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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772376/understanding-re-distribution-of-road-deposited-particle-bound-pollutants-using-a-bayesian-network-bn-approach
#1
An Liu, Buddhi Wijesiri, Nian Hong, Panfeng Zhu, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Road deposited pollutants (build-up) are continuously re-distributed by external factors such as traffic and wind turbulence, influencing stormwater runoff quality. However, current stormwater quality modelling approaches do not account for the re-distribution of pollutants. This undermines the accuracy of stormwater quality predictions, constraining the design of effective stormwater treatment measures. This study, using over 1000 data points, developed a Bayesian Network modelling approach to investigate the re-distribution of pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772062/a-three-part-bayesian-network-for-modeling-dwelling-fires-and-their-impact-upon-people-and-property
#2
D B Matellini, A D Wall, I D Jenkinson, J Wang, R Pritchard
In the United Kingdom, dwelling fires are responsible for the majority of all fire-related fatalities. The development of these incidents involves the interaction of a multitude of variables that combine in many different ways. Consequently, assessment of dwelling fire risk can be complex, which often results in ambiguity during fire safety planning and decision making. In this article, a three-part Bayesian network model is proposed to study dwelling fires from ignition through to extinguishment in order to improve confidence in dwelling fire safety assessment...
May 17, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772061/an-image-guided-radiotherapy-decision-support-framework-incorporating-a-bayesian-network-and-visualization-tool
#3
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Tomasz Bednarz, Michael Poulsen, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool, that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image guide radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FASTV _ OAR ), delivered dose and treatment plan compliance (TPC)...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#4
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769251/systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-resective-surgery-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Puneet Jain, George Tomlinson, Carter Snead, Beate Sander, Elysa Widjaja
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) versus selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) on seizure-free outcome in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using both direct and indirect evidence from the literature. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for original research articles and systematic reviews comparing ATL versus SAH, and ATL or SAH versus medical management (MM). The outcome was seizure freedom at 12 months of follow-up or longer...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769117/a-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis-of-interventions-to-treat-patients-with-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#6
Nadera Ahmadzai, Shaun Kilty, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Bonaparte, David Schramm, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Vincent Lin, Wei Cheng, Becky Skidmore, David Moher, Brian Hutton
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, with greater than 20% of Canadian adults having measurable hearing loss in at least one ear. Patients with hearing loss experience impaired quality of life, and emotional and financial consequences that affect themselves and their families. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common but difficult to treat form of hearing loss that has a sudden onset of ≤ 72 h associated with various etiologies, with the majority of cases being idiopathic...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768387/optimal-reconstruction-methods-after-distal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#7
Zhaolun Cai, Ye Zhou, Chenxiao Wang, Yiqiong Yin, Yuan Yin, Chaoyong Shen, Xiaonan Yin, Zhixin Chen, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The choice of anastomosis methods including Billroth I, Billroth II, and Roux-en-Y after a distal gastrectomy is still controversial. The conventional meta-analyses assessing 2 alternative treatments were not powered to compare differences in clinical outcomes. To guide treatment decisions in patients with gastric cancer (GC) after distal gastrectomy, we did a systematic review and network meta-analysis to identify the best reconstruction method. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing the outcomes of Billroth I, Billroth II, or Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal subtotal gastrectomy for patients with GC, then we performed a direct meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis to pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) with random effects model...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768349/comparison-of-multiple-interventions-for-older-adults-with-alzheimer-disease-or-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-prisma-compliant-network-meta-analysis
#8
Jing-Hong Liang, Yong Xu, Lu Lin, Rui-Xia Jia, Hong-Bo Zhang, Lei Hang
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer disease (AD) emphasizes the need for effective treatments. Both pharmacological therapies such as nutrition therapy (NT) and nonpharmacologic therapies including traditional treatment or personalized treatment (e.g., physical exercise, music therapy, computerized cognitive training) have been approved for the treatment of AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in numerous areas. METHODS: The aim of this study was to compare 4 types of interventions, physical exercise (PE), music therapy (MT), computerized cognitive training (CCT), and NT, in older adults with mild to moderate AD or MCI and identify the most effective intervention for their cognitive function...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767372/bayesian-network-to-infer-drug-induced-apoptosis-circuits-from-connectivity-map-data
