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Aortic aneurysms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729364/tgf-%C3%AE-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-protects-the-thoracic-and-abdominal-aorta-from-angiotensin-ii-induced-pathology-by-distinct-mechanisms
#1
Stoyan N Angelov, Jie Hong Hu, Hao Wei, Nathan Airhart, Minghui Shi, David A Dichek
OBJECTIVE: The role of TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) signaling in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation is controversial. Others reported that systemic blockade of TGF-β by neutralizing antibodies accelerated AAA development in angiotensin II-infused mice. This result is consistent with other studies suggesting that TGF-β signaling prevents AAA. Development of a therapy for AAA that exploits the protective actions of TGF-β would be facilitated by identification of the mechanisms through which TGF-β prevents AAA...
July 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728780/detecting-regional-stiffness-changes-in-aortic-aneurysmal-geometries-using-pressure-normalized-strain
#2
Doran S Mix, Ling Yang, Camille C Johnson, Nathan Couper, Ben Zarras, Isaac Arabadjis, Lauren E Trakimas, Michael C Stoner, Steven W Day, Michael S Richards
Transabdominal ultrasound elasticity imaging could improve the assessment of rupture risk for abdominal aortic aneurysms by providing information on the mechanical properties and stress or strain states of vessel walls. We implemented a non-rigid image registration method to visualize the pressure-normalized strain within vascular tissues and adapted it to measure total strain over an entire cardiac cycle. We validated the algorithm's performance with both simulated ultrasound images with known principal strains and anatomically accurate heterogeneous polyvinyl alcohol cryogel vessel phantoms...
July 17, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725903/suppressive-effects-of-dietary-epa-rich-fish-oil-on-the-degradation-of-elastin-fibers-in-the-aortic-wall-in-nicotine-administered-mice
#4
Hirona Kugo, Nobuhiro Zaima, Megumi Onozato, Chie Miyamoto, Keisuke Hashimoto, Kenichi Yanagimoto, Tatsuya Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. Recent studies suggest that nicotine, which is a primary component in cigarette smoke, is closely associated with the development and rupture of an AAA. Nicotine accelerates AAA development through the weakening of the vascular wall by increasing oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. However, little is known about preventing the AAA induced by nicotine. A non-surgical means of preventing the weakening of the vascular wall before the onset of AAA by functional food factors would be a valuable option over surgery...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725616/chronic-orchialgia-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-evaluation
#5
REVIEW
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak
Chronic orchialgia is a vexing condition defined as chronic or intermittent scrotal pain lasting at least three months that significantly interferes with daily activities. There are currently no guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of this condition despite it being the cause of 2.5-4.8% of urologic clinic visits. Men often present with chronic orchialgia in their mid to late 30s, although the condition can present at any age. A broad differential diagnosis of chronic orchialgia includes epididymitis, testicular torsion, tumors, obstruction, varicocele, epididymal cysts, hydrocele, iatrogenic injury following vasectomy or hernia repair, and referred pain from a variety of sources including mid-ureteral stone, indirect inguinal hernia, aortic or common iliac artery aneurysms, lower back disorders, interstitial cystitis, and nerve entrapment due to perineural fibrosis; approximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopathic in nature...
May 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723466/clinical-case-discussion-mycotic-aortic-aneurysm-and-psoas-abscess-as-a-complication-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-instillations
#6
A C Witjens, J A Witjes
After an infectious complication caused by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), consider a dose reduction. Treatment of a mycotic aneurysm with an endostent seems safe; however, continuation of BCG after mycotic aneurysm treatment is not advised.
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723465/case-presentation-mycotic-aortic-aneurysm-and-psoas-abscess-as-a-complication-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-instillations
#7
R Jeroen A van Moorselaar, Willem Wisselink
To prevent life-threatening aortic ruptures, it is important that primary care physicians and urologists are aware of the symptoms of a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm, even several months or years after bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721338/is-aortic-aneurysm-preventable
#8
Undurti N Das
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic inflammatory condition, triggered by the local accumulation of macrophages, oxidative stress and damage to the aortic wall. Pro-inflammatory eicosanoids seem to play a significant role in AAA. The pro-inflammatory events seen in AAA could be due to a deficiency of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids such as lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvins, protectins and maresins as a result of reduced tissue concentrations of their precursors: arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721336/post-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-evar-testicular-ischemia-a-rare-complication
#9
Eric Thomas, Brett L Parra, Shonak Patel
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a common modality of treating abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Common complications include endoleak, bleeding, infection, contrast related injuries, and ischemia. We present the case of a patient who experienced a testicular infarction following repair of an infrarenal AAA. We also discuss the implications for this complication and review the available literature for similar cases and treatment options.
