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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803969/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-influenza-c-viruses-from-western-india
#1
V A Potdar, D D Hinge, M R Dakhave, A Manchanda, N Jadhav, P B Kulkarni, M S Chadha
Since 2003, India has had a well-established influenza surveillance network, though Influenza C virus was not the focus of study. We therefore retrospectively analyzed clinical samples from Pune, western India collected during January 2009 to August 2015, by real-time RT-PCR. Three of 2530 samples of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) showed positivity for Influenza C virus infection, while 105 and 31 samples were positive for Influenza A and B viruses respectively...
August 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802156/neutron-spectrum-unfolding-using-radial-basis-function-neural-networks
#2
Amin Asgharzadeh Alvar, Mohammad Reza Deevband, Meghdad Ashtiyani
Neutron energy spectrum unfolding has been the subject of research for several years. The Bayesian theory, Monte Carlo simulation, and iterative methods are some of the methods that have been used for neutron spectrum unfolding. In this study, the radial basis function (RBF), multilayer perceptron, and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the unfolding of neutron spectrum, and a comparison was made between the networks' results. Both neural network architectures were trained and tested using the same data set for neutron spectrum unfolding from the response of LiI detectors with Eu impurity...
July 26, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801423/comparative-efficacy-and-acceptability-of-antidepressants-psychological-interventions-and-their-combination-for-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis
#3
Xinyu Zhou, Andrea Cipriani, Yuqing Zhang, Pim Cuijpers, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Juncai Pu, Cinzia Del Giovane, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Jürgen Barth, David Coghill, Stefan Leucht, Lining Yang, Arun V Ravindran, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798016/bayesian-analysis-a-practical-approach-to-interpret-clinical-trials-and-create-clinical-practice-guidelines
#4
John A Bittl, Yulei He
Bayesian analysis is firmly grounded in the science of probability and has been increasingly supplementing or replacing traditional approaches based on P values. In this review, we present gradually more complex examples, along with programming code and data sets, to show how Bayesian analysis takes evidence from randomized clinical trials to update what is already known about specific treatments in cardiovascular medicine. In the example of revascularization choices for diabetic patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease, we combine the results of the FREEDOM trial (Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease) with prior probability distributions to show how strongly we should believe in the new Class I recommendation ("should be done") for a preference of bypass surgery over percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797087/a-comparison-of-monte-carlo-based-bayesian-parameter-estimation-methods-for-stochastic-models-of-genetic-networks
#5
Inés P Mariño, Alexey Zaikin, Joaquín Míguez
We compare three state-of-the-art Bayesian inference methods for the estimation of the unknown parameters in a stochastic model of a genetic network. In particular, we introduce a stochastic version of the paradigmatic synthetic multicellular clock model proposed by Ullner et al., 2007. By introducing dynamical noise in the model and assuming that the partial observations of the system are contaminated by additive noise, we enable a principled mechanism to represent experimental uncertainties in the synthesis of the multicellular system and pave the way for the design of probabilistic methods for the estimation of any unknowns in the model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794258/genetic-architecture-and-molecular-networks-underlying-leaf-thickness-in-desert-adapted-tomato
#6
Viktoriya Coneva, Margaret Frank, Maria A de Luis Balaguer, Mao Li, Rosangela Sozzani, Daniel H Chitwood
Thicker leaves allow plants to grow in water-limited conditions. However, our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of this highly functional leaf shape trait is poor. We used a custom-built confocal profilometer to directly measure leaf thickness in a set of introgression lines (ILs) derived from the desert tomato species Solanum pennellii, and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL). We report evidence of a complex genetic architecture of this trait and roles for both genetic and environmental factors...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793339/modeling-mirna-mrna-interactions-that-cause-phenotypic-abnormality-in-breast-cancer-patients
#7
Sanghoon Lee, Xia Jiang
BACKGROUND: The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) alters expression level of pro-oncogenic or tumor suppressive mRNAs in breast cancer, and in the long run, causes multiple biological abnormalities. Identification of such interactions of miRNA-mRNA requires integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA expression profile data. However, current approaches have limitations to consider the regulatory relationship between miRNAs and mRNAs and to implicate the relationship with phenotypic abnormality and cancer pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791450/relative-efficacy-and-safety-of-apremilast-secukinumab-and-ustekinumab-for-the-treatment-of-psoriatic-arthritis
#8
G G Song, Y H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative efficacy and safety of apremilast, secukinumab, and ustekinumab at different doses in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHOD: A Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the efficacy and safety of apremilast 20 mg, apremilast 30 mg, secukinumab 75 mg, secukinumab 150 mg, secukinumab 300 mg, ustekinumab 45 mg, and ustekinumab 90 mg compared with placebo...
