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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252041/protective-effects-of-nebivolol-from-oxidative-stress-to-prevent-hypertension-related-target-organ-damage
#1
REVIEW
A Coats, S Jain
Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and renal impairment. It also leads to target organ damage (TOD), which worsens organ function and the patient's clinical status. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress may contribute significantly to TOD in patients with hypertension. NO (nitric oxide) is a paracrine factor derived from endothelial cells that has been shown to alleviate ROS-mediated oxidative damage...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248201/intravascular-hemolysis-and-the-pathophysiology-of-sickle-cell-disease
#2
REVIEW
Gregory J Kato, Martin H Steinberg, Mark T Gladwin
Hemolysis is a fundamental feature of sickle cell anemia that contributes to its pathophysiology and phenotypic variability. Decompartmentalized hemoglobin, arginase 1, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and adenine nucleotides are all products of hemolysis that promote vasomotor dysfunction, proliferative vasculopathy, and a multitude of clinical complications of pulmonary and systemic vasculopathy, including pulmonary hypertension, leg ulcers, priapism, chronic kidney disease, and large-artery ischemic stroke. Nitric oxide (NO) is inactivated by cell-free hemoglobin in a dioxygenation reaction that also oxidizes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, a non-oxygen-binding form of hemoglobin that readily loses heme...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214691/dlitiazem-inhibits-the-oxidative-stress-induced-by-angiotensin-ii-through-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-type-1a-in-human-umbilicus-vein-endothelial-cells
#3
Lingyun Zhou, Meng Yang, Shanru Zuo, Xiaofeng Guan, Jianglin Wang, Qingjie Chen, Xiaocong Zuo, Sujie Jia, Ren Guo
Diltiazem has been used for post-transplant hypertension, but the mechanism underlying its protective effect of endothelial cells against angiotensin II (Ang II) - induced impairment remains unclear. Human umbilicus vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and divided into seven groups: control, Ang II (10(-6)M), diltiazem (10(-6)M), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6(25μM), diltiazem (10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M), losartan (10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (25μM) + Dil(10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M) groups. Nitric oxide (NO) production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and p47 phox subunit of NADPH were evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209797/roles-of-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Ulrich Förstermann, Ning Xia, Huige Li
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. Animal studies have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the roles of vascular oxidative stress and NO in atherosclerosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155616/crosstalk-between-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-arterial-stiffness
#5
Ioana Mozos, Constantin Tudor Luca
Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150849/from-thrombosis-to-fibrosis-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#6
Magdalena L Bochenek, Nico S Rosinus, Mareike Lankeit, Lukas Hobohm, Felix Bremmer, Eva Schütz, Frederikus A Klok, Sven Horke, Christoph B Wiedenroth, Thomas Münzel, Irene M Lang, Eckhard Mayer, Stavros Konstantinides, Katrin Schäfer
The pathomechanisms underlying the development of thrombofibrotic pulmonary artery occlusions in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to allocate distinct cellular processes playing a role in thrombus resolution, such as inflammation, hypoxia, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, to different stages of thrombofibrotic remodelling. A total of 182 pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) specimens were collected from 31 CTEPH patients. To facilitate co-localisation, Tissue MicroArrays were prepared and processed for (immuno)-histochemistry and confocal fluorescence microscopy...
