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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926810/revisiting-the-biogeochemistry-of-arsenic-in-the-baltic-sea-impact-of-anthropogenic-activity
#1
Lei Li, Christa Pohl, Jing-Ling Ren, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Xiu-Hong Cao, Günther Nausch, Jing Zhang
With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926792/u-isotopes-distribution-in-the-lower-rhone-river-and-its-implication-on-radionuclides-disequilibrium-within-the-decay-series
#2
REVIEW
Mathilde Zebracki, Xavier Cagnat, Stéphanie Gairoard, Nicolas Cariou, Frédérique Eyrolle-Boyer, Béatrice Boulet, Christelle Antonelli
The large rivers are main pathways for the delivery of suspended sediments into coastal environments, affecting the biogeochemical fluxes and the ecosystem functioning. The radionuclides from (238)U and (232)Th-series can be used to understand the dynamic processes affecting both catchment soil erosion and sediment delivery to oceans. Based on annual water discharge the Rhone River represents the largest river of the Mediterranean Sea. The Rhone valley also represents the largest concentration in nuclear power plants in Europe...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926627/tiger-sharks-can-connect-equatorial-habitats-and-fisheries-across-the-atlantic-ocean-basin
#3
André S Afonso, Ricardo Garla, Fábio H V Hazin
Increasing our knowledge about the spatial ecology of apex predators and their interactions with diverse habitats and fisheries is necessary for understanding the trophic mechanisms that underlie several aspects of marine ecosystem dynamics and for guiding informed management policies. A preliminary assessment of tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) population structure off the oceanic insular system of Fernando de Noronha (FEN) and the large-scale movements performed by this species in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean was conducted using longline and handline fishing gear and satellite telemetry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926240/antineoplastic-agents-605-isoquinstatins
#4
George R Pettit, Noeleen Melody, Jean-Charles Chapuis
In order to further explore quinoline-type structural modification of the powerful anticancer drug dolastatin 10, an Indian Ocean sea hare constituent and parent molecule of the very successful antibody drug conjugate (ADC) Adcetris, our recent quinstatin study has been extended by replacing the quinoline ring with an isoquinoline. The resulting isoquinstatins (4-6) were modified to N-terminal desmethylisoquinstatins (7-9) and, in turn, bonded to appropriate linker units to give linker-desmethylisoquinstatin conjugates 11-13 in preparation for eventual monoclonal antibody attachment...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925876/the-antitumor-potential-of-marine-natural-products-a-mechanistic-investigation
#5
Liping Hu, Jie Ying, Miaomiao Zhang, Xiaoyan Qiu, Yu Lu
Compounds obtained from natural resources have been the important candidates for the discovery and development of drugs. Over the past few decades, marine resources gradually attracted the attention of the majority of researchers, and a number of compounds with various structures or activities have been obtained from sponge, alga, fungus, mollusks and some others. Because of the living conditions in the ocean are higher pressures, more variable temperatures, lower oxygen and lower light than that in the terrestrial environment, marine resources have a lot of organisms that are not available or rare on land...
