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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910875/an-integrated-modelling-framework-from-cells-to-organism-based-on-a-cohort-of-digital-embryos
#1
Paul Villoutreix, Julien Delile, Barbara Rizzi, Louise Duloquin, Thierry Savy, Paul Bourgine, René Doursat, Nadine Peyriéras
We conducted a quantitative comparison of developing sea urchin embryos based on the analysis of five digital specimens obtained by automatic processing of in toto 3D+ time image data. These measurements served the reconstruction of a prototypical cell lineage tree able to predict the spatiotemporal cellular organisation of a normal sea urchin blastula. The reconstruction was achieved by designing and tuning a multi-level probabilistic model that reproduced embryo-level dynamics from a small number of statistical parameters characterising cell proliferation, cell surface area and cell volume evolution along the cell lineage...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#2
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907897/cost-effectiveness-of-embryo-transfer-strategies-a-decision-analytic-model-using-long-term-costs-and-consequences-of-singletons-and-multiples-born-as-a-consequence-of-ivf
#3
M M J van Heesch, A D I van Asselt, J L H Evers, M A H B M van der Hoeven, J C M Dumoulin, C E M van Beijsterveldt, G J Bonsel, R H M Dykgraaf, J B van Goudoever, C Koopman-Esseboom, W L D M Nelen, K Steiner, P Tamminga, N Tonch, H L Torrance, C D Dirksen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the cost-effectiveness of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) versus double embryo transfer (DET) strategies from a societal perspective, when applying a time horizon of 1, 5 and 18 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: From a short-term perspective (1 year) it is cost-effective to replace DET with single embryo transfer; however when intermediate- (5 years) and long-term (18 years) costs and consequences are incorporated, DET becomes the most cost-effective strategy, given a ceiling ratio of €20 000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906986/cost-effectiveness-of-community-based-tb-hiv-screening-and-linkage-to-care-in-rural-south-africa
#4
Jennifer A Gilbert, Sheela V Shenoi, Anthony P Moll, Gerald H Friedland, A David Paltiel, Alison P Galvani
South Africa has one of the highest burdens of TB worldwide, driven by the country's widespread prevalence of HIV, and further complicated by drug resistance. Active case finding within the community, particularly in rural areas where healthcare access is limited, can significantly improve diagnosis and treatment coverage in high-incidence settings. We evaluated the potential health and economic consequences of implementing community-based TB/HIV screening and linkage to care. Using a dynamic model of TB and HIV transmission over a time horizon of 10 years, we compared status quo TB/HIV control to community-based TB/HIV screening at frequencies of once every two years, one year, and six months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906266/a-population-based-approach-to-point-sampling-spatial-color-algorithms
#5
Gabriele Gianini, Michela Lecca, Alessandro Rizzi
Inspired by the behavior of the human visual system, spatial color algorithms perform image enhancement by correcting the pixel channel lightness based on the spatial distribution of the intensities in the surrounding area. The two visual contrast enhancement algorithms RSR and STRESS belong to this family of models: they rescale the input based on local reference values, which are determined by exploring the image by means of random point samples, called sprays. Due to the use of sampling, they may yield a noisy output...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905863/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-selenium-content-and-mercury-levels-in-wild-harvested-fish-from-the-dehcho-region-northwest-territories-canada
#6
Ellen S Reyes, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Katherine M Kornobis, Rhona M Hanning, Shannon E Majowicz, Karsten Liber, Ken D Stark, George Low, Heidi K Swanson, Brian D Laird
To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903479/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-use-of-a-prophylactic-antibiotic-for-patients-undergoing-lower-limb-amputation-due-to-diabetes-or-vascular-illness-in-colombia
#7
REVIEW
Mateo Ceballos, Luis Esteban Orozco, Carlos Oliver Valderrama, Diana Isabel Londoño, Luz Helena Lugo
BACKGROUND: The use of a prophylactic antibiotic in an amputation surgery is a key element for the successful recovery of the patient. We aim to determine, from the perspective of the Colombian health system, the cost-effectiveness of administering a prophylactic antibiotic among patients undergoing lower limb amputation due to diabetes or vascular illness in Colombia. METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to compare the use and non-use of a prophylactic antibiotic...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903191/cost-effectiveness-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-versus-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-for-up-to-10-brain-metastases
#8
Nataniel H Lester-Coll, Arie P Dosoretz, William J Magnuson, Maxwell S Laurans, Veronica L Chiang, James B Yu
OBJECTIVE The JLGK0901 study found that stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective treatment option for treating up to 10 brain metastases. The purpose of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of treating up to 10 brain metastases with SRS, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), or SRS and immediate WBRT (SRS+WBRT). METHODS A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of SRS, WBRT, and SRS+WBRT in patients with 1 or 2-10 brain metastases. Transition probabilities were derived from the JLGK0901 study and modified according to the recurrence rates observed in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9508 and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 22952-26001 studies to simulate the outcomes for patients who receive WBRT...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896968/exploring-the-reproducibility-of-probabilistic-causal-molecular-network-models
#9
Ariella Cohain, Aparna A Divaraniya, Kuixi Zhu, Joseph R Scarpa, Andrew Kasarskis, Jun Zhu, Rui Chang, Joel T Dudley, Eric E Schadt
Network reconstruction algorithms are increasingly being employed in biomedical and life sciences research to integrate large-scale, high-dimensional data informing on living systems. One particular class of probabilistic causal networks being applied to model the complexity and causal structure of biological data is Bayesian networks (BNs). BNs provide an elegant mathematical framework for not only inferring causal relationships among many different molecular and higher order phenotypes, but also for incorporating highly diverse priors that provide an efficient path for incorporating existing knowledge...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893398/probabilistic-inference-on-multiple-normalized-genome-wide-signal-profiles-with-model-regularization
#10
Ka-Chun Wong, Chengbin Peng, Shankai Yan, Cheng Liang
Understanding genome-wide protein-DNA interactions forms the basis for further focused studies. In particular, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with sequencing (ChIPSeq) technology can enable us to measure the genome-wide occupancy of DNA-binding protein of interest in vivo. Multiple ChIP-Seq runs thus inherent the potential for us to decipher the combinatorial interactions among multiple DNA-binding proteins. To handle those multiple genome-wide runs, we propose to integrate regularized regression functions (i...
