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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132115/comparative-interfacial-in-vitro-digestion-of-protein-and-polysaccharide-oil-water-films
#1
Fernando A Bellesi, Víctor M Pizones Ruiz-Henestrosa, Julia Maldonado-Valderrama, Teresa Del Castillo Santaella, Ana M R Pilosof
The behaviour of proteins (β-lactoglobulin (βlg) and soy protein isolate (SPI)) and a surface active polysaccharide (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC) o/w interfacial films under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using the interfacial tensiometer Octopus were compared and related to the performance of the emulsions (using the same emulsifiers) under in vitro digestion. The evolution of interfacial tension (γ) was used to investigate the effect of gastrointestinal fluids on o/w interfacial films. Clear differences were observed among these emulsifiers...
November 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125305/role-transformation-of-pnipam-microgels-from-stabilizer-to-seed-in-dispersion-polymerization-by-controlling-the-water-content-in-methanol-water-mixture
#2
Rui Chen, Ning Ren, Xin Jin, Xinyuan Zhu
PNIPAM-based ionic microgels with different diameters were first prepared and then used as particulate stabilizer or seed in dispersion polymerization of styrene. The role of PNIPAM-based ionic microgels could be transformed from particulate stabilizer to seed by controlling the water content in methanol-water mixture. Generally, PNIPAM-based ionic microgels served as particulate stabilizer in methanol in the absence of water, leading to the formation of spherical polystyrene nanoparticles. However, they turned into seeds when water was added into the methanol solution, with octopus-like nanoparticles obtained...
November 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106938/bioaccumulation-and-biomagnification-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-the-octopus-octopus-hubbsorum-from-the-gulf-of-california
#3
Nefertiti Taydé Roldán-Wong, Karen A Kidd, Ana Judith Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Evgueni Shumilin, Marcial Arellano-Martínez
The concentrations of 21 potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were determined in the tissues of Octopus hubbsorum from three locations along the Gulf of California coast: two near Santa Rosalia (SR), a site with historical metal contamination, and one in La Paz Bay, a reference site. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in octopus from the two SR sites were higher than those from the reference site, reflecting the higher sediment concentrations at the mining-impacted locations. The highest bioaccumulation and biomagnification of elements was found in digestive gland and branchial hearts, while the lowest was observed in the mantle, where the mean concentration of PTEs did not exceed international standards for human consumption of octopus...
October 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093799/comparison-of-the-genetic-relationship-between-nine-cephalopod-species-based-on-cluster-analysis-of-karyotype-evolutionary-distance
#4
Jin-Hai Wang, Xiao-Dong Zheng
Karyotype analysis was carried out on gill cells of three species of octopods using a conventional air-drying method. The karyotype results showed that all the three species have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n=60, but with different karyograms as 2n=38M+6SM+8ST+8T, FN (fundamental number)=104 (Cistopus chinensis Zheng et al., 2012), 2n=42M+6SM+4ST+8T, FN=108 (Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920)) and 2n=32M+16SM+12T, FN=108 (Amphioctopus fangsiao (d'Orbigny, 1839-1841)). These findings were combined with data from earlier studies to infer the genetic relationships between nine species via cluster analysis using the karyotype evolutionary distance (De ) and resemblance-near coefficient (λ)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089836/three-new-species-of-heteromysis-mysida-mysidae-heteromysini-from-the-cape-peninsula-south-africa-with-first-documentation-of-a-mysid-cephalopod-association
#5
Karl J Wittmann, Charles L Griffiths
Faunistic studies in sublittoral and littoral marine habitats on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, have yielded three new species belonging to the genus Heteromysis, subgenus Heteromysis: H. cancellisp. n. associated with the diogenid hermit crab Cancellus macrothrix Stebbing, 1924, and H. fosterisp. n. extracted from 'empty' urchin and gastropod shells. The first documented mysid-cephalopod association is reported for H. octopodissp. n. which was found in dens occupied by Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, but was also captured from tide pools...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079225/digestive-enzymes-of-the-californian-two-spot-octopus-octopus-bimaculoides-pickford-and-mcconnaughey-1949
#6
Laura Elizabeth Ibarra-García, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Carlos Rosas, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui
Octopus bimaculoides is an important commercially fished species in the California Peninsula with aquaculture potential; however, to date limited information is available regarding its digestive physiology. The objective of this study was focused on biochemically characterizing the main enzymes involved in the digestion of O. bimaculoides. Optimum pH, temperature and thermostability were determined for amylases, lipases, trypsin and chymotrypsin; optimum pH and protease inhibitor effect were assessed for acidic and alkaline proteases, and the effect of divalent ions on trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was evaluated in enzymatic extracts from the digestive (DG) and salivary glands (SG) and crop gastric juices (GJ)...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077730/detection-of-central-visual-field-defects-in-early-glaucomatous-eyes-comparison-of-humphrey-and-octopus-perimetry
