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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786698/a-reconstruction-of-global-hydroclimate-and-dynamical-variables-over-the-common-era
#1
Nathan J Steiger, Jason E Smerdon, Edward R Cook, Benjamin I Cook
Hydroclimate extremes critically affect human and natural systems, but there remain many unanswered questions about their causes and how to interpret their dynamics in the past and in climate change projections. These uncertainties are due, in part, to the lack of long-term, spatially resolved hydroclimate reconstructions and information on the underlying physical drivers for many regions. Here we present the first global reconstructions of hydroclimate and associated climate dynamical variables over the past two thousand years...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785352/diversity-and-community-structure-of-marine-microbes-around-the-benham-rise-underwater-plateau-northeastern-philippines
#2
Andrian P Gajigan, Aletta T Yñiguez, Cesar L Villanoy, Maria Lourdes San Diego-McGlone, Gil S Jacinto, Cecilia Conaco
Microbes are central to the structuring and functioning of marine ecosystems. Given the remarkable diversity of the ocean microbiome, uncovering marine microbial taxa remains a fundamental challenge in microbial ecology. However, there has been little effort, thus far, to describe the diversity of marine microorganisms in the region of high marine biodiversity around the Philippines. Here, we present data on the taxonomic diversity of bacteria and archaea in Benham Rise, Philippines, Western Pacific Ocean, using 16S V4 rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785350/the-effect-of-climate-change-on-the-distribution-of-a-tropical-zoanthid-palythoa-caribaeorum-and-its-ecological-implications
#3
Leonardo M Durante, Igor C S Cruz, Tito M C Lotufo
Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid often dominant in shallow rocky environments along the west coast of the Atlantic Ocean, from the tropics to the subtropics. This species has high environmental tolerance and is a good space competitor in reef environments. Considering current and future scenarios in the global climate regime, this study aimed to model and analyze the distribution of P. caribaeorum , generating maps of potential distribution for the present and the year 2100. The distribution was modeled using maximum entropy (Maxent) based on 327 occurrence sites retrieved from the literature...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785069/genetic-characterization-of-chikungunya-virus-2009-isolates-from-south-india
#4
Gopalsamy Sarangan, Seema A Nayar, Monika Mani, Sudharsana Sundarrajan, Sathish Sankar, Gunasekaran Palani, Gracy Fathima Selvaraj, Jayachandran Damodharan, Karuppaiah Muthumani, Padma Srikanth
Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is a single stranded positive sense enveloped RNA virus. Re-emergence of CHIKV caused a massive outbreak with severe clinical manifestation affecting multiple organs. The genetic diversity of CHIKV, which caused recurring outbreaks in India, was studied. Blood samples were collected from suspected human cases of CHIKV infection in Chennai, Tamil Nadu and three Northern districts of Kerala in Southern India during the CHIKV outbreak in 2009. A partial E2 gene segment was amplified by RT-PCR...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784792/abrupt-global-ocean-anoxia-during-the-late-ordovician-early-silurian-detected-using-uranium-isotopes-of-marine-carbonates
#5
Rick Bartlett, Maya Elrick, James R Wheeley, Victor Polyak, André Desrochers, Yemane Asmerom
Widespread marine anoxia is hypothesized as the trigger for the second pulse of the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) mass extinction based on lithologic and geochemical proxies that record local bottom waters or porewaters. We test the anoxia hypothesis using δ238 U values of marine limestones as a global seawater redox proxy. The δ238 U trends at Anticosti Island, Canada, document an abrupt late Hirnantian ∼0.3‰ negative shift continuing through the early Silurian indicating more reducing seawater conditions...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784779/strong-and-highly-variable-push-of-ocean-waves-on-southern-ocean-sea-ice
#6
Justin E Stopa, Peter Sutherland, Fabrice Ardhuin
Sea ice in the Southern Ocean has expanded over most of the past 20 y, but the decline in sea ice since 2016 has taken experts by surprise. This recent evolution highlights the poor performance of numerical models for predicting extent and thickness, which is due to our poor understanding of ice dynamics. Ocean waves are known to play an important role in ice break-up and formation. In addition, as ocean waves decay, they cause a stress that pushes the ice in the direction of wave propagation. This wave stress could not previously be quantified due to insufficient observations at large scales...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782157/the-role-of-marine-snows-in-microplastic-fate-and-bioavailability