#9
Jiyang Yu, Jose M Silva
The Connectivity Map (CMAP) project profiled human cancer cell lines exposed to a library of anticancer compounds with the goal of connecting cancer with underlying genes and potential treatments. As most targeted anticancer therapeutics aim to induce tumor-selective apoptosis, it is critical to understand the specific cell death pathways triggered by drugs. This can help to better understand the mechanism of how cancer cells respond to chemical stimulations and improve the treatment of human tumors. In this study, using Connectivity MAP microarray-based gene expression data, we applied a Bayesian network modeling approach and identified apoptosis as a major drug-induced cellular pathway...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765629/reliability-modelling-and-analysis-of-a-multi-state-element-based-on-a-dynamic-bayesian-network
#10
Zhiqiang Li, Tingxue Xu, Junyuan Gu, Qi Dong, Linyu Fu
This paper presents a quantitative reliability modelling and analysis method for multi-state elements based on a combination of the Markov process and a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), taking perfect repair, imperfect repair and condition-based maintenance (CBM) into consideration. The Markov models of elements without repair and under CBM are established, and an absorbing set is introduced to determine the reliability of the repairable element. According to the state-transition relations between the states determined by the Markov process, a DBN model is built...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764222/comparative-efficacy-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-and-sglt-2-inhibitors-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-monotherapy-a-systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#11
Rohini Sharma, Lars Wilkinson, Hrvoje Vrazic, Evan Popoff, Sandra Lopes, Steve Kanters, Eric Druyts
OBJECTIVE: Treatment intensification with additional antidiabetic agents is recommended in type 2 diabetes (T2D) for patients inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. The present network meta-analysis (NMA) evaluated comparative efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) in T2D patients inadequately controlled with metformin. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials with ≥20 weeks duration were searched in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL...
May 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763741/bayesian-estimation-of-multidimensional-latent-variables-and-its-asymptotic-accuracy
#12
Keisuke Yamazaki
Hierarchical learning models, such as mixture models and Bayesian networks, are widely employed for unsupervised learning tasks, such as clustering analysis. They consist of observable and latent variables, which represent the given data and their underlying generation process, respectively. It has been pointed out that conventional statistical analysis is not applicable to these models, because redundancy of the latent variable produces singularities in the parameter space. In recent years, a method based on algebraic geometry has allowed us to analyze the accuracy of predicting observable variables when using Bayesian estimation...
March 13, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751328/space-time-pm-2-5-mapping-in-the-severe-haze-region-of-jing-jin-ji-china-using-a-synthetic-approach
#13
Junyu He, George Christakos
Long- and short-term exposure to PM2.5 is of great concern in China due to its adverse population health effects. Characteristic of the severity of the situation in China is that in the Jing-Jin-Ji region considered in this work a total of 2725 excess deaths have been attributed to short-term PM2.5 exposure during the period January 10-31, 2013. Technically, the processing of large space-time PM2.5 datasets and the mapping of the space-time distribution of PM2.5 concentrations often constitute high-cost projects...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750951/comparison-of-three-intraocular-lens-implantation-procedures-for-aphakic-eyes-with-insufficient-capsular-support-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
Xi Li, Shuang Ni, Shuyi Li, Qianyin Zheng, Jing Wu, Guanlu Liang, Wen Xu
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes and main complications of transscleral-fixated (TSF), intrascleral-fixated (ISF) and iris-fixated (IF) intraocular lenses (IOLs). DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for relevant articles up to April 2017 with no language restrictions, and related studies meeting the eligibility criteria were included. The Bayesian framework was performed to compare the visual outcomes and complications of these three approaches...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746986/efficacy-and-safety-of-mechanical-versus-manual-compression-in-cardiac-arrest-a-bayesian-network-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Safi U Khan, Ahmad N Lone, Swapna Talluri, Muhammad Z Khan, Muhammad U Khan, Edo Kaluski
AIM: To compare relative efficacy and safety of mechanical compression devices (AutoPulse and LUCAS) with manual compression in patients with cardiac arrest undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: For this Bayesian network meta-analysis, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected using PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (Inception- 31 October 2017). For all the outcomes, median estimate of odds ratio (OR) from the posterior distribution with corresponding 95% credible interval (Cr I) was calculated...
