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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944511/cost-utility-analysis-of-direct-vad-versus-double-bridges-to-heart-transplantation-in-patients-with-refractory-heart-failure
#1
Hsiao-Huang Chang, Po-Lin Chen, I-Ming Chen, Tzu-Ting Kuo, Zen-Chung Weng, Pei-Jung Huang, Nai-Yuan Wu, Ching-Li Cheng
OBJECT: This study compared the cost-utility of direct ventricular assist device (VAD) versus double bridges, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) before VAD, to heart transplantation in patients with refractory heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a health payer perspective, a Markov model was developed. The cycle length was one month and the time horizon was a lifetime. Probabilities and direct cost data were calculated from a nationwide claim database...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941411/a-fully-continuous-system-of-dna-profile-evidence-evaluation-that-can-utilise-str-profile-data-produced-under-different-conditions-within-a-single-analysis
#2
Duncan Taylor, Jo-Anne Bright, Hannah Kelly, Meng-Han Lin, John Buckleton
The introduction of probabilistic DNA interpretation systems has made it possible to evaluate many profiles that previously (under a manual interpretation system) were not. These probabilistic systems have been around for a number of years and it is becoming more common that their use within a laboratory has spanned at least one technology change. This may be a change in laboratory hardware, the DNA profiling kit used, or the manner in which the profile is generated. Up until this point, when replicates DNA profiles are generated, that span a technological change, the ability to utilise all the information in all replicates has been limited or non-existent...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940825/cluster-confidence-index-a-streamline-wise-pathway-reproducibility-metric-for-diffusion-weighted-mri-tractography
#3
Kesshi M Jordan, Bagrat Amirbekian, Anisha Keshavan, Roland G Henry
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging tractography can be used to create models of white matter fascicles. Anatomical and pathological variability between subjects can drastically alter the tractography output, so standardizing results across a cohort is nontrivial. Furthermore, tractography methods have inherently low reproducibility due to stochasticity (for probabilistic methods) and subjective decisions, since the final fascicle model often requires a manual intervention step performed by an expert human operator to control both outliers and systematic false-positive pathways, as defined by prior knowledge of anatomy...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934096/children-s-lead-exposure-a-multimedia-modeling-analysis-to-guide-public-health-decision-making
#4
Valerie Zartarian, Jianping Xue, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, James Brown
BACKGROUND: Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concerns around the Flint, Michigan, drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana, lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) recommended establishment of a "health-based, household action level" for lead in drinking water based on children's exposure. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to develop a coupled exposure-dose modeling approach that can be used to determine what drinking water lead concentrations keep children's blood lead levels (BLLs) below specified values, considering exposures from water, soil, dust, food, and air...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933010/economic-evaluation-of-dupilumab-for-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis-in-adults
#5
Andreas Kuznik, Gaëlle Bégo-Le-Bagousse, Laurent Eckert, Abhijit Gadkari, Eric Simpson, Christopher N Graham, LaStella Miles, Vera Mastey, Puneet Mahajan, Sean D Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: Dupilumab significantly improves signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD), including pruritus, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life versus placebo in adults with moderate-to-severe AD. Since the cost-effectiveness of dupilumab has not been evaluated, the objective of this analysis was to estimate a value-based price range in which dupilumab would be considered cost-effective compared with supportive care (SC) for treatment of moderate-to-severe AD in an adult population...
