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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739506/glycosaminoglycans-from-marine-sources-as-therapeutic-agents
#1
REVIEW
Jesus Valcarcel, Ramón Novoa-Carballal, Ricardo Pérez-Martín, Rui L Reis, José Antonio Vázquez
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in marine animals are different to those of terrestrial organisms, mainly in terms of molecular weight and sulfation. The therapeutic properties of GAGs are related to their ability to interact with proteins, which is very much influenced by sulfation position and patterns. Since currently GAGs cannot be chemically synthesized, they are sourced from natural products, with high intra- but also inter-species variability, in terms of chain length, disaccharide composition and sulfation pattern...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725198/3d-reconstruction-of-the-digestive-system-in-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-1797-embryos-and-paralarvae-during-the-first-month-of-life
#2
Raquel Fernández-Gago, Martin Heß, Heidemarie Gensler, Francisco Rocha
Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality), their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet) and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675144/a-soft-multi-module-manipulator-with-variable-stiffness-for-minimally-invasive-surgery
#3
Iris De Falco, Matteo Cianchetti, Arianna Menciassi
This work presents a soft manipulator for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) inspired by the biological capabilities of the octopus arm. The multi-module arm is composed of three identical units able to move thanks to embedded fluidic actuators which allow omnidirectional bending and elongation, typical movements of the octopus. The use of soft materials makes the arm safe, adaptable and compliant with tissues. In addition, a granular jamming-based stiffening mechanism is integrated in each module with the aim of tuning the stiffness of the manipulator and controlling the interactions with biological structures...
June 30, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670288/time-course-of-metabolic-capacities-in-paralarvae-of-the-common-octopus-octopus-vulgaris-in-the-first-stages-of-life-searching-biomarkers-of-nutritional-imbalance
#4
Amalia E Morales, Gabriel Cardenete, M Carmen Hidalgo, Diego Garrido, M Virginia Martín, Eduardo Almansa
The culture of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is promising since the species has a relatively short lifecycle, rapid growth, and high food conversion ratios. However, recent attempts at successful paralarvae culture have failed due to slow growth and high mortality rates. Establishing an optimal nutritional regime for the paralarvae seems to be the impeding step in successful culture methods. Gaining a thorough knowledge of food regulation and assimilation is essential for paralarvae survival and longevity under culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660077/relationship-between-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-and-hemoglobin-present-in-the-optic-nerve-head-in-glaucoma
#5
Marta Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose Sigut Saavedra, Manuel Gonzalez de la Rosa
PURPOSE: To observe the relationship between topographic hemoglobin levels in the optic nerve head (ONH), the rim thickness (BMO-MRW), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. METHODS: 96 normal eyes and 82 glaucomas were examined using TOP strategy (Octopus 300 perimeter), SPECTRALIS OCT, and Laguna ONhE program which estimates hemoglobin from conventional color photographs (Horus Scope DEC 200 fundus camera). RESULTS: The correlation between Laguna ONhE glaucoma discriminant function (GDF) and SPECTRALIS BMO-MRW was R = 0...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652362/phosphosite-charge-rather-than-shootward-localization-determines-octopus-activity-in-root-protophloem
#6
Alice S Breda, Ora Hazak, Christian S Hardtke
Polar cellular localization of proteins is often associated with their function and activity. In plants, relatively few polar-localized factors have been described. Among them, the plasma membrane-associated Arabidopsis proteins OCTOPUS (OPS) and BREVIS RADIX (BRX) display shootward and rootward polar localization, respectively, in developing root protophloem cells. Both ops and brx null mutants exhibit defects in protophloem differentiation. Here we show that OPS and BRX act genetically in parallel in this process, although OPS dosage increase mends defects caused by brx loss-of-function...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634470/the-dark-side-of-the-mushroom-spring-microbial-mat-life-in-the-shadow-of-chlorophototrophs-ii-metabolic-functions-of-abundant-community-members-predicted-from-metagenomic-analyses
#7
Vera Thiel, Michael Hügler, David M Ward, Donald A Bryant
Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632275/architectures-of-soft-robotic-locomotion-enabled-by-simple-mechanical-principles
#8
Liangliang Zhu, Yunteng Cao, Yilun Liu, Zhe Yang, Xi Chen
In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles...
June 28, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632031/mr-imaging-of-the-anterior-visual-pathway-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-correlation-with-octopus-101-perimetry-and-spectralis-optical-coherence-tomography-findings
#9
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Yeliz Pekcevik, Emre Ayintap, İrfan Botan Gunes, Duygu Kunak Mart, Ersin Yucel, Gamze Türe
PURPOSE: To investigate structural changes in the visual pathway measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship with the clinical severity of glaucoma in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 28 patients with POAG and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All the subjects underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The optic nerve diameter (OND), chiasma height (Ch), and lateral geniculate nucleus height (LGNh) were measured bilaterally using a 1...
