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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219011/meconium-aspiration-syndrome-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-severity
#1
Cláudia Patrícia Lourenço Oliveira, Filipa Flôr-de-Lima, Gustavo Marcondes Duarte Rocha, Ana Paula Machado, Maria Hercília Ferreira Guimarães Pereira Areias
PURPOSE: To identify risk factors and predictors of severity associated with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in the patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study including newborns admitted, between 2005 and 2015, with a diagnosis of MAS. RESULTS: Of the newborns admitted to the NICU, 0.66% were diagnosed with MAS. These had higher prevalence of caesarean delivery (p < .001), nonreassuring or abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) (p < ...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209510/milrinone-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-randomized-pilot-trial-study-protocol-review-of-literature-and-survey-of-current-practices
#2
REVIEW
Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Martin Keszler, Haresh Kirpalani, Krisa Van Meurs, Patricia Chess, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Bradley Yoder, Maria V Fraga, Holly Hedrick, Kevin P Lally, Leif Nelin, Michael Cotten, Jonathan Klein, Stephanie Guilford, Ashley Williams, Aasma Chaudhary, Marie Gantz, Jenna Gabrio, Dhuly Chowdhury, Kristin Zaterka-Baxter, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is commonly associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH associated with CDH (CDH-PH) is frequently resistant to conventional pulmonary vasodilator therapy including inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) possibly due to right and left ventricular dysfunction. Milrinone is an intravenous inotrope and lusitrope with pulmonary vasodilator properties and has been shown anecdotally to improve oxygenation in PH. We developed this pilot study to determine if milrinone infusion would improve oxygenation in neonates ≥36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) with CDH...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197078/cardiopulmonary-anomalies-in-incontinentia-pigmenti-patients
#3
Giuliana Onnis, Andrea Diociaiuti, Paola Zangari, Patrizia D'Argenio, Caterina Cancrini, Lorenzo Iughetti, May El Hachem
BACKGROUND: Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare inherited genodermatosis that usually involves the skin, and also teeth, oral cavity, central nervous system, eyes, blood with eosinophilia, and rarely skeletal system, breast, heart, and lungs. Skin lesions usually appear early, at birth or within the first 2 weeks of life, with four different phases tending to follow Blaschko lines that may overlap. CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of a neonate with transient reversible pulmonary hypertension that presented at day 9 of life...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196781/acute-pulmonary-vasodilator-testing-and-long-term-clinical-course-in-segmental-pulmonary-vascular-disease
#4
Liezl Domingo, H Sonali Magdo, Ronald W Day
Results of acute pulmonary vasodilator testing (AVT) and the outcome of medical therapy have not been described in patients with segmental pulmonary vascular disease (SPVD). We sought to compare the pulmonary vasodilatory effects of oxygen, oxygen with nitric oxide, and diltiazem, and to describe the clinical course of patients with SPVD and pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective review of 16 patients with pulmonary hypertension and SPVD involving 2-3 major lung segments who underwent AVT between January 2000 and December 2015 was performed...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186034/cellular-and-oxidative-mechanisms-associated-with-interleukin-6-signaling-in-the-vasculature
#5
REVIEW
Sean P Didion
Reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide, promote endothelial dysfunction and alterations in vascular structure. It is increasingly recognized that inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. IL-6 is increased in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. IL-6 is also associated with a higher incidence of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Both immune and vascular cells produce IL-6 in response to a number of stimuli, such as angiotensin II...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167164/nrf2-prevents-hypertension-increased-adma-microvascular-oxidative-stress-and-dysfunction-in-mice-with-two-weeks-of-angiotensin-ii-infusion
#6
Cheng Wang, Zaiming Luo, Gabriella Carter, Anton Wellstein, Pedro A Jose, James Tomlinson, James Leiper, William J Welch, Christopher S Wilcox, Dan Wang
Nuclear factor erythyroid factor 2 (Nrf2) transcribes genes in cultured endothelial cells that reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and generate nitric oxide (NO) or metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that inhibits NO synthase (NOS). Therefore, we undertook a functional study to test the hypothesis that activation of Nrf2 by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) preserves microvascular endothelial function during oxidative stress. Wild-type CB57Bl/6 (wt), Nrf2 wt (+/+), or knockout (-/-) mice received vehicle (Veh) or tBHQ (0...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#7
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112106/mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-modulation-of-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers-hbocs
#8
Abdu I Alayash
Several adverse events have been associated with the infusion of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) including transient hypertension, gastrointestinal, pancreatic/liver enzyme elevation, and cardiac/renal injury in humans. Although several mechanisms have been suggested, the basis of HBOC toxicity is still poorly understood. Scavenging of vascular endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and heme-mediated oxidative side reactions are thought to be the major causes of toxicity. However, based on more recent preclinical studies, oxidative pathways (driven by the heme prosthetic group) appear to play a more prominent role in the overall toxicity of free Hb or HBOCs...