November 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893091/spatial-probabilistic-pulsatility-model-for-enhancing-photoplethysmographic-imaging-systems
#11
Robert Amelard, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#12
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888726/probabilistic-uncertainty-analysis-based-on-monte-carlo-simulations-of-co-combustion-of-hazelnut-hull-and-coal-blends-data-driven-modeling-and-response-surface-optimization
#13
Musa Buyukada
The aim of present study is to investigate the thermogravimetric behaviour of the co-combustion of hazelnut hull (HH) and coal blends using three approaches: multi non-linear regression (MNLR) modeling based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) (1), optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM) (2), and probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature (3). The response variable was predicted by the best-fit MNLR model with a predicted regression coefficient (R(2)pred) of 99...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885641/apophyseal-ossification-of-the-iliac-crest-in-forensic-age-estimation-computed-tomography-standards-for-modern-australian-subadults
#14
Nicolene Lottering, Clair L Alston-Knox, Donna M MacGregor, Maree T Izatt, Caroline A Grant, Clayton J Adam, Laura S Gregory
This study contrasts the ontogeny of the iliac crest apophysis using conventional radiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), providing probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian subadults. Retrospective abdominopelvic MSCT data acquired from 524 Australian individuals aged 7-25 and surveillance radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients included in the Paediatric Spine Research Group Progression Study (n = 531) were assessed. Ossification scoring of pseudo-radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered reconstructions using Risser (1958) quantitative descriptors indicate discrepancies in age estimates, stage allocation, and conflicting morphological progression...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884189/sparse-improved-event-based-stochastic-parameter-search
#15
Min K Roh, Bernie J Daigle
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing availability of high performance computing capabilities, analysis and characterization of stochastic biochemical systems remain a computational challenge. To address this challenge, the Stochastic Parameter Search for Events (SParSE) was developed to automatically identify reaction rates that yield a probabilistic user-specified event. SParSE consists of three main components: the multi-level cross-entropy method, which identifies biasing parameters to push the system toward the event of interest, the related inverse biasing method, and an optional interpolation of identified parameters...
November 25, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882281/the-computation-of-confidence-intervals-for-the-state-parameters-of-power-systems
#16
Zahid Khan, Radzuan Bin Razali, Hanita Daud, Nursyarizal Mohd Nor, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Katrina Lane Krebs
BACKGROUND: In the past few decades, a significant volume of work has been carried out on various aspects of the state estimation problem to estimate an optimum state vector of the power system. This problem has been focused on, in previous studies regarding the computational efficiency and numerical robustness in view to find point estimates for system state parameters. This current investigation, constructed confidence intervals for the unknown state parameters of the system. The research indicates that confidence intervals can yield addition useful information about the estimated parameters...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881283/cost-effectiveness-of-introducing-point-of-care-test-for-detection-of-level-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-in-early-diagnostic-algorithm-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#17
Slobodan M Janković, Marina Kostić
BACKGROUND: The detection of specific biomarkers in the early phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is important for the early diagnosis and appropriate management of patients with ACS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of introducing a diagnostic point-of-care (POC) test for determining the levels of glycogen phosphorylase BB isoform (GPBB) in a standard diagnostic algorithm for the early diagnosis of ACS within the health system of the Republic of Serbia...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881256/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-self-management-program-for-thai-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Anut Sakulsupsiri, Phantipa Sakthong, Win Winit-Watjana
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle modification programs are partly evaluated for their usefulness. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness and healthy lifestyle persistence of a self-management program (SMP) for patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Thai health care settings. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on the basis of an intervention study of 90 patients with MetS randomly allocated to the SMP and control groups...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881255/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-ticagrelor-and-prasugrel-for-the-treatment-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#19
Ying Jiao Zhao, Ai Leng Khoo, Liang Lin, Monica Teng, Tuck Seng Wu, Mark Y Chan, Boon Peng Lim
BACKGROUND: In the management of Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the comparative cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor and prasugrel, referenced to generic clopidogrel, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor and prasugrel as compared with generic clopidogrel in patients with ACS in Singapore. METHODS: A Markov model simulating a typical cohort of 62-year-old patients with ACS was constructed from a patient's perspective over a lifetime horizon...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879649/probabilistic-model-updating-for-sizing-of-hole-edge-crack-using-fiber-bragg-grating-sensors-and-the-high-order-extended-finite-element-method
#20
Jingjing He, Jinsong Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Haim Waisman, Weifang Zhang
This paper presents a novel framework for probabilistic crack size quantification using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The key idea is to use a high-order extended finite element method (XFEM) together with a transfer (T)-matrix method to analyze the reflection intensity spectra of FBG sensors, for various crack sizes. Compared with the standard FEM, the XFEM offers two superior capabilities: (i) a more accurate representation of fields in the vicinity of the crack tip singularity and (ii) alleviation of the need for costly re-meshing as the crack size changes...
November 21, 2016: Sensors
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