#7
Gloria Roberti, Gianluca Manni, Ivano Riva, Gabor Holló, Luciano Quaranta, Luca Agnifili, Michele Figus, Sara Giammaria, Davide Rastelli, Francesco Oddone
PURPOSE: To compare the detection rate of central visual field defect (CVFD) between the 30-degree Octopus G1 program (Dynamic strategy) and the HFA 10-2 SITA-Standard test in early glaucoma eyes not showing any CVFD on the HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard test. METHODS: One eye of 41 early glaucoma patients without CVFD in the central 10° on HFA 24-2 test was tested with both the HFA 10-2 test and the Octopus G1 program 15 minutes apart, in random order. The primary outcome measure was the comparison of CVFD detection rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070591/anchoring-like-octopus-biologically-inspired-soft-artificial-sucker
#8
Sina Sareh, Kaspar Althoefer, Min Li, Yohan Noh, Francesca Tramacere, Pooya Sareh, Barbara Mazzolai, Mirko Kovac
This paper presents a robotic anchoring module, a sensorized mechanism for attachment to the environment that can be integrated into robots to enable or enhance various functions such as robot mobility, remaining on location or its ability to manipulate objects. The body of the anchoring module consists of two portions with a mechanical stiffness transition from hard to soft. The hard portion is capable of containing vacuum pressure used for actuation while the soft portion is highly conformable to create a seal to contact surfaces...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060065/a-convex-shaped-pdms-parylene-hybrid-multichannel-ecog-electrode-array
#9
Woo-Ram Lee, Changkyun Im, Chin Su Koh, Jun-Min Kim, Hyung-Cheul Shin, Jong-Mo Seo
Long-term electrode implant is a challenge for successful brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). It is well known that electrocorticography (ECoG) using flexible planar electrodes is more suitable for long-term implants than intracortical neural recordings using penetrative electrodes. In this study, we propose a convex-shaped, PDMS-parylene hybrid multi-electrode array for long-term stable ECoG recording on the brain or the spinal cord. The electrode array consists of 10 gold recording sites which show impedance values between 50 and 70 kOhm at 1 kHz with a diameter of 100 μm...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046828/exploring-test-retest-variability-using-high-resolution-perimetry
#10
Takuya Numata, Ted Maddess, Chota Matsumoto, Sachiko Okuyama, Shigeki Hashimoto, Hiroki Nomoto, Yoshikazu Shimomura
PURPOSE: Test-retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. METHODS: Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046051/characterization-of-the-skin-mucus-in-the-common-octopus-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-reared-paralarvae
#11
Gianluca Accogli, Giovanni Scillitani, Donatella Mentino, Salvatore Desantis
The Octopus vulgaris farming is impaired by the high mortality of the paralarvae during the first month of life. Several factors have been investigated in this regard, but no data exist on the body surface mucus, which represents the interface with the outside environment. This study included morphometric analysis and glycoconjugates characterization of skin mucus in reared Octopus vulgaris paralarvae during the first month of life. Four types of mucous cells were distinguished:  mucous 1 (m1) and mucous 2 (m2) cells were scattered in the mantle epidermis, mucous 3 (m3) and mucous 4 (m4) in the epithelium surrounding the sucker...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043058/closely-related-octopus-species-show-different-spatial-genetic-structures-in-response-to-the-antarctic-seascape
#12
Jan M Strugnell, A Louise Allcock, Phillip C Watts
Determining whether comparable processes drive genetic divergence among marine species is relevant to molecular ecologists and managers alike. Sympatric species with similar life histories might be expected to show comparable patterns of genetic differentiation and a consistent influence of environmental factors in shaping divergence. We used microsatellite loci to quantify genetic differentiation across the Scotia Arc in three species of closely related benthic octopods, Pareledone turqueti, P. charcoti, and Adelieledone polymorpha...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024273/the-first-brain-species-comparisons-and-evolutionary-implications-for-the-enteric-and-central-nervous-systems
#13
REVIEW
J B Furness, M J Stebbing
BACKGROUND: The enteric nervous system (ENS) and the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals both contain integrative neural circuitry and similarities between them have led to the ENS being described as the brain in the gut. PURPOSE: To explore relationships between the ENS and CNS across the animal kingdom. We found that an ENS occurs in all animals investigated, including hydra, echinoderms and hemichordates that do not have a CNS. The general form of the ENS, which consists of plexuses of neurons intrinsic to the gut wall and an innervation that controls muscle movements, is similar in species as varied and as far apart as hydra, sea cucumbers, annelid worms, octopus and humans...