November 3, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104545/the-adenosine-hypothesis-revisited-modulation-of-coupling-between-myocardial-perfusion-and-arterial-compliance
#9
Geoffrey P Dobson, Aryadi Arsyad, Hayley L Letson
For over four decades the thoracic aortic ring model has become one of the most widely used methods to study vascular reactivity and electromechanical coupling. A question that is rarely asked, however, is what function does a drug-mediated relaxation (or contraction) in this model serve in the intact system? The physiological significance of adenosine relaxation in rings isolated from large elastic conduit arteries from a wide range of species remains largely unknown. We propose that adenosine relaxation increases aortic compliance in acute stress states and facilitates ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling, and thereby links compliance and coronary artery perfusion to myocardial energy metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097777/low-dose-nitrite-improves-reoxygenation-following-renal-ischemia-in-rats
#10
Kathleen Cantow, Bert Flemming, Mechthild Ladwig-Wiegard, Pontus B Persson, Erdmann Seeliger
In hypoxic and acidic tissue environments, nitrite is metabolised to nitric oxide, thus, bringing about novel therapeutic options in myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and hypertension. Following renal ischemia, reperfusion of the kidney remains incomplete and tissue oxygenation is reduced for several minutes to hours. Thus, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, providing nitrite may have outstanding therapeutic value. Here we demonstrate nitrite's distinct potential to rapidly restore tissue oxygenation in the renal cortex and medulla after 45 minutes of complete unilateral kidney ischemia in the rat...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058384/nitric-oxide-for-the-treatment-of-preterm-infants-with-severe-rds-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Carlo Dani, Iuri Corsini, Jessica Cangemi, Venturella Vangi, Simone Pratesi
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) cannot be recommended for the routine treatment of respiratory failure in premature neonates, but it has been suggested that the effectiveness of iNO therapy should be further studied in more select preterm infants, such as those with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of PPHN in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), to assess the effectiveness of iNO in these patients, and to individuate possible predictive factors for the response to iNO in preterm infants with RDS...
November 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048404/association-of-unit-wide-oxygen-saturation-target-on-incidence-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-very-low-birthweight-premature-infants
#12
U Kanaan, B Srivatsa, J Huckaby, M Kelleman
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of increasing pulse oximetry targets on incidence of pulmonary hypertension in very low birthweight premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study comparing pulmonary hypertension incidence among three cohorts of premature infants exposed to varying oxygen saturation targets (Cohort 1: n=459, 1 May 2009 to 30 April 2011, 85-94%; Cohort 2: n=474, 1 May 2011 to 31 May 2013, 88-94%; Cohort 3: n=387, 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2015, 90-95%)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047089/redox-mechanisms-influencing-cgmp-signaling-in-pulmonary-vascular-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#13
Dhara Patel, Anand Lakhkar, Michael S Wolin
The soluble form of guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP signaling are major regulators of pulmonary vasodilation and vascular remodeling that protect the pulmonary circulation from hypertension development. Nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, thiol and heme redox, and heme biosynthesis control mechanisms regulating the production of cGMP by sGC. In addition, a cGMP-independent mechanism regulates protein kinase G through thiol oxidation in manner controlled by peroxide metabolism and NADPH redox. Multiple aspects of these regulatory processes contribute to physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the pulmonary circulation, and create potentially novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of pulmonary vascular disease...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047083/altered-redox-balance-in-the-development-of-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Nikki L Jernigan, Thomas C Resta, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc
Normally, the pulmonary circulation is maintained in a low-pressure, low-resistance state with little resting tone. Pulmonary arteries are thin-walled and rely heavily on pulmonary arterial distension and recruitment for reducing pulmonary vascular resistance when cardiac output is elevated. Under pathophysiological conditions, however, active vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling lead to enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary hypertension (PH). Chronic hypoxia is a critical pathological factor associated with the development of PH resulting from airway obstruction (COPD, sleep apnea), diffusion impairment (interstitial lung disease), developmental lung abnormalities, or high altitude exposure (World Health Organization [WHO]; Group III)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047082/a-brief-overview-of-nitric-oxide-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-in-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Ariel Jaitovich, David Jourd'heuil