February 2, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116728/isolation-and-culture-of-endothelial-cells-from-large-vessels
#7
Augusto C Montezano, Karla B Neves, Rheure A M Lopes, Francisco Rios
The endothelium, which is at the interface between circulating blood and the vascular wall, comprises a simple squamous layer of cells that lines the inner surface of all blood vessels. Endothelial cells are highly metabolically active and play an important role in many physiological functions, including control of vasomotor tone, blood cell trafficking, vascular permeability, and maintenance of vascular integrity (Mensah, Vascul Pharmacol 46(5):310-314, 2007; Yetik-Anacak and Catravas, Vascul Pharmacol 45(5):268-276, 2006)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099979/milrinone-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-neonates-with-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#8
Annie Giaccone, Athena F Zuppa, Beena Sood, Meryl S Cohen, Michael L O'Byrne, Ganesh Moorthy, Amit Mathur, Haresh Kirpalani
Objective To describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of milrinone in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and to explore the impact of age on milrinone disposition. Design Randomized, open label pilot study. Setting Multicenter; level 3 and level 4 neonatal intensive care units. Patients Six infants ≥34 weeks' gestational age and <10 days of life with persistent hypoxemia receiving inhaled nitric oxide. Intervention Intravenous milrinone lactate in one of two dosing regimens: (1) low dose, 20 mcg/kg bolus followed by 0...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090285/pulmonary-vascular-and-ventricular-dysfunction-in-the-susceptible-patient-2015-grover-conference-series
#9
REVIEW
Bradley A Maron, Roberto F Machado, Larissa Shimoda
Pulmonary blood vessel structure and tone are maintained by a complex interplay between endogenous vasoactive factors and oxygen-sensing intermediaries. Under physiological conditions, these signaling networks function as an adaptive interface between the pulmonary circulation and environmental or acquired perturbations to preserve oxygenation and maintain systemic delivery of oxygen-rich hemoglobin. Chronic exposure to hypoxia, however, triggers a range of pathogenetic mechanisms that include hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin 1 in pulmonary endothelial cells...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087333/nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase-activity-impacts-mitochondrial-redox-balance-and-the-development-of-hypertension-in-mice
#10
Igor Leskov, Amber Neville, Xinggui Shen, Sibile Pardue, Christopher G Kevil, D Neil Granger, David M Krzywanski
Oxidant stress contributes to the initiation and progression of hypertension (HTN) by enhancing endothelial dysfunction and/or causing perturbations in nitric oxide homeostasis. Differences in mitochondrial function may augment this process and provide insight into why age of onset and clinical outcomes differ among individuals from distinct ethnic groups. We have previously demonstrated that variation in normal mitochondrial function and oxidant production exists in endothelial cells from individuals of Caucasian and African-American ethnicity and that this variation contributes to endothelial dysfunction...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077855/the-nox2-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-damaged-endothelial-nitric-oxide-system-via-suppressed-bkca-skca-in-preeclampsia
#11
Jie Chen, Qinqin Gao, Lin Jiang, Xueqin Feng, Xiaolin Zhu, Xiaorong Fan, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
The endothelial nitric oxide (NO) system may be damaged in preeclampsia; however, the involved mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we used primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to evaluate the endothelial NO system in preeclampsia and to determine the underlying mechanisms that are involved. We isolated and cultured HUVECs from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and evaluated endothelial NO synthase enzyme (eNOS) expression and NO production. Whole-cell K(+) currents and oxidative stress were also determined in normal and preeclamptic HUVECs...
January 12, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056166/nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-infants-born-at-or-near-term
#12
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte, Gabriel Altit
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major endogenous regulator of vascular tone. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) gas has been investigated as treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment of hypoxaemic term and near-term newborn infants with iNO improves oxygenation and reduces rate of death and use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or affects long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to January 2016), Embase (1980 to January 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to January 2016)...
January 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031017/nitric-oxide-signaling-and-the-cross-talk-with-prostanoids-pathways-in-vascular-system
#13
Bruno R Silva, Tiago D Paula, Michele Paulo, Lusiane M Bendhack
BACKGROUND: This review provides an overview of the cellular signaling of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in vascular cells and the possible cross talk between their pathways, mainly in hypertension, since the imbalance of these two systems has been attributed to development of some cardiovascular diseases. It also deals with the modulation of vasodilation induced by NO donors. NO is a well-known second messenger involved in many cellular functions. CONCLUSION: In the vascular system, the NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) or released by NO donors acts in vascular smooth muscle cells, the binding of NO to Fe2+-heme of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) activates sGC and the production of cyclic guanosine-3-5-monophosphate (cGMP)...
