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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088109/carbetocin-versus-oxytocin-for-prevention-of-post-partum-haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-in-the-united-kingdom-an-economic-impact-analysis
#1
Helen A van der Nelson, Tim Draycott, Dimitrios Siassakos, Christopher W H Yau, Anthony J Hatswell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic impact of the introduction of carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at caesarean section, compared to oxytocin. STUDY DESIGN: The model is a decision tree conducted from a UK National Health Service perspective. 1500 caesarean sections (both elective and emergency) were modelled over a 12 month period. Efficacy data was taken from a published Cochrane meta-analysis, and costs from NHS Reference costs, the British National Formulary and the NHS electronic Medicines Information Tool...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087598/bayesian-network-inference-modeling-identifies-trib1-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cell-cycle-progression-and-survival-in-cancer-cells
#2
Rina Gendelman, Heming Xing, Olga K Mirzoeva, Preeti Sarde, Christina Curtis, Heidi Feiler, Paul McDonagh, Joe W Gray, Iya Khalil, W Michael Korn
Molecular networks governing cellular responses to targeted therapies are complex dynamic systems with non-intuitive behaviors. Here we applied a novel computational strategy to infer probabilistic causal relationships between network components based on gene expression. We constructed a model comprised of an ensemble of networks using multidimensional data from cell line models of cell cycle arrest caused by inhibition of MEK1/2. Through simulation of reverse-engineered Bayesian network modeling, we generated predictions of G1-S transition...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086965/probabilistic-liver-atlas-construction
#3
Esther Dura, Juan Domingo, Guillermo Ayala, Luis Marti-Bonmati, E Goceri
BACKGROUND: Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. RESULTS: A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed...
January 13, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081134/pain-a-statistical-account
#4
REVIEW
Abby Tabor, Michael A Thacker, G Lorimer Moseley, Konrad P Körding
Perception is seen as a process that utilises partial and noisy information to construct a coherent understanding of the world. Here we argue that the experience of pain is no different; it is based on incomplete, multimodal information, which is used to estimate potential bodily threat. We outline a Bayesian inference model, incorporating the key components of cue combination, causal inference, and temporal integration, which highlights the statistical problems in everyday perception. It is from this platform that we are able to review the pain literature, providing evidence from experimental, acute, and persistent phenomena to demonstrate the advantages of adopting a statistical account in pain...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078600/net-budgetary-impact-of-ferric-citrate-as-a-first-line-phosphate-binder-for-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemia-a-markov-microsimulation-model
#5
Steven M Brunelli, Scott P Sibbel, David Van Wyck, Amit Sharma, Andrew Hsieh, Glenn M Chertow
Ferric citrate (FC) has demonstrated efficacy as a phosphate binder and reduces the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron in dialysis patients. We developed a net budgetary impact model to evaluate FC vs. other phosphate binders from the vantage of a large dialysis provider. We used a Markov microsimulation model to simulate mutually referential longitudinal effects between serum phosphate and phosphate binder dose; categories of these defined health states. Health states probabilistically determined treatment attendance and utilization of ESA and IV iron...
January 11, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077933/bayespop-probabilistic-population-projections
#6
Hana Ševčíková, Adrian E Raftery
We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids...
December 2016: Journal of Statistical Software
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077395/the-effects-of-posterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-on-posterolateral-corner-structures-under-gait-and-squat-loading-conditions-a-computational-knee-model
#7
K-T Kang, Y-G Koh, M Jung, J-H Nam, J Son, Y H Lee, S-J Kim, S-H Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to analyse the effects of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency on forces of the posterolateral corner structure and on tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) contact force under dynamic-loading conditions. METHODS: A subject-specific knee model was validated using a passive flexion experiment, electromyography data, muscle activation, and previous experimental studies. The simulation was performed on the musculoskeletal models with and without PCL deficiency using a novel force-dependent kinematics method under gait- and squat-loading conditions, followed by probabilistic analysis for material uncertain to be considered...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077027/probabilistic-acute-risk-assessment-of-cumulative-exposure-to-organophosphorus-and-carbamate-pesticides-from-dietary-vegetables-and-fruits-in-shanghai-populations
#8
Fan Li, Yaqun Yuan, Pai Meng, Min Wu, Shuguang Li, Bo Chen
Organophosphorus (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-2014 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring program during 2008-2011 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analyzed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs...