September 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925547/biogeographic-conservation-of-the-cytosine-epigenome-in-the-globally-important-marine-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium
#6
Nathan G Walworth, David A Hutchins, Egor Dolzhenko, Michael D Lee, Feixue Fu, Andrew D Smith, Eric A Webb
Cytosine methylation has been shown to regulate essential cellular processes and impact biological adaptation. Despite its evolutionary importance, only a handful of bacterial, genome-wide cytosine studies have been conducted, with none for marine bacteria. Here, we examine the genome-wide, C(5) -Methyl-cytosine (m5C) methylome and its correlation to global transcription in the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. We characterize genome-wide methylation and highlight conserved motifs across 3 Trichodesmium isolates and 2 Trichodesmium metagenomes, thereby identifying highly conserved, novel genomic signatures of potential gene regulation in Trichodesmium...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924997/sharing-morphospaces-early-ontogenetic-shape-changes-in-two-clingfish-larvae-pisces-gobiesocidae-from-the-south-east-pacific-ocean
#7
V Bernal-Durán, N Jahnsen-Guzmán, M F Landaeta
Larval body shape changes and developmental timing were examined in two clingfish species from the south-east Pacific Ocean, Gobiesox marmoratus and Sicyases sanguineus. Ontogenetic allometry showed no interspecific variation and <7 mm standard length (LS ) larvae of both species occupied similar morphospace, but larger G. marmoratus showed increased body depth while larvae of S. sanguineus developed a flattened head and maintained a hydrodynamic body. Estimated developmental timing suggests that larval body shape changes were faster in G...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924606/active-pacific-meridional-overturning-circulation-pmoc-during-the-warm-pliocene
#8
Natalie J Burls, Alexey V Fedorov, Daniel M Sigman, Samuel L Jaccard, Ralf Tiedemann, Gerald H Haug
An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924189/communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-enhances-viral-infection-of-a-cosmopolitan-alga
#9
Daniella Schatz, Shilo Rosenwasser, Sergey Malitsky, Sharon G Wolf, Ester Feldmesser, Assaf Vardi
Communication between microorganisms in the marine environment has immense ecological impact by mediating trophic-level interactions and thus determining community structure (1) . Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by bacteria (2,3) , archaea (4) , protists (5) and metazoans, and can mediate pathogenicity (6) or act as vectors for intercellular communication. However, little is known about the involvement of EVs in microbial interactions in the marine environment (7) . Here we investigated the signalling role of EVs produced during interactions between the cosmopolitan alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae) (8) , which leads to the demise of these large-scale oceanic blooms (9,10) ...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924144/south-atlantic-paleobathymetry-since-early-cretaceous
#10
Lucía Pérez-Díaz, Graeme Eagles
We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as seafloor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923289/impact-of-ocean-acidification-on-the-early-development-and-escape-behavior-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#11
Xiaojie Wang, Lulu Song, Yi Chen, Haoyu Ran, Jiakun Song
Ocean acidification is predicted to affect a wide diversity of marine organisms. However, no studies have reported the effects of ocean acidification on Indian Ocean fish. We have used the Indian Ocean medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a model species for a marine fish that lives in coastal waters. We investigated the impact of ocean acidification on the embryonic development and the stereotyped escape behavior (mediated by the Mauthner cell) in newly hatched larvae. Newly fertilized eggs of medaka were reared in seawater at three different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2): control at 450 μatm, moderate at 1160 μatm, and high at 1783 μatm...
September 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922020/seasonal-and-weather-variation-of-sleep-and-physical-activity-in-12-14-year-old-children
#12
Mirja Quante, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Emily R Kaplan, Michael Rueschman, Elsie M Taveras, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Matthew W Gillman, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Understanding variation in physical activity (PA) and sleep is necessary to develop novel intervention strategies targeting adolescents' health behaviors. We examined the extent to which PA and sleep vary by aspects of the physical environment. PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 669 adolescents in the Project Viva cohort. METHODS: We estimated total PA, sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep midpoint timing from wrist accelerometers...
September 18, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921895/genetic-characterization-of-african-swine-fever-virus-isolates-from-soft-ticks-at-the-wildlife-domestic-interface-in-mozambique-and-identification-of-a-novel-genotype
#13
C J Quembo, F Jori, W Vosloo, L Heath
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious diseases of pigs. There are not sufficient data to indicate the importance of the sylvatic cycle in the spread and maintenance of the disease locally and potentially, globally. To assess the capacity to maintain ASF in the environment, we investigated the presence of soft tickreservoirs of ASFV in Gorongosa National Park (GNP) and its surrounding villages. A total of 1,658 soft ticks were recovered from warthog burrows and pig pens at the wildlife/livestock interface of the GNP and viral DNA was confirmed by nested PCR in 19% of Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus and 15% of O...