December 28, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029743/statins-ameliorate-pulmonary-hypertension-secondary-to-left-ventricular-dysfunction-through-the-rho-kinase-pathway-and-nadph-oxidase
#14
I-Chen Chen, Mian-Shin Tan, Bin-Nan Wu, Chee-Yin Chai, Jwu-Lai Yeh, Shah-Hwa Chou, Ing-Jun Chen, Zen-Kong Dai
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating disorder, for which no therapy is curative. It has been reported that pulmonary vascular remodeling, associated with increasing mean pulmonary arterial pressure and upregulated expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelin-1 (ET-1), RhoA/RhoH-kinase results in the development of PH. Oxidative stress and the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway are also thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of PH. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) with pleiotropic effects and are potential agents for the treatment of PH...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994597/aging-male-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-as-an-animal-model-for-the-evaluation-of-the-interplay-between-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-and-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Jun Zhang, Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh, Peter A McCullough
BACKGROUND: Although there are some animal models for biomarkers of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI), for cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and for acute renal failure, the interplay between CI-AKI and CRS has yet to be evaluated. Insight into the pathogenesis of CRS is urgently needed from animal models in order to foster the discovery and implementation of novel biomarkers for this disease. Specially designed animal models for type 1 and 3 CRS, particularly CI-AKI, have not yet emerged...
November 2016: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988384/the-opposing-roles-of-no-and-oxidative-stress-in-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Rebecca H Ritchie, Grant R Drummond, Christopher G Sobey, T Michael De Silva, Barbara K Kemp-Harper
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. A reduction in the bioavailability of endogenous NO, manifest as a decrease in the production and/or impaired signaling, is associated with many cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke and heart failure. There is substantial evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated predominantly from NADPH oxidases (Nox), are responsible for the reduced NO bioavailability in vascular and cardiac pathologies...
February 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918455/targeting-on-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-related-nitric-oxide-reactive-oxygen-species-imbalance-to-reprogram-the-development-of-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu
Adult-onset diseases, including hypertension, can originate from early life, known as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Because the developing kidney is vulnerable to early-life insults, renal programming is considered key in the developmental programming of hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, can regulate the NO-reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, and is involved in the development of hypertension. Reprogramming interventions aimed at NO-ROS balance can be protective in both genetic and developmentally programmed hypertension...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889958/ace2-and-the-homolog-collectrin-in-the-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-oxidative-stress-in-blood-pressure-homeostasis-and-vascular-injury
#18
Guang Yang, Pei-Lun Chu, Lars C Rump, Thu H Le, Johannes Stegbauer
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertension is the leading risk factor causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. Angiotensin (Ang) II, the most active metabolite of the renin-angiotensin system, plays an outstanding role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular injury. Activation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has shown to attenuate devastating effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system by reducing Ang II degradation and increasing Ang-(1-7) generation leading to Mas receptor activation...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889956/red-blood-cell-function-and-dysfunction-redox-regulation-nitric-oxide-metabolism-anemia
#19
Viktoria Kuhn, Lukas Diederich, T C Stevenson Keller, Christian M Kramer, Wiebke Lückstädt, Christina Panknin, Tatsiana Suvorava, Brant E Isakson, Malte Kelm, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: Recent clinical evidence identified anemia to be correlated with severe complications of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmias, and inflammation, particularly in elderly patients. The underlying mechanisms of these complications are largely unidentified. Recent Advances: Previously, red blood cells (RBCs) were considered exclusively as transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. More recent experimental evidence indicates that RBCs are important interorgan communication systems with additional functions, including participation in control of systemic nitric oxide metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology, and viscosity...
January 18, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888262/search-for-an-animal-model-to-investigate-selective-pulmonary-vasodilation
#20
Bodil Petersen, Thilo Busch, Katharina Noreikat, Lorenz Homeister, Ralf Regenthal, Udo X Kaisers
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a life-threatening disease with a poor prognosis. Oral treatment with vasodilators is often limited by systemic hypotension. Inhalation of vasodilators offers the opportunity for selective pulmonary vasodilation. Testing selective pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide or alternative substances in animal models requires an increased pulmonary vascular tone. The aim of this study was to identify animal models that are suitable for investigating selective pulmonary vasodilation...
November 25, 2016: Laboratory Animals
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