May 7, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746906/multi-subject-hierarchical-inverse-covariance-modelling-improves-estimation-of-functional-brain-networks
#16
Giles L Colclough, Mark W Woolrich, Samuel J Harrison, Pedro A Rojas López, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Stephen M Smith
A Bayesian model for sparse, hierarchical inverse covariance estimation is presented, and applied to multi-subject functional connectivity estimation in the human brain. It enables simultaneous inference of the strength of connectivity between brain regions at both subject and population level, and is applicable to fmri, meg and eeg data. Two versions of the model can encourage sparse connectivity, either using continuous priors to suppress irrelevant connections, or using an explicit description of the network structure to estimate the connection probability between each pair of regions...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744790/comparative-efficacy-of-antiepileptic-drugs-for-patients-with-generalized-epileptic-seizures-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analyses
#17
Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Lorena Rocha Ayres, Manuela Roque Siane Morelo, Fabiana Angelo Marques Carizio, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Background Valproate is a widely prescribed antiepileptic drug for generalized epilepsies, due to the extensive knowledge on its efficacy since it is on the market for many decades. However, a large number of new antiepileptic medicines was introduced into clinical practice and may be better options for treatment, considering that these medicines differ in terms of efficacy spectrum. Despite extensive research, questions regarding which medicine would constitute the first option for the monotherapy treatment of generalized epilepsy remain...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742126/using-bayesian-dynamical-systems-model-averaging-and-neural-networks-to-determine-interactions-between-socio-economic-indicators
#18
Björn R H Blomqvist, Richard P Mann, David J T Sumpter
Social and economic systems produce complex and nonlinear relationships in the indicator variables that describe them. We present a Bayesian methodology to analyze the dynamical relationships between indicator variables by identifying the nonlinear functions that best describe their interactions. We search for the 'best' explicit functions by fitting data using Bayesian linear regression on a vast number of models and then comparing their Bayes factors. The model with the highest Bayes factor, having the best trade-off between explanatory power and interpretability, is chosen as the 'best' model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738898/individual-decisions-to-vaccinate-one-s-child-or-oneself-a-discrete-choice-experiment-rejecting-free-riding-motives
#19
Frederik Verelst, Lander Willem, Roselinde Kessels, Philippe Beutels
It is essential for public health to understand what drives people's hesitance towards vaccination. Theoretical models of vaccination decisions are ubiquitous, often incorporating herd immunity, perceptions of vaccine-related side-effects (VRSE) and of vaccine-preventable burden of disease, but with little to no empirical exploration. Herd immunity is a (usually) positive externality where vaccinated individuals influence others' risks by their reduced capability to transmit an infectious disease to them. It is often assumed that (rational) individuals incorporate this externality in their strategic vaccination decision, from which free-riding behavior arises...
May 1, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738602/scalable-bayesian-variable-selection-for-structured-high-dimensional-data
#20
Changgee Chang, Suprateek Kundu, Qi Long
Variable selection for structured covariates lying on an underlying known graph is a problem motivated by practical applications, and has been a topic of increasing interest. However, most of the existing methods may not be scalable to high-dimensional settings involving tens of thousands of variables lying on known pathways such as the case in genomics studies. We propose an adaptive Bayesian shrinkage approach which incorporates prior network information by smoothing the shrinkage parameters for connected variables in the graph, so that the corresponding coefficients have a similar degree of shrinkage...
May 8, 2018: Biometrics
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