#7
Adam Porter, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway, Ceri N Lewis
Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day-1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day-1...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781908/musculoskeletal-injury-in-paddle-sport-athletes
#8
Andrew R Griffin, Diana M Perriman, Teresa M Neeman, Paul N Smith
INTRODUCTION: Kayak racing has been an Olympic sport since 1936. The sport is evolving with the introduction of ocean skis and stand-up-paddle boards (SUP). Musculoskeletal injury incidence surveys have been conducted for ultra-marathon events, but no data have been published for other racing formats. OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare the rates and types of injuries sustained by paddling athletes as a function of discipline and training parameters in Sprint, Marathon, Ultra-Marathon, and Ocean events...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778933/neurotoxic-impact-of-acute-tio-2-nanoparticle-exposure-on-a-benthic-marine-bivalve-mollusk-tegillarca-granosa
#9
Xiaofan Guan, Wei Shi, Shanjie Zha, Jiahuan Rong, Wenhao Su, Guangxu Liu
The release of nanoparticles (NPs) into the ocean inevitably poses a threat to marine organisms. However, to date, the neurotoxic effects of NPs remains poorly understood in marine bivalve species. Therefore, in order to gain a better understanding of the physiological effects of NPs, the impact of acute (96 h) TiO2 NP exposure on the in vivo concentrations of three major neurotransmitters, the activity of AChE, and the expression of neurotransmitter-related genes was investigated in the blood clam, Tegillarca granosa...
May 17, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778594/differetial-toxin-profiles-of-ciguatoxins-in-marine-organisms-chemistry-fate-and-global-distribution
#10
REVIEW
Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable cells causing the human food poisoning known as Ciguatera (CFP). Endemic from tropical areas in central Pacific and West Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea, CTX may affects up to 500,000 people annually due to fish consumption...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778407/the-current-status-of-coral-reefs-and-their-vulnerability-to-climate-change-and-multiple-human-stresses-in-the-comoros-archipelago-western-indian-ocean
#11
B Cowburn, M A Samoilys, D Obura
Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha...
May 16, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778059/tracking-pollutants-in-dietary-fish-oil-from-ocean-to-table
#12
Sheng-Xiang Sun, Xue-Ming Hua, Yun-Yun Deng, Yun-Ni Zhang, Jia-Min Li, Zhao Wu, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Da-Sheng Lu, Hao-Wen Yin, Guo-Quan Wang, Rune Waagbø, Frøyland Livar, Mei-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Yu Du
Dietary fish oil used in aquafeed transfers marine pollutants to farmed fish. However, the entire transfer route of marine pollutants in dietary fish oil from ocean to table fish has not been tracked quantitatively. To track the entire transfer route of marine pollutants from wild fish to farmed fish through dietary fish oil and evaluate the related human health risks, we obtained crude and refined fish oils originating from the same batch of wild ocean anchovy and prepared fish oil-containing purified aquafeeds to feed omnivorous lean Nile tilapia and carnivorous fatty yellow catfish for eight weeks...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776078/critical-properties-of-unlimited-gliding-unexpected-flocking-behavior-driven-by-the-exchange-of-information
#13
Marta Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Agata Fronczak, Piotr Fronczak
Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774975/signals-of-large-scale-climate-drivers-hatchery-enhancement-and-marine-factors-in-yukon-river-chinook-salmon-survival-revealed-with-a-bayesian-life-history-model
#14
Curry J Cunningham, Peter A H Westley, Milo D Adkison
Understanding how species might respond to climate change involves disentangling the influence of co-occurring environmental factors on population dynamics, and is especially problematic for migratory species like Pacific salmon that move between ecosystems. To date, debate surrounding the causes of recent declines in Yukon River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance has centered on whether factors in freshwater or marine environments control variation in survival, and how these populations at the northern extremity of the species range will respond to climate change...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774236/endocytosis-mediated-siderophore-uptake-as-a-strategy-for-fe-acquisition-in-diatoms