September 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720750/tuberculous-psoas-abscess-and-worsening-vascular-aneurysm-all-from-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-therapy
#10
Emmanuel Okon, Janelle Stearns, Arun Kumar Durgam
BACKGROUND Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder and for the prophylaxis of primary or recurrent stage Ta and T1 papillary tumors following transurethral resection. Significant systemic complications are rare but have been reported. CASE REPORT We describe this case of Mycobacterium bovis psoas abscess and worsening abdominal aortic aneurysm following BCG therapy for bladder cancer. A 76-year-old male presented with a fever of a few days...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720724/aortic-wall-inflammation-predicts-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-expansion-rupture-and-need-for-surgical-repair
#11
The Ma Rs Study Investigators
Background -Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) detect cellular inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, we assessed whether USPIO-enhanced MRI can predict aneurysm growth rates and clinical outcomes. Methods -In a prospective multicentre open-label cohort study, 342 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (diameter ≥40 mm) were classified by the presence of USPIO enhancement and were monitored with serial ultrasound and clinical follow-up for at least 2 years...
July 18, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720226/a-comparative-review-of-open-and-endovascular-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repairs-in-the-national-operative-quality-improvement-database
#12
Kanika Kalra, Shipra Arya
Repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms with endovascular techniques has emerged as the first line of therapy, due to procedural ease and excellent patient outcomes. Open aneurysm repair is increasingly used as a secondary option for lesions with anatomic complexity that involve arterial branches. Understanding the impact of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysms repair on the shift in vascular operation practice for abdominal aortic aneurysms repair, requires a comprehensive and risk-adjusted review of operative outcomes between the 2 repair types...
July 15, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717556/thorax-computed-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction
#13
Mustafa Resorlu, Muhammet Arslan, Ozan Karatag, Gurhan Adam
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus, smoking, dyslipidemia, and obesity play an important role in the etiology of erectile dysfunction, particularly in cases with vascular insufficiency. These risk factors also target the lungs due to their systemic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with penile vascular insufficiency determined at Doppler ultrasonography and undergoing thoracic computerized tomography for various reasons were included in this study. A history of acute thoracic trauma, pneumonic consolidation, or pelvic surgery and trauma were regarded as exclusion criteria...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716989/high-prevalence-of-multiple-arterial-bed-lesions-in-patients-with-fibromuscular-dysplasia-the-arcadia-registry-assessment-of-renal-and-cervical-artery-dysplasia
#14
Pierre-François Plouin, Jean-Philippe Baguet, Frédéric Thony, Olivier Ormezzano, Arshid Azarine, François Silhol, Catherine Oppenheim, Béatrice Bouhanick, Louis Boyer, Alexandre Persu, Frank Hammer, Philippe Gosse, Claire Mounier-Vehier, Claire Le Hello, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Michel Azizi, Laurence Amar, Gilles Chatellier, Elie Mousseaux, Emmanuel Touzé
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) commonly affects the renal and cervical arteries but has been described to affect other vascular beds as well. The prevalence of and clinical characteristics associated with multisite FMD (string-of-beds or focal stenoses affecting at least 2 vascular beds) are not known. In the prospective ARCADIA registry (Assessment of Renal and Cervical Artery Dysplasia), symptomatic patients with renal artery (RA) FMD underwent tomographic- or magnetic resonance-angiography from the aortic arch to the intracranial arteries and those with cervical FMD from the diaphragm to the pelvis...
