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Clifford E Kraft, Esther R Angert
Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
Ramadan Abdelaziz, Yasser Abd El-Rahman, Sophie Wilhelm
Chromite is widely distributed in the east and southeast of Afghanistan, especially in Logar Province. Chromite mineralization is podiform-type and is hosted in the stratigraphically lowest ultramafic rocks of the Logar Ophiolite Complex. This ophiolite complex represents a remnant of an early Cretaceous oceanic crust that was thrusted over a late Permian to Mid-Jurassic platform-type sequence of the Kabul Terrane during the Himalayan Orogeny. The ultramafic rocks are composed mainly of dunite and harzburgite, which are variably serpentinized...
February 2018: Heliyon
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Fangli Wu, Zhe Xie, Yawen Lan, Sam Dupont, Meng Sun, Shuaikang Cui, Xizhi Huang, Wei Huang, Liping Liu, Menghong Hu, Weiqun Lu, Youji Wang
With the release of large amounts of CO2 , ocean acidification is intensifying and affecting aquatic organisms. In addition, salinity also plays an important role for marine organisms and fluctuates greatly in estuarine and coastal ecosystem, where ocean acidification frequently occurs. In present study, flow cytometry was used to investigate immune parameters of haemocytes in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to different salinities (15, 25, and 35‰) and two pH levels (7.3 and 8.1). A 7-day in vivo and a 5-h in vitro experiments were performed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jeonghyun Kim, Hyung-Mi Cho, Guebuem Kim
Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) is important for marine organisms and the global carbon cycle contributing to the optical properties of surface seawater and organic carbon budgets. Rivers are known to be the main source of FDOM in coastal oceans and marginal seas. In this study, however, we show that the contribution of FDOM produced from organic sediments of the northwestern Pacific continental shelf is similar to that from the Changjiang River. FDOM showed relatively higher concentrations at stations off the Changjiang River mouth and in the central Yellow Sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Honghai Zhang, Thomas L Delworth
Precipitation is characterized by substantial natural variability, including on regional and decadal scales. This relatively large variability poses a grand challenge in assessing the significance of anthropogenically forced precipitation changes. Here we use multiple large ensembles of climate change experiments to evaluate whether, on regional scales, anthropogenic changes in decadal precipitation mean state are distinguishable. Here, distinguishable means the anthropogenic change is outside the range expected from natural variability...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Laura Sanvicente-Añorve, Jorge Zavala-Hidalgo, Eugenia Allende-Arandía, Margarita Hermoso-Salazar
Most coral-associated decapod species have non-migratory adult populations and depend on their planktonic larvae for dispersal. This study examined the metapopulation structure of three decapod species with different pelagic larval duration (PLD) from twelve coral reef complexes of the Gulf of Mexico. The dispersion of larvae was analyzed through the use of a realistic numerical simulation of the Gulf of Mexico with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. To study the transport and dispersion of particles in near-surface waters, a particle-tracking subroutine was run using as input the currents from the model...
2018: PloS One
Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Various organisms exist in the oceanic environment. These marine organisms provide an abundant source of potential medicines. Many marine peptides possess anticancer properties, some of which have been evaluated for treatment of human cancer in clinical trials. Marine anticancer peptides kill cancer cells through different mechanisms, such as apoptosis, disruption of the tubulin-microtubule balance, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents have side effects and depress immune responses...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ramesh Raju Vetukuri, Sandeep Kushwaha, Diya Sen, Stephen C Whisson, Kurt Lamour, Laura Grenville-Briggs
Phytophthora colocasiae is a phytopathogenic oomycete that causes leaf blight and corm rot on taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important staple crop in the tropics. The impact of P. colocasiae is a serious concern for food security in Asian and Oceanic regions. Vietnamese strain 7290 of P. colocasiae was sequenced (Illumina) to assemble a draft genome of 56.6 Mb, comprised of 19853 scaffolds and 19984 predicted protein-coding genes. As in other Phytophthora species, P. colocasiae possesses numerous pathogenicity-related genes, such as the RxLR class of effectors...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yang Liu, Mingqing Zhang, Xiuqi Fang
By merging reconstructed phenological series from published articles and observations of China Phenology Observation Network (CPON), the first blooming date of Amygdalus davidiana (FBA) in Beijing between 1741 and 2000 is reconstructed. The Butterworth method is used to remove the multi-year variations for generating the phenological series of annual variations in the first blooming date of A. davidiana. The extreme delay years in the phenological series are identified using the percentage threshold method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Philip L Richardson, Ewan D Wakefield, Richard A Phillips
Background: Albatrosses and other large seabirds use dynamic soaring to gain sufficient energy from the wind to travel large distances rapidly and with little apparent effort. The recent development of miniature bird-borne tracking devices now makes it possible to explore the physical and biological implications of this means of locomotion in detail. Here we use GPS tracking and concurrent reanalyzed wind speed data to model the flight performance of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans soaring over the Southern Ocean...
