first-evidence-of-adult-neurogenesis-in-lophotrochozoa
#18
Carla Bertapelle, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250188/molecular-clocks-indicate-turnover-and-diversification-of-modern-coleoid-cephalopods-during-the-mesozoic-marine-revolution
#19
Alastair R Tanner, Dirk Fuchs, Inger E Winkelmann, M Thomas P Gilbert, M Sabrina Pankey, Ângela M Ribeiro, Kevin M Kocot, Kenneth M Halanych, Todd H Oakley, Rute R da Fonseca, Davide Pisani, Jakob Vinther
Coleoid cephalopod molluscs comprise squid, cuttlefish and octopuses, and represent nearly the entire diversity of modern cephalopods. Sophisticated adaptations such as the use of colour for camouflage and communication, jet propulsion and the ink sac highlight the unique nature of the group. Despite these striking adaptations, there are clear parallels in ecology between coleoids and bony fishes. The coleoid fossil record is limited, however, hindering confident analysis of the tempo and pattern of their evolution...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250097/grasping-with-a-soft-glove-intrinsic-impedance-control-in-pneumatic-actuators
#20
P Paoletti, G W Jones, L Mahadevan
The interaction of a robotic manipulator with unknown soft objects represents a significant challenge for traditional robotic platforms because of the difficulty in controlling the grasping force between a soft object and a stiff manipulator. Soft robotic actuators inspired by elephant trunks, octopus limbs and muscular hydrostats are suggestive of ways to overcome this fundamental difficulty. In particular, the large intrinsic compliance of soft manipulators such as 'pneu-nets'-pneumatically actuated elastomeric structures-makes them ideal for applications that require interactions with an uncertain mechanical and geometrical environment...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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