January 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076183/markov-influence-diagrams
#9
Francisco J Díez, Mar Yebra, Iñigo Bermejo, Miguel A Palacios-Alonso, Manuel Arias Calleja, Manuel Luque, Jorge Pérez-Martín
Markov influence diagrams (MIDs) are a new type of probabilistic graphical model that extends influence diagrams in the same way that Markov decision trees extend decision trees. They have been designed to build state-transition models, mainly in medicine, and perform cost-effectiveness analyses. Using a causal graph that may contain several variables per cycle, MIDs can model various patient characteristics without multiplying the number of states; in particular, they can represent the history of the patient without using tunnel states...
February 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074337/economic-burden-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-italy-possible-consequences-on-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-patients
#10
Francesco Saverio Mennini, Andrea Marcellusi, Lara Gitto, Florenzo Iannone
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with a substantial medical and economic burden. In Italy, it affects approximately 280,000 people, therefore representing the musculoskeletal disease with the highest economic impact in terms of costs for the National Health Service and the social security system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual economic burden of RA in Italy and determine the potential cost reduction considering the most effective biologic treatment for early rapidly progressing RA (ERPRA) patients...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068901/development-of-a-microsoft-excel-tool-for-one-parameter-rasch-model-of-continuous-items-an-application-to-a-safety-attitude-survey
#11
Tsair-Wei Chien, Yang Shao, Shu-Chun Kuo
BACKGROUND: Many continuous item responses (CIRs) are encountered in healthcare settings, but no one uses item response theory's (IRT) probabilistic modeling to present graphical presentations for interpreting CIR results. A computer module that is programmed to deal with CIRs is required. To present a computer module, validate it, and verify its usefulness in dealing with CIR data, and then to apply the model to real healthcare data in order to show how the CIR that can be applied to healthcare settings with an example regarding a safety attitude survey...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068242/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-preoperative-versus-postoperative-radiation-therapy-in-extremity-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#12
Xuanlu M Qu, Alexander V Louie, Jonathan Ashman, Nabil Wasif
PURPOSE: Surgery combined with radiation therapy (RT) is the cornerstone of multidisciplinary management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Although RT can be given in either the preoperative or the postoperative setting with similar local recurrence and survival outcomes, the side effect profiles, costs, and long-term functional outcomes are different. The aim of this study was to use decision analysis to determine optimal sequencing of RT with surgery in patients with extremity STS...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063715/probabilistic-risk-assessment-of-chinese-residents-exposure-to-fluoride-in-improved-drinking-water-in-endemic-fluorosis-areas
#13
Li E Zhang, Daizheng Huang, Jie Yang, Xiao Wei, Jian Qin, Songfeng Ou, Zhiyong Zhang, Yunfeng Zou
Studies have yet to evaluate the effects of water improvement on fluoride concentrations in drinking water and the corresponding health risks to Chinese residents in endemic fluorosis areas (EFAs) at a national level. This paper summarized available data in the published literature (2008-2016) on water fluoride from the EFAs in China before and after water quality was improved. Based on these obtained data, health risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water was performed by means of a probabilistic approach...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063376/a-comprehensive-non-invasive-framework-for-diagnosing-prostate-cancer
#14
Islam Reda, Ahmed Shalaby, Mohammed Elmogy, Ahmed Abou Elfotouh, Fahmi Khalifa, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Ehsan Hosseini-Asl, Georgy Gimel'farb, Naoufel Werghi, Ayman El-Baz
Early detection of prostate cancer increases chances of patients' survival. Our automated non-invasive system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of prostate cancer segments the prostate on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRI) acquired at different b-values, estimates its apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), and classifies their descriptors - empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF) - with a trained deep learning network. To segment the prostate, an evolving geometric (level-set-based) deformable model is guided by a speed function depending on intensity attributes extracted from the DW-MRI with nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)...