#15
Elena Kazamia, Robert Sutak, Javier Paz-Yepes, Richard G Dorrell, Fabio Rocha Jimenez Vieira, Jan Mach, Joe Morrissey, Sébastien Leon, France Lam, Eric Pelletier, Jean-Michel Camadro, Chris Bowler, Emmanuel Lesuisse
Phytoplankton growth is limited in vast oceanic regions by the low bioavailability of iron. Iron fertilization often results in diatom blooms, yet the physiological underpinnings for how diatoms survive in chronically iron-limited waters and outcompete other phytoplankton when iron becomes available are unresolved. We show that some diatoms can use siderophore-bound iron, and exhibit a species-specific recognition for siderophore types. In Phaeodactylum tricornutum , hydroxamate siderophores are taken up without previous reduction by a high-affinity mechanism that involves binding to the cell surface followed by endocytosis-mediated uptake and delivery to the chloroplast...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774235/the-redox-filter-beneath-magmatic-orogens-and-the-formation-of-continental-crust
#16
Ming Tang, Monica Erdman, Graham Eldridge, Cin-Ty A Lee
The two most important magmatic differentiation series on Earth are the Fe-enriching tholeiitic series, which dominates the oceanic crust and island arcs, and the Fe-depleting calc-alkaline series, which dominates the continental crust and continental arcs. It is well known that calc-alkaline magmas are more oxidized when they erupt and are preferentially found in regions of thick crust, but why these quantities should be related remains unexplained. We use the redox-sensitive behavior of europium (Eu) in deep-seated, plagioclase-free arc cumulates to directly constrain the redox evolution of arc magmas at depth...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774020/high-diversity-of-myocyanophage-in-various-aquatic-environments-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing-of-major-capsid-protein-gene-with-a-new-set-of-primers
#17
Weiguo Hou, Shang Wang, Brandon R Briggs, Gaoyuan Li, Wei Xie, Hailiang Dong
Myocyanophages, a group of viruses infecting cyanobacteria, are abundant and play important roles in elemental cycling. Here we investigated the particle-associated viral communities retained on 0.2 μm filters and in sediment samples (representing ancient cyanophage communities) from four ocean and three lake locations, using high-throughput sequencing and a newly designed primer pair targeting a gene fragment (∼145-bp in length) encoding the cyanophage gp23 major capsid protein (MCP). Diverse viral communities were detected in all samples...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773897/fine-scale-temperature-associated-genetic-structure-between-inshore-and-offshore-populations-of-sea-scallop-placopecten-magellanicus
#18
Sarah J Lehnert, Claudio DiBacco, Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Nicholas W Jeffery, J Ben Lowen, Emma V A Sylvester, Brendan F Wringe, Ryan R E Stanley, Lorraine C Hamilton, Ian R Bradbury
In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) has been characterized by a latitudinal genetic cline with a breakpoint between northern and southern genetic clusters occurring at ~45°N along eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. Using 96 diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capable of discriminating between northern and southern clusters, we examined fine-scale genetic structure of scallops among 27 sample locations, spanning the largest geographic range evaluated in this species to date (~37-51°N)...
May 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773443/sequential-webcam-monitoring-and-modeling-of-marine-debris-abundance
#19
Shin'ichiro Kako, Atsuhiko Isobe, Tomoya Kataoka, Kei Yufu, Shuto Sugizono, Charlie Plybon, Thomas A Murphy
The amount of marine debris washed ashore on a beach in Newport, Oregon, USA was observed automatically and sequentially using a webcam system. To investigate potential causes of the temporal variability of marine debris abundance, its time series was compared with those of satellite-derived wind speeds and sea surface height off the Oregon coast. Shoreward flow induced by downwelling-favorable southerly winds increases marine debris washed ashore on the beach in winter. We also found that local sea-level rise caused by westerly winds, especially at spring tide, moved the high-tide line toward the land, so that marine debris littered on the beach was likely to re-drift into the ocean...
May 14, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#20
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
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