September 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920759/spatial-distribution-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-and-polychlorinated-biphenyl-sources-in-the-nakdong-river-estuary-south-korea
#14
Jun H Lee, Han J Woo, Kap S Jeong, Jeong W Kang, Jae U Choi, Eun J Jeong, Kap S Park, Dong H Lee
Our research team investigated the elemental composition and the presence of various toxic organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in estuary surface sediments to trace the spatial distribution of the sources of pollution deposited in Nakdong River, Busan, South Korea. The spatial patterns of elemental composition and toxic organic compounds were determined from the measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, total sulfur, PAHs, and PCBs...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919961/the-mugil-curema-species-complex-pisces-mugilidae-a-new-karyotype-for-the-pacific-white-mullet-mitochondrial-lineage
#15
Mauro Nirchio, Claudio Oliveira, Zoila R Siccha-Ramirez, Viviani F de Sene, Luciana Sola, Valentina Milana, Anna Rita Rossi
Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that the Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 species complex includes M. incilis Hancock, 1830, M. thoburni (Jordan & Starks, 1896) and at least four "M. curema" mitochondrial lineages, considered as cryptic species. The cytogenetic data on some representatives of the species complex have shown a high cytogenetic diversity. This research reports the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses of white mullet collected in Ecuador. The analyzed specimens were molecularly assigned to the Mugil sp...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919936/polar-applications-of-spaceborne-scatterometers
#16
David G Long
Wind scatterometers were originally developed for observation of near-surface winds over the ocean. They retrieve wind indirectly by measuring the normalized radar cross section (σ(o) ) of the surface, and estimating the wind via a geophysical model function relating σ(o) to the vector wind. The σ(o) measurements have proven to be remarkably capable in studies of the polar regions where they can map snow cover; detect the freeze/thaw state of forest, tundra, and ice; map and classify sea ice; and track icebergs...
May 2017: IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Obs Remote Sens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919640/charon-tectonics
#17
Ross A Beyer, Francis Nimmo, William B McKinnon, Jeffrey M Moore, Richard P Binzel, Jack W Conrad, Andy Cheng, K Ennico, Tod R Lauer, C B Olkin, Stuart Robbins, Paul Schenk, Kelsi Singer, John R Spencer, S Alan Stern, H A Weaver, L A Young, Amanda M Zangari
New Horizons images of Pluto's companion Charon show a variety of terrains that display extensional tectonic features, with relief surprising for this relatively small world. These features suggest a global extensional areal strain of order 1% early in Charon's history. Such extension is consistent with the presence of an ancient global ocean, now frozen.
May 1, 2017: Icarus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919151/the-combined-effects-of-ocean-warming-and-acidification-on-shallow-water-meiofaunal-assemblages
#18
Matthew R Lee, Rodrigo Torres, Patricio H Manríquez
Climate change due to increased anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere is causing an increase in seawater temperatures referred to as ocean warming and a decrease in seawater pH, referred to as ocean acidification. The meiofauna play an important role in the ecology of marine ecosystems and the functions they provide. Using microcosms, meiofaunal assemblages were exposed to two temperatures (15 and 19 °C) and two pHs (pCO2 of 400 and 1000 ppm), both individually and in combination, for a period of 90 days. The hypothesis that increased temperature will increase meiofaunal abundance was not supported...
September 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918981/potential-impacts-of-shipping-noise-on-marine-mammals-in-the-western-canadian-arctic
#19
William D Halliday, Stephen J Insley, R Casey Hilliard, Tyler de Jong, Matthew K Pine
As the Arctic warms and sea ice decreases, increased shipping will lead to higher ambient noise levels in the Arctic Ocean. Arctic marine mammals are vulnerable to increased noise because they use sound to survive and likely evolved in a relatively quiet soundscape. We model vessel noise propagation in the proposed western Canadian Arctic shipping corridor in order to examine impacts on marine mammals and marine protected areas (MPAs). Our model predicts that loud vessels are audible underwater when >100km away, could affect marine mammal behaviour when within 2km for icebreakers vessels, and as far as 52km for tankers...
September 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918949/old-growth-fishes-become-scarce-under-fishing
#20
Lewis A K Barnett, Trevor A Branch, R Anthony Ranasinghe, Timothy E Essington
Researchers have long recognized the importance of ecological differences at the species level in structuring natural communities yet until recently have often overlooked the influence of intraspecific trait variation, which can profoundly alter community dynamics [1]. Human extraction of living resources can reduce intraspecific trait variation by, for example, causing truncation of age and size structure of populations, where numbers of older individuals decline far more with exploitation than younger individuals...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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