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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437919/polarization-based-enhancement-of-ocean-color-signal-for-estimating-suspended-particulate-matter-radiative-transfer-simulations-and-laboratory-measurements
#1
Jia Liu, Xianqiang He, Jiahang Liu, Yan Bai, Difeng Wang, Tieqiao Chen, Yihao Wang, Feng Zhu
Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437917/vector-radiative-transfer-model-for-coupled-atmosphere-and-ocean-systems-including-inelastic-sources-in-ocean-waters
#2
Peng-Wang Zhai, Yongxiang Hu, David M Winker, Bryan A Franz, Jeremy Werdell, Emmanuel Boss
Inelastic scattering plays an important role in ocean optics. The main inelastic scattering mechanisms include Raman scattering, fluorescence by colored dissolved organic matter (FDOM), and fluorescence by chlorophyll. This paper reports an implementation of all three inelastic scattering mechanisms in the exact vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean Systems (CAOS). Simulation shows that FDOM contributes to the water radiation field in the broad visible spectral region, while chlorophyll fluorescence is limited in a narrow band centered at 685 nm...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437559/chromosomal-evolution-in-large-pelagic-oceanic-apex-predators-the-barracudas-sphyraenidae-percomorpha
#3
R X Soares, M B Cioffi, L A C Bertollo, A T Borges, G W W F Costa, W F Molina
Sphyraena (barracudas) represents the only genus of the Sphyraenidae family and includes 27 species distributed into the tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. These pelagic predators can reach large sizes and, thus, attracting significant interest from commercial and sport fishing. Evolutionary data for this fish group, as well its chromosomal patterns, are very incipient. In the present study, the species Sphyraena guachancho, S. barracuda, and S. picudilla were analyzed under conventional (Giemsa staining, C-banding, and Ag-NOR) and molecular (CMA3 banding, and in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and telomeric probes) cytogenetic methods...
April 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436491/extratropical-forcing-triggered-the-2015-madden-julian-oscillation-el-ni%C3%A3-o-event
#4
Chi-Cherng Hong, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Wan-Ling Tseng, Ming-Ying Lee, Chun-Hoe Chow, Li-Chiang Jiang
In this paper, we report the triggering effect of extratropical perturbation on the onset of an atypical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and onset of the 2015-16 El Niño in March 2015. The MJO exhibited several unique characteristics: the effect of extratropical forcing, atypical genesis location and timing in the equatorial western Pacific, and the extremity of amplitudes in many aspects. The southward-penetrating northerly associated with the extratropical disturbances in the extratropical western North Pacific contributed to triggering the deep convection and westerly wind burst (WWB) and onset of the MJO over the anomalously warm tropical western Pacific in early March...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436478/tissue-accumulation-of-microplastics-in-mice-and-biomarker-responses-suggest-widespread-health-risks-of-exposure
#5
Yongfeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Bernardo Lemos, Hongqiang Ren
Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435960/meteorite-impacts-on-ancient-oceans-opened-up-multiple-nh3-production-pathways
#6
Kohei Shimamura, Fuyuki Shimojo, Aiichiro Nakano, Shigenori Tanaka
A recent series of shock experiments by Nakazawa et al. starting in 2005 (e.g. [Nakazawa et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2005, 235, 356]) suggested that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have yielded a considerable amount of NH3 to the early Earth from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. To clarify the mechanisms, we imitated the impact events by performing multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory in combination with multi-scale shock technique (MSST) simulations...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435882/geochemical-evidence-for-m%C3%A3-lange-melting-in-global-arcs
#7
Sune G Nielsen, Horst R Marschall
In subduction zones, sediments and hydrothermally altered oceanic crust, which together form part of the subducting slab, contribute to the chemical composition of lavas erupted at the surface to form volcanic arcs. Transport of this material from the slab to the overlying mantle wedge is thought to involve discreet melts and fluids that are released from various portions of the slab. We use a meta-analysis of geochemical data from eight globally representative arcs to show that melts and fluids from individual slab components cannot be responsible for the formation of arc lavas...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435859/the-frequency-and-extent-of-sub-ice-phytoplankton-blooms-in-the-arctic-ocean
#8
Christopher Horvat, David Rees Jones, Sarah Iams, David Schroeder, Daniela Flocco, Daniel Feltham
In July 2011, the observation of a massive phytoplankton bloom underneath a sea ice-covered region of the Chukchi Sea shifted the scientific consensus that regions of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice were inhospitable to photosynthetic life. Although the impact of widespread phytoplankton blooms under sea ice on Arctic Ocean ecology and carbon fixation is potentially marked, the prevalence of these events in the modern Arctic and in the recent past is, to date, unknown. We investigate the timing, frequency, and evolution of these events over the past 30 years...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434664/marine-debris-in-beaches-of-the-southwestern-atlantic-an-assessment-of-their-abundance-and-mass-at-different-spatial-scales-in-northern-coastal-argentina
#9
Maria Eugenia Becherucci, Alan Federico Rosenthal, Juan Pablo Seco Pon
Argentina is currently undergoing an intensive development of coastal-oriented tourism due to the temperate climate and coastal sceneries of the Southwestern Atlantic and particularly its wide ocean-open sandy beaches, which may turn into an important contributor of marine debris to the beaches. This study was designed to assess at four spatial scales (i) the variation of the abundance and mass of marine debris and (ii) the composition and sources of these items in sandy-tourist beaches of coastal zones of the province of Buenos Aires, in northern Argentina...