October 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017074/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-aggregata-spp-frenzel-1885-apicomplexa-aggregatidae-in-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-1797-mollusca-cephalopoda-from-central-mediterranean
#14
Perla Tedesco, Camino Gestal, Kristina Begić, Ivona Mladineo, Sheila Castellanos-Martínez, Gaetano Catanese, Antonio Terlizzi, Graziano Fiorito
Coccidian parasites of the genus Aggregata are known to parasitize cephalopods as definitive hosts, however one of the genus members, A. octopiana, has shown an unresolved phylogeny within the same definitive host, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Our study represents a large-scale investigation aimed at characterizing morphological traits and phylogeny of A. octopiana isolated from O. vulgaris inhabiting three distinct geographic areas of the central Mediterranean: The Adriatic, Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas...
September 11, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994612/metal-concentrations-in-samples-of-frozen-cephalopods-cuttlefish-octopus-squid-and-shortfin-squid-an-evaluation-of-dietary-intake
#15
D Sangiuliano, C Rubio, A J Gutiérrez, D González-Weller, C Revert, A Hardisson, E Zanardi, S Paz
Cephalopods are an important source of nutrients and some of the most widely consumed marine foods. However, because of contamination of the oceans and the bioaccumulative nature of toxic metals, these foods may pose a health risk. For this reason, the concentrations of some trace elements (chromium [Cr], lithium, strontium [Sr], copper [Cu], and nickel) and toxic metals (aluminum [Al], cadmium, and lead) were determined in 65 frozen samples of cuttlefish, octopus, common squid, and shortfin squid by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to evaluate dietary intake and toxic risk...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988319/the-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-fluoxetine-increases-spontaneous-afferent-firing-but-not-mechanonociceptive-sensitization-in-octopus
#16
Paul V Perez, Hanna M Butler-Struben, Robyn J Crook
Serotonin is a widely studied modulator of neural plasticity. Here we investigate the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on short-term, peripheral nociceptive plasticity in the neurologically complex invertebrate, octopus. After crush injury to isolated mantle (body wall) tissue, application of 10 nM fluoxetine increased spontaneous firing in crushed preparations, but had a minimal effect on mechanosensory sensitization. Effects largely did not persist after washout. We suggest that transiently elevated, endogenous serotonin may help promote initiation of longer-term plasticity of nociceptive afferents and drive immediate and spontaneous behaviors aimed at protecting wounds and escaping dangerous situations...
October 7, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973562/perceiving-animacy-from-shape
#17
Filipp Schmidt, Mathias Hegele, Roland W Fleming
Superordinate visual classification-for example, identifying an image as "animal," "plant," or "mineral"-is computationally challenging because radically different items (e.g., "octopus," "dog") must be grouped into a common class ("animal"). It is plausible that learning superordinate categories teaches us not only the membership of particular (familiar) items, but also general features that are shared across class members, aiding us in classifying novel (unfamiliar) items. Here, we investigated visual shape features associated with animate and inanimate classes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967342/a-trapped-heart-in-an-octopus-pot-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-review-of-a-rare-clinical-syndrome-following-solid-organ-transplant
#18
Michail G Vailas, Demetrios Moris, Alexandros Papalampros, Maria Sotiropoulou, Demetrios Schizas, Spiridon Davakis, Spiridon Vernadakis
OBJECTIVES: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome," "apical ballooning syndrome," and "stress-induced cardiomyopathy," was first des cribed in Japanese patients in 1990 by Sato and colleagues. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an increasingly recognized syndrome characterized by transient and reversible systolic dysfunction of the apical and middle segments of the left ventricle. This syndrome resembles acute myocardial infarction in the absence of evident coronary artery occlusion...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958439/marine-debris-boost-in-juvenile-magellanic-penguins-stranded-in-south-eastern-brazil-in-less-than-a-decade-insights-into-feeding-habits-and-habitat-use
#19
Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto, Salvatore Siciliano
The Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is a marine sentinel for the southern Atlantic Ocean that is a proxy of environmental quality. The presence of marine debris (macro-debris) in the stomach contents of emaciated juvenile penguins stranded from 21°S to 23°S was compared at different times (2000 and 2008), and the debris ingestion pathway was determined. The frequency of marine debris in the stomachs doubled in less than a decade, and flexible plastics remained the main ingested item over time (68-70%)...
September 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922745/big-brother-uncouples-cell-proliferation-from-elongation-in-the-arabidopsis-primary-root
#20
Pietro Cattaneo, Christian S Hardtke
Plant organ size is sensitive to environmental conditions, but is also limited by hardwired genetic constraints. In Arabidopsis, a few organ size regulators have been identified. Among them, the BIG BROTHER (BB) gene has a prominent role in the determination of flower organ and leaf size. BB loss-of-function mutations result in a prolonged proliferation phase during leaf(-like) organ formation, and consequently larger leaves, petals and sepals. Whether BB has a similar role in root growth is unknown. Here we describe a novel bb allele which carries a P235L point mutation in the BB RING finger domain...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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