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased vasoconstriction and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia driving pathological vascular remodeling of arterial vessels. In this short review, we discuss the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) relevant to PH and the mechanism by which dysregulation of their production contributes to PH. Specifically, hypoxia-induced PH is associated with diminished endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO production and increased production of superoxide (O2(•-)) through eNOS uncoupling and defective mitochondrial respiration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047081/redox-regulation-of-the-superoxide-dismutases-sod3-and-sod2-in-the-pulmonary-circulation
#16
Daniel Hernandez-Saavedra, Kalin Swain, Rubin Tuder, Steen V Petersen, Eva Nozik-Grayck
When evaluating the role of redox-regulating signaling in pulmonary vascular diseases, it is intriguing to consider the modulation of key antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) because SOD isoforms are regulated by redox reactions, and, in turn, modulate downstream redox sensitive processes. The emerging field of redox biology is built upon understanding the regulation and consequences of tightly controlled and specific reduction-oxidation reactions that are critical for diverse cellular processes including cell signaling...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046161/inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-preterm-neonates-with-refractory-hypoxemia-associated-to-oligohydramnios
#17
Alvarado Socarras Jorge, Castro M Javier, Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
BACKGROUND: Therapy with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in the management of pulmonary hypertension and severe hypoxemia. However, these benefits have not been demonstrated in preterm infants (<34 weeks). The objective of this report is to present the experience of eight cases of preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and refractory hypoxemia, with oligohydramnios history. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical feature of 8 preterm neonates with severe hypoxemia who had maternal antecedents of oligoamnios, mainly due to premature rupture of membranes...
October 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974647/a-quality-improvement-project-to-improve-evidence-based-inhaled-nitric-oxide-use
#18
Colleen A Hughes Driscoll, Natalie L Davis, Megan Miles, Dina El-Metwally
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) reduces extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in term and near-term neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn; however, its overutilization is increasing. We hypothesized that implementing a shared baseline protocol would safely improve evidence-based INO use in a Level IV neonatal ICU. METHODS: Through several plan-do-study-act cycles, a shared baseline protocol for initiation and weaning of INO was developed and implemented starting in August 2014...
October 3, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964916/portacaval-shunting-causes-differential-mitochondrial-superoxide-production-in-brain-regions
#19
Elena A Kosenko, Lyudmila A Tikhonova, Gubidat A Alilova, Carmina Montoliu, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev, Yury G Kaminsky
The portacaval shunting (PCS) prevents portal hypertension and recurrent bleeding of esophageal varices. On the other hand, it can induce chronic hyperammonemia and is considered to be the best model of mild hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Pathogenic mechanisms of HE and dysfunction of the brain in hyperammonemia are not fully elucidated, but it was originally suggested that the pathogenetic defect causes destruction of antioxidant defense which leads to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the occurrence of oxidative stress...
September 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954833/reactive-oxygen-species-signalling-in-the-diabetic-heart-emerging-prospect-for-therapeutic-targeting
#20
REVIEW
Adam J Wilson, Eleanor K Gill, Rawan A Abudalo, Kevin S Edgar, Chris J Watson, David J Grieve
Despite being first described 45 years ago, the existence of a distinct diabetic cardiomyopathy remains controversial. Nonetheless, it is widely accepted that the diabetic heart undergoes characteristic structural and functional changes in the absence of ischaemia and hypertension, which are independently linked to heart failure progression and are likely to underlie enhanced susceptibility to stress. A prominent feature is marked collagen accumulation linked with inflammation and extensive extracellular matrix changes, which appears to be the main factor underlying cardiac stiffness and subclinical diastolic dysfunction, estimated to occur in as many as 75% of optimally controlled diabetics...
September 27, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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