February 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627384/cadherin-genes-and-evolutionary-novelties-in-the-octopus
#10
REVIEW
Z Yan Wang, Clifton W Ragsdale
All animals with large brains must have molecular mechanisms to regulate neuronal process outgrowth and prevent neurite self-entanglement. In vertebrates, two major gene families implicated in these mechanisms are the clustered protocadherins and the atypical cadherins. However, the molecular mechanisms utilized in complex invertebrate brains, such as those of the cephalopods, remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified protocadherins and atypical cadherins in the octopus. The octopus protocadherin expansion shares features with the mammalian clustered protocadherins, including enrichment in neural tissues, clustered head-to-tail orientations in the genome, and a large first exon encoding all cadherin domains...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620315/you-are-what-you-eat-a-genomic-analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-of-captive-and-wild-octopus-vulgaris-paralarvae-and-their-zooplankton-prey
#11
Álvaro Roura, Stephen R Doyle, Manuel Nande, Jan M Strugnell
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is an attractive species for aquaculture, however, several challenges inhibit sustainable commercial production. Little is known about the early paralarval stages in the wild, including diet and intestinal microbiota, which likely play a significant role in development and vitality of this important life stage. High throughput sequencing was used to characterize the gastrointestinal microbiome of wild O. vulgaris paralarvae collected from two different upwelling regions off the coast of North West Spain (n = 41) and Morocco (n = 35)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620313/digestive-physiology-of-octopus-maya-and-o-mimus-temporality-of-digestion-and-assimilation-processes
#12
REVIEW
Pedro Gallardo, Alberto Olivares, Rosario Martínez-Yáñez, Claudia Caamal-Monsreal, Pedro M Domingues, Maite Mascaró, Ariadna Sánchez, Cristina Pascual, Carlos Rosas
Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22-30°C) and sub-tropical (15-24°C) ecosystems, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#13
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617467/a-wet-tolerant-adhesive-patch-inspired-by-protuberances-in-suction-cups-of-octopi
#14
Sangyul Baik, Da Wan Kim, Youngjin Park, Tae-Jin Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Changhyun Pang
Adhesion strategies that rely on mechanical interlocking or molecular attractions between surfaces can suffer when coming into contact with liquids. Thus far, artificial wet and dry adhesives have included hierarchical mushroom-shaped or porous structures that allow suction or capillarity, supramolecular structures comprising nanoparticles, and chemistry-based attractants that use various protein polyelectrolytes. However, it is challenging to develop adhesives that are simple to make and also perform well-and repeatedly-under both wet and dry conditions, while avoiding non-chemical contamination on the adhered surfaces...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617458/materials-science-how-to-suck-like-an-octopus
#15
Jonathan J Wilker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608484/control-of-abusive-water-addition-to-octopus-vulgaris-with-non-destructive-methods
#16
Rogério Mendes, Ove Schimmer, Helena Vieira, João Pereira, Bárbara Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Abusive water adition to octopus has evidenced the need for quick non-destructive methods for product qualification in the industry and control of fresh commercial products in markets. Electric conductivity (EC)/pH and dielectric property measurements were selected to detect water uptake in octopus. RESULTS: A significant EC decrease was determined after soaking octopus in freshwater for 4 h. EC reflected the water uptake of octopus and the correspondent concentration decrease of available ions in the interstitial fluid...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596735/diet-composition-and-variability-of-wild-octopus-vulgaris-and-alloteuthis-media-cephalopoda-paralarvae-a-metagenomic-approach
#17
Lorena Olmos-Pérez, Álvaro Roura, Graham J Pierce, Stéphane Boyer, Ángel F González
The high mortality of cephalopod early stages is the main bottleneck to grow them from paralarvae to adults in culture conditions, probably because the inadequacy of the diet that results in malnutrition. Since visual analysis of digestive tract contents of paralarvae provides little evidence of diet composition, the use of molecular tools, particularly next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, offers an alternative to understand prey preferences and nutrient requirements of wild paralarvae. In this work, we aimed to determine the diet of paralarvae of the loliginid squid Alloteuthis media and to enhance the knowledge of the diet of recently hatched Octopus vulgaris paralarvae collected in different areas and seasons in an upwelling area (NW Spain)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567020/dietary-effect-on-the-proteome-of-the-common-octopus-octopus-vulgaris-paralarvae
#18
Inmaculada Varó, Gabriel Cardenete, Francisco Hontoria, Óscar Monroig, José Iglesias, Juan J Otero, Eduardo Almansa, Juan C Navarro
Nowadays, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) culture is hampered by massive mortalities occurring during early life-cycle stages (paralarvae). Despite the causes of the high paralarvae mortality are not yet well-defined and understood, the nutritional stress caused by inadequate diets is pointed out as one of the main factors. In this study, the effects of diet on paralarvae is analyzed through a proteomic approach, to search for novel biomarkers of nutritional stress. A total of 43 proteins showing differential expression in the different conditions studied have been identified...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562467/assistive-techniques-for-proximal-anastomosis-in-minimally-invasive-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#19
Keita Kikuchi, Yoshiki Endo
We introduce assistive techniques for proximal anastomosis in off-pump minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS CABG) to overcome difficult access to the ascending aorta in MICS CABG. An 8-cm left thoracotomy is made in the fifth intercostal space. ThoraTrak retractor (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN USA) is used to open the thoracotomy and is pulled to the cephalad and rightward direction toward to the ascending aorta. The pericardium is opened from the ascending aorta to the left ventricular apex and to the inferior vena cava...
May 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559849/epigenetic-dna-methylation-mediating-octopus-vulgaris-early-development-effect-of-essential-fatty-acids-enriched-diet
#20
Pablo García-Fernández, Danie García-Souto, Eduardo Almansa, Paloma Morán, Camino Gestal
The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is a good candidate for aquaculture but a sustainable production is still unviable due to an almost total mortality during the paralarvae stage. DNA methylation regulates gene expression in the eukaryotic genome, and has been shown to exhibit plasticity throughout O. vulgaris life cycle, changing profiles from paralarvae to adult stages. This pattern of methylation could be sensitive to small alterations in nutritional and environmental conditions during the species early development, thus impacting on its health, growth and survival...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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