July 17, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716708/functional-characteristics-of-a-novel-smad4-mutation-from-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-taa
#15
Lifei Wu
SMAD4 is as an essential mediator of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, and dysregulated TGF-β signaling is linked with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). In this study, we functionally characterized the Smad4 S271N mutation (the mutation c. 812G>A in Smad4 results in the amino acid substitution Ser271Asn) that was isolated from TAA individuals. We first constructed wild-type human Smad4 and Smad4 S271N plasmids. These constructs were then transiently transfected into HEK293T cells, and subsequent real-time PCR and western blotting demonstrated that wild-type Smad4 and Smad4 S271N were successfully expressed in 293T cells...
July 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716062/the-effects-of-acute-and-elective-cardiac-surgery-on-the-anxiety-traits-of-patients-with-marfan-syndrome
#16
Kálmán Benke, Bence Ágg, Miklós Pólos, Alex Ali Sayour, Tamás Radovits, Elektra Bartha, Péter Nagy, Balázs Rákóczi, Ákos Koller, Viola Szokolai, Julianna Hedberg, Béla Merkely, Zsolt B Nagy, Zoltán Szabolcs
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disease, presenting with dysfunction of connective tissues leading to lesions in the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle system. Within these symptoms, the most typical is weakness of the connective tissue in the aorta, manifesting as aortic dilatation (aneurysm). This could, in turn, become annuloaortic ectasia, or life-threatening dissection. As a result, life-saving and preventative cardiac surgical interventions are frequent among Marfan syndrome patients...
July 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715514/i-swot-as-instrument-to-individually-optimize-therapy-of%C3%A2-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysms-effective-norm-compliant-and-meeting-the-needs
#17
A Sachweh, Y von Kodolitsch, T Kölbel, A Larena-Avellaneda, S Wipper, A M Bernhardt, E Girdauskas, C Detter, H Reichenspurner, C R Blankart, E S Debus
BACKGROUND: Guidelines summarize medical evidence, they identify the most efficient therapy under study conditions and recommend this therapy for use. The physician now has the challenge to translate a therapy that is efficient under laboratory conditions to a patient who is an individual person. To accomplish this task the physician has to make sure that (I) the ideal typical therapy is applicable and effective in this individual patient taking the special features into consideration, that (II) therapy is compliant with the norm including guidelines, laws and ethical requirements (conformity) and that (III) the therapy meets the patient's needs...
2017: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715511/endovascular-treatment-of-genetically-linked-aortic-diseases
#18
D Böckler, K Meisenbacher, A S Peters, C Grond-Ginsbach, M S Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The most important structural proteins of the vascular wall are collagen and elastin. Genetically linked connective tissue diseases lead to degeneration, aneurysm formation and spontaneous dissection or rupture of arteries. The most well-known are Marfan syndrome, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type IV), Loeys-Dietz syndrome and familial aortic aneurysms and dissections. OBJECTIVE: This review article addresses the current status of endovascular treatment options for important connective tissue diseases...
2017: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714620/-management-of-aortic-aneurysms-in-the-endovascular-era
#19
Gino Gemayel, Michel Montessuit, Jorge Sierra, Nadia Lahlaidi Sierra, Marek Bednarkiewicz
Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a disease seen in the elderly. Without intervention, an aneurysm can rupture which leads to death in most cases. Surgical resection was the gold standard treatment for many years but since two decades, endovascular repair has surged drastically. Less invasive and morbid than open repair, this technique has significantly evolved in the recent years. Nowadays the whole aorta can be treated with endovascular techniques in expert hands. This article presents an overview of different endovascular solutions and innovations in the management of aortic aneurysms...
March 1, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713813/incidental-finding-of-an-aorto-right-atrial-fistula-in-a-patient-undergoing-repair-of-a-sinus-of-valsalva-aneurysm
#20
Byron R Rosero-Britton, Anthony Nguyen, Ibrahim Warsame, Muhammad Shabsigh, Luke Dong, James Wolfe, Bryan Whitson, Michael Essandoh
A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare malformation of the aortic root that can fistulize to another cardiac structure such as the right atrium. Although transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography angiography have demonstrated utility for the diagnosis of a sinus of Valsalva-to-right atrial fistula, there are few cases where a misdiagnosis may occur. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography may be an essential imaging tool for the diagnosis and management of incidental findings such as a sinus of Valsalva-to-right atrial fistula during cardiac surgery and should be used routinely...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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