August 8, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783497/incorporating-model-uncertainty-into-the-evaluation-of-interventions-to-reduce-microcontaminant-loads-in-rivers
#9
P Gimeno, R Marcé, Ll Bosch, J Comas, Ll Corominas
Models of microcontaminant fate and transport in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and rivers have been developed and used to assist decision-making in the field of water management. These models come with parameter uncertainties that must be properly incorporated in the decision-making process. The main goal of this study is to evaluate how the magnitudes of key model parameter uncertainties influence the selection of end-of-pipe interventions (at WWTPs) designed to reduce the microcontaminant loads in rivers...
July 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782681/a-bayesian-spatial-model-for-neuroimaging-data-based-on-biologically-informed-basis-functions
#10
Ismael Huertas, Marianne Oldehinkel, Erik S B van Oort, David Garcia-Solis, Pablo Mir, Christian F Beckmann, Andre F Marquand
The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data is characterized as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780727/interventions-for-humeral-shaft-fractures-mixed-treatment-comparisons-of-clinical-trials
#11
Y Zhao, J Wang, W Yao, Q Cai, Y Wang, W Yuan, S Gao
We designed a study to compare the efficacy of five main therapeutic options, including external fixation, open reduction and plate osteosynthesis (ORPO), minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), dynamic compression plate (DCP), and intramedullary nail (IMN) in treating humeral shaft fractures. Our results indicated that MIPO and IMN were recommended as the optimal treatments for clinical use. PURPOSE: Nowadays, five main therapeutic options are used in treating humeral shaft fractures: external fixation, open reduction and plate osteosynthesis (ORPO), minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), dynamic compression plate (DCP), and intramedullary nail (IMN)...
August 5, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774329/feature-selection-through-validation-and-un-censoring-of-endovascular-repair-survival-data-for-predicting-the-risk-of-re-intervention
#12
Omneya Attallah, Alan Karthikesalingam, Peter J E Holt, Matthew M Thompson, Rob Sayers, Matthew J Bown, Eddie C Choke, Xianghong Ma
BACKGROUND: Feature selection (FS) process is essential in the medical area as it reduces the effort and time needed for physicians to measure unnecessary features. Choosing useful variables is a difficult task with the presence of censoring which is the unique characteristic in survival analysis. Most survival FS methods depend on Cox's proportional hazard model; however, machine learning techniques (MLT) are preferred but not commonly used due to censoring. Techniques that have been proposed to adopt MLT to perform FS with survival data cannot be used with the high level of censoring...
August 3, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774303/comparison-of-anti-malarial-drugs-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-african-children-and-adults-using-network-meta-analysis
#13
Solange Whegang Youdom, Rachida Tahar, Leonardo K Basco
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and novel drug combinations are available and used in African countries to treat uncomplicated malaria. Network meta-analysis methods are rarely and poorly applied for the comparison of their efficacies. This method was applied on a set of randomized controlled trials to illustrate its usefulness. METHODS: A literature review available in Pubmed was conducted in July 2016. Eligible studies, conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, published between 2002 and 2016, focused on randomized controlled trials of at least two artemisinin-based combinations to treat uncomplicated malaria in children and adults...
August 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772189/learning-abstract-visual-concepts-via-probabilistic-program-induction-in-a-language-of-thought
#14
Matthew C Overlan, Robert A Jacobs, Steven T Piantadosi
The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding...
