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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#1
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524869/characterising-and-predicting-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-an-8-year-amplicon-sequencing-time-course
#2
Nicolas Tromas, Nathalie Fortin, Larbi Bedrani, Yves Terrat, Pedro Cardoso, David Bird, Charles W Greer, B Jesse Shapiro
Cyanobacterial blooms occur in lakes worldwide, producing toxins that pose a serious public health threat. Eutrophication caused by human activities and warmer temperatures both contribute to blooms, but it is still difficult to predict precisely when and where blooms will occur. One reason that prediction is so difficult is that blooms can be caused by different species or genera of cyanobacteria, which may interact with other bacteria and respond to a variety of environmental cues. Here we used a deep 16S amplicon sequencing approach to profile the bacterial community in eutrophic Lake Champlain over time, to characterise the composition and repeatability of cyanobacterial blooms, and to determine the potential for blooms to be predicted based on time course sequence data...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524817/functional-dissociation-of-stimulus-intensity-encoding-and-predictive-coding-of-pain-in-the-insula
#3
Stephan Geuter, Sabrina Boll, Falk Eippert, Christian Büchel
The computational principles by which the brain creates a painful experience from nociception are still unknown. Classic theories suggest that cortical regions either reflect stimulus intensity or additive effects of intensity and expectations, respectively. By contrast, predictive coding theories provide a unified framework explaining how perception is shaped by the integration of beliefs about the world with mismatches resulting from the comparison of these believes against sensory input. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a probabilistic heat pain paradigm, we investigated which computations underlie pain perception...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523420/cost-utility-analysis-of-certolizumab-pegol-in-combination-with-methotrexate-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-greece
#4
C Tzanetakos, A Tzioufas, A Goules, G Kourlaba, T Theodoratou, P Christou, N Maniadakis
We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of certolizumab pegol (CZP), a pegylated fc-free anti-TNF, as add-on therapy to methotrexate (MTX) versus etanercept, adalimumab, or golimumab in patients with moderate-to-severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not responding to the conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs). A Markov model (6-month cycle length) assessed health and cost outcomes of CZP versus other anti-TNFs recommended for RA in Greece over a patient's lifetime. Following discontinuation of first-line anti-TNF, patients switched to second anti-TNF and then to a biologic with another mode of action...
May 18, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522655/choice-of-hemodialysis-access-in-older-adults-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#5
Rasheeda K Hall, Evan R Myers, Sylvia E Rosas, Ann M O'Hare, Cathleen S Colón-Emeric
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although arteriovenous fistulas have been found to be the most cost-effective form of hemodialysis access, the relative benefits of placing an arteriovenous fistula versus an arteriovenous graft seem to be least certain for older adults and when placed preemptively. However, older adults' life expectancy is heterogeneous, and most patients do not undergo permanent access creation until after dialysis initiation. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of arteriovenous fistula placement after dialysis initiation in older adults as a function of age and life expectancy...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522358/self-tolerance-and-autoimmunity-in-a-minimal-model-of-the-idiotypic-network
#6
Stefan Landmann, Nicolas Preuss, Ulrich Behn
We consider self-tolerance and its failure -autoimmunity- in a minimal mathematical model of the idiotypic network. A node in the network represents a clone of B-lymphocytes and its antibodies of the same idiotype which is encoded by a bitstring. The links between nodes represent possible interactions between clones of almost complementary idiotype. A clone survives only if the number of populated neighbored nodes is neither too small nor too large. The dynamics is driven by the influx of lymphocytes with randomly generated idiotype from the bone marrow...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521005/using-directed-acyclic-graphs-in-epidemiological-research-in-psychosis-an-analysis-of-the-role-of-bullying-in-psychosis
#7
Giusi Moffa, Gennaro Catone, Jack Kuipers, Elizabeth Kuipers, Daniel Freeman, Steven Marwaha, Belinda R Lennox, Matthew R Broome, Paul Bebbington