2018: Movement Ecology
Michael Sswat, Martina H Stiasny, Jan Taucher, Maria Algueró-Muñiz, Lennart T Bach, Fredrik Jutfelt, Ulf Riebesell, Catriona Clemmesen
Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability...
March 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Achal Rastogi, Uma Maheswari, Richard G Dorrell, Fabio Rocha Jimenez Vieira, Florian Maumus, Adam Kustka, James McCarthy, Andy E Allen, Paul Kersey, Chris Bowler, Leila Tirichine
Diatoms are one of the most successful and ecologically important groups of eukaryotic phytoplankton in the modern ocean. Deciphering their genomes is a key step towards better understanding of their biological innovations, evolutionary origins, and ecological underpinnings. Here, we have used 90 RNA-Seq datasets from different growth conditions combined with published expressed sequence tags and protein sequences from multiple taxa to explore the genome of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and introduce 1,489 novel genes...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert I Citron, Michael Manga, Douglas J Hemingway
Widespread evidence points to the existence of an ancient Martian ocean. Most compelling are the putative ancient shorelines in the northern plains. However, these shorelines fail to follow an equipotential surface, and this has been used to challenge the notion that they formed via an early ocean and hence to question the existence of such an ocean. The shorelines' deviation from a constant elevation can be explained by true polar wander occurring after the formation of Tharsis, a volcanic province that dominates the gravity and topography of Mars...
March 19, 2018: Nature
Jian Zhao, Amy Bower, Jiayan Yang, Xiaopei Lin
The ocean's role in global climate change largely depends on its heat transport. Therefore, understanding the oceanic meridional heat transport (MHT) variability is a fundamental issue. Prevailing observational and modeling evidence suggests that MHT variability is primarily determined by the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, using new in situ observations in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic Ocean and an eddy-resolving numerical model, we show that energetic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of about 10-100 km profoundly modulate MHT variability on time scales from intra-seasonal to interannual...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Beatriz Tomé, Ana Pereira, Fátima Jorge, Miguel A Carretero, D James Harris, Ana Perera
BACKGROUND: Host-parasite relationships are expected to be strongly shaped by host specificity, a crucial factor in parasite adaptability and diversification. Because whole host communities have to be considered to assess host specificity, oceanic islands are ideal study systems given their simplified biotic assemblages. Previous studies on insular parasites suggest host range broadening during colonization. Here, we investigate the association between one parasite group (haemogregarines) and multiple sympatric hosts (of three lizard genera: Gallotia, Chalcides and Tarentola) in the Canary Islands...
March 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
E González-Ortegón, V Amaral, F Baldó, Ricardo F Sánchez-Leal, María J Bellanco, María P Jiménez, J Forja, César Vilas, A Tovar-Sanchez
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major component of the organic matter pool, playing a key role in the global ocean functioning. However, studies on DOM in waters of many ocean regions, such as the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), are poorly known. Advanced aquatic sensors enable autonomous for long-term deployments in situ collection of high frequency DOM data using fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) as a proxy. The present study evaluates the relevance of FDOM, the estuarine influence and the environmental factors that determine its spatial distribution in the GoC...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gerson Fernandino, Carla I Elliff, Iracema R Silva
Climate change effects have the potential of affecting both ocean and atmospheric processes. These changes pose serious threats to the millions of people that live by the coast. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss how climate change is altering (and will continue to alter) atmospheric and oceanic processes, what are the main implications of these alterations along the coastline, and which are the ecosystem-based management (EBM) strategies that have been proposed and applied to address these issues...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jenifer K McIntyre, Jessica I Lundin, James R Cameron, Michelle I Chow, Jay W Davis, John P Incardona, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) prematurely die when they return from the ocean to spawn in urban watersheds throughout northwestern North America. The available evidence suggests the annual mortality events are caused by toxic stormwater runoff. The underlying pathophysiology of the urban spawner mortality syndrome is not known, and it is unclear whether closely related species of Pacific salmon are similarly at risk. The present study co-exposed adult coho and chum (O. keta) salmon to runoff from a high traffic volume urban arterial roadway...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lei Li, Hongyuan Zheng, Tieyu Wang, Minghong Cai, Pei Wang
The bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) resulted in strict regulations on PFAAs, especially in developed countries. Consequently, the industry manufacturing of PFAAs shifts from long-chain to short-chain. In order to better understand the pollution situation of PFAAs in marine environment under this new circumstance, the occurrence of 17 linear PFAAs was investigated in 30 surface seawater samples from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean (123°E to 24°W, 32 to 82°N) during the sixth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2014...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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