September 20, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932203/life-satisfaction-of-university-students-in-relation-to-family-and-food-in-a-developing-country
#6
Berta Schnettler, Edgardo Miranda-Zapata, Klaus G Grunert, Germán Lobos, Marianela Denegri, Clementina Hueche, Héctor Poblete
Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years) in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930692/palbociclib-in-hormone-receptor-positive-advanced-breast-cancer-a-cost-utility-analysis
#7
J Raphael, J Helou, K I Pritchard, D M Naimark
INTRODUCTION: The addition of palbociclib to letrozole improves progression-free survival in the first-line treatment of hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer (ABC). This study assesses the cost-utility of palbociclib from the Canadian healthcare payer perspective. METHODS: A probabilistic discrete event simulation (DES) model was developed and parameterised with data from the PALOMA 1 and 2 trials and other sources. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-month (QALM) gained for palbociclib was calculated...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928395/stochastic-priming-and-spatial-cues-orchestrate-heterogeneous-clonal-contribution-to-mouse-pancreas-organogenesis
#8
Hjalte List Larsen, Laura Martín-Coll, Alexander Valentin Nielsen, Christopher V E Wright, Ala Trusina, Yung Hae Kim, Anne Grapin-Botton
Spatiotemporal balancing of cellular proliferation and differentiation is crucial for postnatal tissue homoeostasis and organogenesis. During embryonic development, pancreatic progenitors simultaneously proliferate and differentiate into the endocrine, ductal and acinar lineages. Using in vivo clonal analysis in the founder population of the pancreas here we reveal highly heterogeneous contribution of single progenitors to organ formation. While some progenitors are bona fide multipotent and contribute progeny to all major pancreatic cell lineages, we also identify numerous unipotent endocrine and ducto-endocrine bipotent clones...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926847/probing-the-stochastic-property-of-endoreduplication-in-cell-size-determination-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-leaf-epidermal-tissue
#9
Kensuke Kawade, Hirokazu Tsukaya
Cell size distribution is highly reproducible, whereas the size of individual cells often varies greatly within a tissue. This is obvious in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermal cells, which ranged from 1,000 to 10,000 μm2 in size. Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which nuclear genome size (ploidy) is doubled in the absence of cell division. Although epidermal cells require endoreduplication to enhance cellular expansion, the issue of whether this mechanism is sufficient for explaining cell size distribution remains unclear due to a lack of quantitative understanding linking the occurrence of endoreduplication with cell size diversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926564/probabilistic-models-for-neural-populations-that-naturally-capture-global-coupling-and-criticality
#10
Jan Humplik, Gašper Tkačik
Advances in multi-unit recordings pave the way for statistical modeling of activity patterns in large neural populations. Recent studies have shown that the summed activity of all neurons strongly shapes the population response. A separate recent finding has been that neural populations also exhibit criticality, an anomalously large dynamic range for the probabilities of different population activity patterns. Motivated by these two observations, we introduce a class of probabilistic models which takes into account the prior knowledge that the neural population could be globally coupled and close to critical...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923918/continuous-track-paths-reveal-additive-evidence-integration-in-multistep-decision-making
#11
Cristian Buc Calderon, Myrtille Dewulf, Wim Gevers, Tom Verguts
Multistep decision making pervades daily life, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We distinguish four prominent models of multistep decision making, namely serial stage, hierarchical evidence integration, hierarchical leaky competing accumulation (HLCA), and probabilistic evidence integration (PEI). To empirically disentangle these models, we design a two-step reward-based decision paradigm and implement it in a reaching task experiment. In a first step, participants choose between two potential upcoming choices, each associated with two rewards...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915670/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-using-epigenetic-biomarkers-3d-high-content-imaging-and-probabilistic-cell-by-cell-classifiers
#12
Darko Stefanovski, George Tang, Kolja Wawrowsky, Raymond C Boston, Nils Lambrecht, Jian Tajbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) management can benefit from novel concepts/biomarkers for reducing the current 20-30% chance of false-negative diagnosis with standard histopathology of biopsied tissue. METHOD: We explored the potential of selected epigenetic markers in combination with validated histopathological markers, 3D high-content imaging, cell-by-cell analysis, and probabilistic classification in generating novel detailed maps of biomarker heterogeneity in patient tissues, and PCa diagnosis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915306/cost-utility-study-of-warfarin-genotyping-in-the-vachs-affiliated-anticoagulation-clinic-of-puerto-rico
#13
Carlos Martes-Martinez, Cristian Méndez-Sepúlveda, Joel Millán-Molina, Matthew French-Kim, Heriberto Marín-Centeno, Giselle C Rivera-Miranda, José J Hernández-Muñoz, Jorge Duconge-Soler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-utility of the pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin (PGx), when compared to the current dosing strategy. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to assess the impact of the genotypingguided warfarin dosing in a hypothetical cohort of patients. The model was based on the percentage of time patients spent within the therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) range (PTTR). PTTR estimates and genotype distribution were derived from a cohort of patients (n = 206) treated in the Veteran Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) and from results of other research study...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914440/olaratumab-in-combination-with-doxorubicin-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-soft-tissue-sarcoma-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-national-institute-for-health-and-care-excellence-single-technology-appraisal
#14
REVIEW
Irina A Tikhonova, Tracey Jones-Hughes, James Dunham, Fiona C Warren, Sophie Robinson, Peter Stephens, Martin Hoyle
The manufacturer of olaratumab (Lartruvo(®)), Eli Lilly & Company Limited, submitted evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug, in combination with doxorubicin, for untreated advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy, as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal process. The Peninsula Technology Assessment Group, commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG), critically reviewed the company's submission...