Modern psychiatric epidemiology researches complex interactions between multiple variables in large datasets. This creates difficulties for causal inference. We argue for the use of probabilistic models represented by directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). These capture the dependence structure of multiple variables and, used appropriately, allow more robust conclusions about the direction of causation. We analyzed British national survey data to assess putative mediators of the association between bullying victimization and persecutory ideation...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520779/church-attendance-allostatic-load-and-mortality-in-middle-aged-adults
#8
Marino A Bruce, David Martins, Kenrik Duru, Bettina M Beech, Mario Sims, Nina Harawa, Roberto Vargas, Dulcie Kermah, Susanne B Nicholas, Arleen Brown, Keith C Norris
IMPORTANCE: Religiosity has been associated with positive health outcomes. Hypothesized pathways for this association include religious practices, such as church attendance, that result in reduced stress. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between religiosity (church attendance), allostatic load (AL) (a physiologic measure of stress) and all-cause mortality in middle-aged adults. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data for this study are from NHANES III (1988-1994)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520728/cost-effectiveness-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-using-generic-direct-acting-antivirals-available-in-india
#9
Rakesh Aggarwal, Qiushi Chen, Amit Goel, Nicole Seguy, Razia Pendse, Turgay Ayer, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Availability of directly-acting antivirals (DAAs) has changed the treatment landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The high price of DAAs has restricted their use in several countries. However, in some countries such as India, generic DAAs are available at much cheaper price. This study examined whether generic DAAs could be cost-saving and how long it would take for the treatment to become cost-saving/effective. METHODS: A previously-validated, mathematical model was adapted to the HCV-infected population in India to compare the outcomes of no treatment versus treatment with DAAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520713/combining-inferred-regulatory-and-reconstructed-metabolic-networks-enhances-phenotype-prediction-in-yeast
#10
Zhuo Wang, Samuel A Danziger, Benjamin D Heavner, Shuyi Ma, Jennifer J Smith, Song Li, Thurston Herricks, Evangelos Simeonidis, Nitin S Baliga, John D Aitchison, Nathan D Price
Gene regulatory and metabolic network models have been used successfully in many organisms, but inherent differences between them make networks difficult to integrate. Probabilistic Regulation Of Metabolism (PROM) provides a partial solution, but it does not incorporate network inference and underperforms in eukaryotes. We present an Integrated Deduced And Metabolism (IDREAM) method that combines statistically inferred Environment and Gene Regulatory Influence Network (EGRIN) models with the PROM framework to create enhanced metabolic-regulatory network models...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520199/economic-evaluation-of-strategies-for-restarting-anticoagulation-therapy-after-a-first-event-of-unprovoked-venous-thromboembolism
#11
M Monahan, J Ensor, D Moore, D Fitzmaurice, S Jowett
BACKGROUND: Following at least three months of anticoagulation therapy after a first unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism (VTE), there is uncertainty about the duration of therapy. Further anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of having a potentially fatal recurrent VTE but at the expense of a higher risk of bleeding which can also be fatal. OBJECTIVE: An economic evaluation sought to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of using a decision rule for restarting anticoagulation therapy versus no extension of therapy in patients based on their risk of a further unprovoked VTE...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518405/setting-ambitious-yet-achievable-targets-using-probabilistic-projections-meeting-demand-for-family-planning
#12
Vladimíra Kantorová, Jin Rou New, Ann Biddlecom, Leontine Alkema
In 2015, governments adopted 17 internationally agreed goals to ensure progress and well-being in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. These new goals present a challenge for countries to set empirical targets that are ambitious yet achievable and that can account for different starting points and rates of progress. We used probabilistic projections of family planning indicators, based on a global data set and Bayesian hierarchical modeling, to generate illustrative targets at the country level...