December 23, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063076/automatic-detection-of-vertebral-number-abnormalities-in-body-ct-images
#15
Shouhei Hanaoka, Yoshiyasu Nakano, Mitsutaka Nemoto, Yukihiro Nomura, Tomomi Takenaga, Soichiro Miki, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Naoto Hayashi, Yoshitaka Masutani, Akinobu Shimizu
PURPOSE: The anatomical anomaly of the number of vertebral bones is one of the major anomalies in the human body, which can cause confusion of the spinal level in, for example, surgery. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic detection system for this type of anomaly. METHODS: We utilized our previously reported anatomical landmark detection system for this anomaly detection problem. This system uses a landmark point distribution model (L-PDM) to find multiple landmark positions...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060715/probabilistic-low-rank-multitask-learning
#16
Yu Kong, Ming Shao, Kang Li, Yun Fu
In this paper, we consider the problem of learning multiple related tasks simultaneously with the goal of improving the generalization performance of individual tasks. The key challenge is to effectively exploit the shared information across multiple tasks as well as preserve the discriminative information for each individual task. To address this, we propose a novel probabilistic model for multitask learning (MTL) that can automatically balance between low-rank and sparsity constraints. The former assumes a low-rank structure of the underlying predictive hypothesis space to explicitly capture the relationship of different tasks and the latter learns the incoherent sparse patterns private to each task...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060235/orif-or-arthroplasty-for-displaced-femoral-neck-fractures-in-patients-younger-than-65-years-old-an-economic-decision-analysis
#17
Eric Swart, Paulvalery Roulette, Daniel Leas, Kevin J Bozic, Madhav Karunakar
BACKGROUND: The decision between open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and arthroplasty for a displaced femoral neck fracture in a patient ≤65 years old can be challenging. Both options have potential drawbacks; if a fracture treated with ORIF fails to heal it may require a revision operation, whereas a relatively young patient who undergoes arthroplasty may need revision within his/her lifetime. The purpose of this study was to employ decision analysis modeling techniques to generate evidence-based treatment recommendations in this clinical scenario...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059306/mitigation-of-nonlinear-transmission-effects-for-ofdm-16-qam-optical-signal-using-adaptive-modulation
#18
Anton S Skidin, Oleg S Sidelnikov, Mikhail P Fedoruk, Sergei K Turitsyn
The impact of the fiber Kerr effect on error statistics in the nonlinear (high power) transmission of the OFDM 16-QAM signal over a 2000 km EDFA-based link is examined. We observed and quantified the difference in the error statistics for constellation points located at three power-defined rings. Theoretical analysis of a trade-off between redundancy and error rate reduction using probabilistic coding of three constellation power rings decreasing the symbol-error rate of OFDM 16-QAM signal is presented. Based on this analysis, we propose to mitigate the nonlinear impairments using the adaptive modulation technique applied to the OFDM 16-QAM signal...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059221/implicit-kernel-sparse-shape-representation-a-sparse-neighbors-based-objection-segmentation-framework
#19
Jincao Yao, Huimin Yu, Roland Hu
This paper introduces a new implicit-kernel-sparse-shape-representation-based object segmentation framework. Given an input object whose shape is similar to some of the elements in the training set, the proposed model can automatically find a cluster of implicit kernel sparse neighbors to approximately represent the input shape and guide the segmentation. A distance-constrained probabilistic definition together with a dualization energy term is developed to connect high-level shape representation and low-level image information...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059115/online-games-a-novel-approach-to-explore-how-partial-information-influences-human-random-searches
#20
Ricardo Martínez-García, Justin M Calabrese, Cristóbal López
Many natural processes rely on optimizing the success ratio of a search process. We use an experimental setup consisting of a simple online game in which players have to find a target hidden on a board, to investigate how the rounds are influenced by the detection of cues. We focus on the search duration and the statistics of the trajectories traced on the board. The experimental data are explained by a family of random-walk-based models and probabilistic analytical approximations. If no initial information is given to the players, the search is optimized for cues that cover an intermediate spatial scale...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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