September 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914229/clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-beta-interferon-and-glatiramer-acetate-for-treating-multiple-sclerosis-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#15
G J Melendez-Torres, Peter Auguste, Xavier Armoiry, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Rachel Court, Jason Madan, Alan Kan, Stephanie Lin, Carl Counsell, Jacoby Patterson, Jeremy Rodrigues, Olga Ciccarelli, Hannah Fraser, Aileen Clarke
BACKGROUND: At the time of publication of the most recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance [technology appraisal (TA) 32] in 2002 on beta-interferon (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) for multiple sclerosis, there was insufficient evidence of their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To undertake (1) systematic reviews of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IFN-β and GA in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) compared with best supportive care (BSC) and each other, investigating annualised relapse rate (ARR) and time to disability progression confirmed at 3 months and 6 months and (2) cost-effectiveness assessments of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for CIS and RRMS compared with BSC and each other...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910127/visual-shape-perception-as-bayesian-inference-of-3d-object-centered-shape-representations
#16
Goker Erdogan, Robert A Jacobs
Despite decades of research, little is known about how people visually perceive object shape. We hypothesize that a promising approach to shape perception is provided by a "visual perception as Bayesian inference" framework which augments an emphasis on visual representation with an emphasis on the idea that shape perception is a form of statistical inference. Our hypothesis claims that shape perception of unfamiliar objects can be characterized as statistical inference of 3D shape in an object-centered coordinate system...
September 14, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905121/a-probabilistic-atlas-of-fiber-crossings-for-variability-reduction-of-anisotropy-measures
#17
Lukas J Volz, M Cieslak, S T Grafton
Diffusion imaging enables assessment of human brain white matter (WM) in vivo. WM microstructural integrity is routinely quantified via fractional anisotropy (FA). However, FA is also influenced by the number of differentially oriented fiber populations per voxel. To date, the precise statistical relationship between FA and fiber populations has not been characterized, complicating microstructural integrity assessment. Here, we used 630 state-of-the-art diffusion datasets from the Human Connectome Project, which allowed us to infer the number of fiber populations per voxel in a model-free fashion...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904231/interactions-between-the-corticospinal-tract-and-premotor-motor-pathways-for-residual-motor-output-after-stroke
#18
Robert Schulz, Eunhee Park, Jungsoo Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Ahee Lee, Yun-Hee Kim, Friedhelm C Hummel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain imaging has continuously enhanced our understanding how different brain networks contribute to motor recovery after stroke. However, the present models are still incomplete and do not fit for every patient. The interaction between the degree of damage of the corticospinal tract (CST) and of corticocortical motor connections, that is, the influence of the microstructural state of one connection on the importance of another has been largely neglected. METHODS: Applying diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography, we investigated cross-network interactions between the integrity of ipsilesional CST and ipsilesional corticocortical motor pathways for variance in residual motor outcome in 53 patients with subacute stroke...
September 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903881/factors-affecting-the-cost-effectiveness-of-on-farm-culture-prior-to-the-treatment-of-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cows
#19
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, M J Green
The objective of this study was to use probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using an on-farm culture (OFC) approach to the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows and compare this to a 'standard' treatment approach. A specific aim was to identify the herd circumstances under which an OFC approach would be most likely to be cost-effective. A stochastic Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 5000 cases of clinical mastitis at the cow level and to calculate the associated costs simultaneously when treated according to 2 different treatment protocols; i) a 'conventional' approach (3 tubes of intramammary antibiotic) and ii) an OFC programme, whereby cows are treated according to the results of OFC...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898701/target-virus-log10-reduction-values-determined-for-two-reclaimed-wastewater-irrigation-scenarios-in-japan-based-on-tolerable-annual-disease-burden
#20
Toshihiro Ito, Masaaki Kitajima, Tsuyoshi Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano
Multiple-barriers are widely employed for managing microbial risks in water reuse, in which different types of wastewater treatment units (biological treatment, disinfection, etc.) and health protection measures (use of personal protective gear, vegetable washing, etc.) are combined to achieve a performance target value of log10 reduction (LR) of viruses. The LR virus target value needs to be calculated based on the data obtained from monitoring the viruses of concern and the water reuse scheme in the context of the countries/regions where water reuse is implemented...
August 26, 2017: Water Research
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