May 18, 2017: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516034/synergistic-but-independent-the-role-of-corticospinal-and-alternate-motor-fibers-for-residual-motor-output-after-stroke
#13
Robert Schulz, Eunhee Park, Jungsoo Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Ahee Lee, Yun-Hee Kim, Friedhelm C Hummel
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging has shown that not only the cortico-spinal tract (CST), but also alternate corticofugal motor fibers (aMF), such as the cortico-rubro-spinal and cortico-reticulo-spinal tract, influence residual motor output after stroke. So far, studies mainly have investigated each tract separately. A combined analysis of CST and aMF with assessment of their interactive role, i.e., that structural integrity of one tract influences the functional role of the structural integrity of the other, is pending...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515183/modeling-lifetime-costs-and-health-outcomes-attributable-to-secondhand-smoke-exposure-at-home-among-korean-adult-women
#14
Jiyae Lee, Ah Ram Han, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae
PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to estimate lifetime costs and health consequences for Korean adult women who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to project the lifetime healthcare costs and health outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of Korean women who are 40 years old and were married to current smokers. The Korean epidemiological data were used to reflect the natural history of SHS-exposed and non-exposed women...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514203/cost-effectiveness-of-mr-imaging-guided-strategies-for-detection-of-prostate-cancer-in-biopsy-naive-men
#15
Shivani Pahwa, Nicholas K Schiltz, Lee E Ponsky, Ziang Lu, Mark A Griswold, Vikas Gulani
Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiparametric diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination followed by MR imaging-guided biopsy strategies in the detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naive men presenting with clinical suspicion of cancer for the first time. Materials and Methods A decision-analysis model was created for biopsy-naive men who had been recommended for prostate biopsy on the basis of abnormal digital rectal examination results or elevated prostate-specific antigen levels (age groups: 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and 61-70 years)...
May 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512194/ancient-antagonism-between-celf-and-rbfox-families-tunes-mrna-splicing-outcomes
#16
Matthew R Gazzara, Michael J Mallory, Renat Roytenberg, John Lindberg, Anupama Jha, Kristen W Lynch, Yoseph Barash
Over 95% of human multi-exon genes undergo alternative splicing, a process important in normal development and often dysregulated in disease. We sought to analyze the global splicing regulatory network of CELF2 in human T cells, a well-studied splicing regulator critical to T cell development and function. By integrating high-throughput sequencing data for binding and splicing quantification with sequence features and probabilistic splicing code models, we find evidence of splicing antagonism between CELF2 and the RBFOX family of splicing factors...
May 16, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507654/cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacist-care-for-managing-hypertension-in-canada
#17
Carlo Marra, Karissa Johnston, Valerie Santschi, Ross T Tsuyuki
BACKGROUND: More than half of all heart disease and stroke are attributable to hypertension, which is associated with approximately 10% of direct medical costs globally. Clinical trial evidence has demonstrated that the benefits of pharmacist intervention, including education, consultation and/or prescribing, can help to reduce blood pressure; a recent Canadian trial found an 18.3 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure associated with pharmacist care and prescribing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of such an intervention in a Canadian setting...
May 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506278/a-framework-for-evaluating-epidemic-forecasts
#18
Farzaneh Sadat Tabataba, Prithwish Chakraborty, Naren Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan Venkatramanan, Jiangzhuo Chen, Bryan Lewis, Madhav Marathe
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, numerous forecasting methods have been proposed in the field of epidemic forecasting. Such methods can be classified into different categories such as deterministic vs. probabilistic, comparative methods vs. generative methods, and so on. In some of the more popular comparative methods, researchers compare observed epidemiological data from the early stages of an outbreak with the output of proposed models to forecast the future trend and prevalence of the pandemic...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505781/statistical-inference-for-community-detection-in-signed-networks
#19
Xuehua Zhao, Bo Yang, Xueyan Liu, Huiling Chen
The problem of community detection in networks has received wide attention and proves to be computationally challenging. In recent years, with the surge of signed networks with positive links and negative links, to find community structure in such signed networks has become a research focus in the area of network science. Although many methods have been proposed to address the problem, their performance seriously depends on the predefined optimization objectives or heuristics which are usually difficult to accurately describe the intrinsic structure of community...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505723/effects-of-film-growth-kinetics-on-grain-coarsening-and-grain-shape
#20
F D A Aarão Reis
We study models of grain nucleation and coarsening during the deposition of a thin film using numerical simulations and scaling approaches. The incorporation of new particles in the film is determined by lattice growth models in three different universality classes, with no effect of the grain structure. The first model of grain coarsening is similar to that proposed by Saito and Omura [Phys. Rev. E 84, 021601 (2011)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.021601], in which nucleation occurs only at the substrate, and the grain boundary evolution at the film surface is determined by a probabilistic competition of neighboring grains...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
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