April 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434206/a-phylogeographic-investigation-of-the-kelp-genus-laminaria-laminariales-phaeophyceae-with-emphasis-on-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#10
Mark D Rothman, Lydiane Mattio, Robert J Anderson, John J Bolton
The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship to the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434030/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-air-pollutants-and-size-distribution-of-aerosols-over-central-and-eastern-china
#11
Honglei Wang, Lijuan Shen, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Xuewei Hou, Qing Miao, Yang Yang, Shuangshuang Shi
The origins and spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3) during May to June of 2015 were investigated using data from 1490 monitoring sites in China. Aerosol number concentrations and meteorological data from Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, and Suzhou were combined with the MIX Asian emission data and the HYSPLIT model. Furthermore, the diurnal variation, size distribution, and main sources of air pollutants and aerosols were selectively characterized in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432382/two-distinct-periplasmic-enzymes-are-responsible-for-tellurite-tellurate-and-selenite-reduction-by-strain-er-te-48-associated-with-the-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-tube-worms-at-the-juan-de-fuca-ridge-black-smokers
#12
Chris Maltman, Lynda J Donald, Vladimir Yurkov
Strain ER-Te-48 isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent tube worm is capable of resisting and reducing extremely high levels of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite, which are used for respiration anaerobically. Tellurite and tellurate reduction is accomplished by a periplasmic enzyme of 215 kDa comprised of 3 subunits (74, 42, and 25 kDa) in a 2:1:1 ratio. The optimum pH and temperature for activity is 8.0 and 35 °C, respectively. Tellurite reduction has a V max of 5.6 µmol/min/mg protein and a K m of 3...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431764/seasonal-monitoring-of-blue-mussel-mytilus-spp-populations-in-a-harbor-area-a-focus-on-responses-to-environmental-factors-and-chronic-contamination
#13
C Lacroix, E Duvieilbourg, N Guillou, J Guyomarch, C Bassoulet, D Moraga, G Chapalain, M Auffret
Coastal waters corresponding to macrotidal systems are among the most variable marine biotopes. Sessile animals as bivalve mollusks may however be found forming intertidal beds at high densities, as allowed by full adaptation to local conditions. A better knowledge of adaptive responses to environmental factors is required to foresee possible adverse effects of global change. At the sub-cellular level, transcriptional responses are among the earliest signals of environmental disturbances and they can reveal subtle and meaningful changes in organism exposed to stress...
April 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431744/incidence-of-marine-debris-in-seabirds-feeding-at-different-water-depths
#14
D C Tavares, J F de Moura, A Merico, S Siciliano
Marine debris such as plastic fragments and fishing gears are accumulating in the ocean at alarming rates. This study assesses the incidence of debris in the gastrointestinal tracts of seabirds feeding at different depths and found stranded along the Brazilian coast in the period 2010-2013. More than half (55%) of the species analysed, corresponding to 16% of the total number of individuals, presented plastic particles in their gastrointestinal tracts. The incidence of debris was higher in birds feeding predominantly at intermediate (3-6m) and deep (20-100m) waters than those feeding at surface (<2m)...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430813/phytoplankton-blooms-during-austral-summer-in-the-ross-sea-antarctica-driving-factors-and-trophic-implications
#15
Olga Mangoni, Vincenzo Saggiomo, Francesco Bolinesi, Francesca Margiotta, Giorgio Budillon, Yuri Cotroneo, Cristina Misic, Paola Rivaro, Maria Saggiomo
During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430520/wind-generated-rogue-waves-in-an-annular-wave-flume
#16
A Toffoli, D Proment, H Salman, J Monbaliu, F Frascoli, M Dafilis, E Stramignoni, R Forza, M Manfrin, M Onorato
We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an unlimited-fetch condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430237/experimental-study-of-propagation-properties-of-vortex-beams-in-oceanic-turbulence
#17
Zhenglin Liu, Jialin Chen, Daomu Zhao
The intensity of vortex beams always changes on propagation through oceanic turbulence, which is influenced by parameters of turbulence. This property is usually researched only by numerical simulation. Recently, a new method with a spatial light modulator (SLM) can be used in a laboratory to show various turbulence, which makes it possible to construct a system of a beam passing through turbulence by experiment. We investigate a vortex beam propagating through oceanic turbulence with a spiral phase plate and SLM in the laboratory and obtain the intensity distribution images by a charge-coupled device...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430186/independence-of-nutrient-limitation-and-carbon-dioxide-impacts-on-the-southern-ocean-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#18
Marius N Müller, Thomas W Trull, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50(o)S, 149(o)E) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429861/extreme-ocean-acidification-reduces-the-susceptibility-of-eastern-oyster-shells-to-a-polydorid-parasite
#19
J C Clements, D Bourque, J McLaughlin, M Stephenson, L A Comeau
Ocean acidification poses a threat to marine organisms. While the physiological and behavioural effects of ocean acidification have received much attention, the effects of acidification on the susceptibility of farmed shellfish to parasitic infections are poorly understood. Here we describe the effects of moderate (pH 7.5) and extreme (pH 7.0) ocean acidification on the susceptibility of Crassostrea virginica shells to infection by a parasitic polydorid, Polydora websteri. Under laboratory conditions, shells were exposed to three pH treatments (7...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429829/molecular-adaptation-in-the-world-s-deepest-living-animal-insights-from-transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-hadal-amphipod-hirondellea-gigas
#20
Yi Lan, Jin Sun, Renmao Tian, Douglas H Bartlett, Runsheng Li, Yue Him Wong, Weipeng Zhang, Jian-Wen Qiu, Ting Xu, Li-Sheng He, Harry G Tabata, Pei-Yuan Qian
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Understanding how animals adapt to this harsh environment characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, food-limited, dark, and cold is of great scientific interest. Of the animals dwelling in the Challenger Deep, amphipods have been captured using baited traps. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected at a depth of 10,929 m from the East Pond of the Challenger Deep...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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