July 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771807/combination-adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-targeted-drugs-for-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-a-network-meta-analysis
#15
Jinghui Wang, Li Luo, Dingxue Wang, Bin Guo, Jun Li, Zhu Yang, Dongxin Tang
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most fatal diseases in the world. The efficacy of present chemotherapy treatments are limited and the addition of targeted drugs have been put into practice. However, the preferred treatments among adjuvant chemotherapies still remain controversial and uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of different adjuvant chemotherapies combined with or without targeted drugs to determine the optimal treatment for patients with CRC in clinical practice...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771519/the-effects-of-various-diets-on-glycemic-outcomes-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#16
Vanessa Ha, Ashley J Bonner, Jaynendr K Jadoo, Joseph Beyene, Sonia S Anand, Russell J de Souza
AIMS: Evidence to support dietary modifications to improve glycemia during pregnancy is limited, and the benefits of diet beyond limiting gestational weight gain is unclear. Therefore, a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials was conducted to compare the effects of various common diets, stratified by the addition of gestational weight gain advice, on fasting glucose and insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770072/genetic-demography-at-the-leading-edge-of-the-distribution-of-a-rabies-virus-vector
#17
Antoinette J Piaggio, Amy L Russell, Ignacio A Osorio, Alejandro Jiménez Ramírez, Justin W Fischer, Jennifer L Neuwald, Annie E Tibbels, Luis Lecuona, Gary F McCracken
The common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, ranges from South America into northern Mexico in North America. This sanguivorous species of bat feeds primarily on medium to large-sized mammals and is known to rely on livestock as primary prey. Each year, there are hotspot areas of D. rotundus-specific rabies virus outbreaks that lead to the deaths of livestock and economic losses. Based on incidental captures in our study area, which is an area of high cattle mortality from D. rotundus transmitted rabies, it appears that D...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769079/ecological-network-inference-from-long-term-presence-absence-data
#18
Elizabeth L Sander, J Timothy Wootton, Stefano Allesina
Ecological communities are characterized by complex networks of trophic and nontrophic interactions, which shape the dy-namics of the community. Machine learning and correlational methods are increasingly popular for inferring networks from co-occurrence and time series data, particularly in microbial systems. In this study, we test the suitability of these methods for inferring ecological interactions by constructing networks using Dynamic Bayesian Networks, Lasso regression, and Pear-son's correlation coefficient, then comparing the model networks to empirical trophic and nontrophic webs in two ecological systems...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767659/mitochondrial-and-nuclear-dna-reveals-reticulate-evolution-in-hares-lepus-spp-lagomorpha-mammalia-from-ethiopia
#19
Zelalem Tolesa, Endashaw Bekele, Kassahun Tesfaye, Hichem Ben Slimen, Juan Valqui, Abebe Getahun, Günther B Hartl, Franz Suchentrunk
For hares (Lepus spp., Leporidae, Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia no conclusive molecular phylogenetic data are available. To provide a first molecular phylogenetic model for the Abyssinian Hare (Lepus habessinicus), the Ethiopian Hare (L. fagani), and the Ethiopian Highland Hare (L. starcki) and their evolutionary relationships to hares from Africa, Eurasia, and North America, we phylogenetically analysed mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6; n = 153 / 416bp) and nuclear transferrin (TF; n = 155 / 434bp) sequences of phenotypically determined individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765529/intracoronary-imaging-cholesterol-efflux-and-transcriptomics-after-intensive-statin-treatment-in-diabetes
#20
Surbhi Chamaria, Kipp W Johnson, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Usman Baber, Khader Shameer, Aparna A Divaraniya, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Li Li, Samit Bhatheja, Pedro Moreno, Akiko Maehara, Roxana Mehran, Joel T Dudley, Jagat Narula, Samin K Sharma, Annapoorna S Kini
Residual atherothrombotic risk remains higher in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus (DM) despite statin therapy. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. This is a retrospective post-hoc analysis of the YELLOW II trial, comparing patients with and without DM (non-DM) who received rosuvastatin 40 mg for 8-12 weeks and underwent intracoronary multimodality imaging of an obstructive nonculprit lesion, before and after therapy. In addition, blood samples were drawn to assess cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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