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diagnosis of tuberculosis

Mritunjai Kumar, Jayantee Kalita, Abhilasha Tripathi, Usha K Misra
Background: Drug-induced hepatitis (DIH) occurs more commonly in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) than non-CNS tuberculosis. We evaluate DIH in TBM and its relationship with disease severity and surrogate markers of stress. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were included prospectively. The diagnosis of DIH was based on five times elevation of alanine amino transferase (ALT) in asymptomatic and three times in symptomatic patients, serum bilirubin 1.5 mg/dL or more occurring after 3 days of antitubercular drugs without any other cause of liver dysfunction; and improvement in liver function upon drug withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Maria Juliana Lopes, Inês Furtado, Mariana Brandão, Fátima Farinha
Osteoarticular tuberculosis is the third most frequent location of tuberculosis after the lung and lymph nodes, accounting for approximately 10%-20% of all cases of extrapulmonary disease. Tuberculosis of the hand and wrist is the rarest osteoarticular location after the shoulder. The authors report the case of a 50-year-old woman without medical history who was diagnosed with isolated tuberculosis of the wrist presenting as monarthritis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological and microbiological examination...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Yong Chen, Zhengan Yuan, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Zheyuan Wu, Biao Xu
In high TB-burden countries like China, the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) takes months, making treatment delay inevitable. Poor outcomes of MDR-TB might be associated with delayed, even inappropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time to MDR-TB treatment initiation, and to assess the association between early treatment and treatment outcomes. Between April 2011 and December 2014, this population-based, retrospective cohort study collected the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the drug susceptibility profiles of all registered MDR-TB patients in Shanghai, China...
February 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Alfred Tonganibeia, Anthony D Harries, Onofre Edwin A Merilles, Tekaibeti Tarataake, Teatao Tiira, Takeieta Kienene
The Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, has the largest tuberculosis epidemic in the region. There is a national tuberculosis control program, which has used smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli as the main diagnostic tool for many years. In 2015, an Xpert MTB/RIF machine was procured and became functional within the tuberculosis hospital. The aim of this cross-sectional study, using routinely collected data, was to determine the effects of introducing Xpert MTB/RIF on laboratory smear microscopy practices and the pattern of registered tuberculosis cases...
February 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Maroudam Veerasami, K Venkataraman, Chitra Karuppannan, Arun Attur Shanmugam, Mallepaddi Chand Prudhvi, Thomas Holder, Polavarapu Rathnagiri, K Arunmozhivarman, Gopal Dhinakar Raj, Martin Vordermeier, B Mohana Subramanian
Tuberculosis is a significant problem globally for domestic animals as well as captive and free ranging wild life. Rapid point of care (POC) serology kits are well suited for the diagnosis of TB in wild animals. However, wild animals are invariably exposed to environmental non-pathogenic mycobacterium species with the development of cross reacting antibodies. In the present study, POC TB diagnosis kit was developed using a combination of pathogenic Mycobacteria specific recombinant antigens and purified protein derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycobacteria...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Vinod Kumar Singh, Alok Bhattacharya
In a context specific manner, Intra-species genomic variation plays an important role in phenotypic diversity observed among pathogenic microbes. Efficient classification of these pathogens is important for diagnosis and treatment of several infectious diseases. NGS technologies have provided access to wealth of data that can be utilized to discover important markers for pathogen classification. In this paper, we described three different approaches (Jensen-Shanon divergence, random forest and Shewhart control chart) for identification of a minimal set of SNPs that can be used for classification of organisms...
February 9, 2018: Genomics
Peyman Eini, Maria Shirvani, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli influences tuberculosis (TB) progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the Phe206Leu polymorphism and serum L-selectin level in TB patients, compared to healthy individuals. METHODS: Ninety patients with a diagnosis of TB and 90 healthy controls were selected in this study. The serum L-selectin level was determined, using ELISA. L-selectin polymorphism was also evaluated using PCR...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Li-Li Xia, Su-Fen Li, Kan Shao, Xin Zhang, Shan Huang
To investigate the correlation between computed tomography (CT) features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated with primary pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). One hundred and eighty untreated PTB patients complicated with T2DM were selected. Based on the HbAlc level, the patients were divided into three groups: HbAlc level <7% (Group I: 32 patients), 7%-9% (Group II: 48 patients), and >9% (Group III: 100 patients). The changes of CT manifestations and HbAlc were analyzed after TB and T2DM treatment...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Li Feng, Dingbang Chen, Hongyan Zhou, Cunzhou Shen, Haiyan Wang, Xunsha Sun, Xiulin Liang, Ling Chen
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a very rare tumor of increasing incidence. It is often misdiagnosed due to the unspecific presentation or unavailable biopsy, and results in poor prognosis. PCNSL involved the spinal cord is extremely sparse. Here we report a gentleman presented with one-year history of progressive tremor in the left limbs and slight dysarthria as well as three-month history of paraparesis, tinnitus and insomnia. MR images disclosed the swollen cerebellum and cauda equine, with contrast enhancement in both meninges and nerve roots...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
S H Wang, D W Zheng, Y K Zhu, X G Ma, J Shi, X C Ou, H Li, J Xing, Y L Zhao
Objective: To compare the efficacies of cross priming amplification (CPA) and RealAmp with XpertMTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB) at peripheral microscopic centers. Methods: From December of 2014 to December of 2015, 3 193 patients suspected with TB were enrolled consecutively at 3 county level TB clinical clinics in Zhongmu, Xinmi and Dengzhou of Henan province. Totally 3 193 collected sputum samples were detected by smear microscopy, L-J media culture, CPA, RealAmp and Xpert MTB/RIF...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
L Y Xu, G X Lai, Q Hu, L Zhang, D L Liu, G B Zhu, X H Li, H H Shi, C Xu, Y H Yu, Y W Bao, W Chen
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
X Y Li, D Wu, M H Yao, X W Qiu, Y H Zheng, D Y Kang, Y H Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Yanjun Lu, Yaowu Zhu, Na Shen, Lei Tian, Ziyong Sun
OBJECTIVE: Limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) have been reported in China. Therefore, we designed a retrospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and microbiological characteristics of 238 PTB-suspected patients were retrospectively reviewed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of active PTB were calculated for the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay using TB culture or final diagnosis based on clinical and radiological evaluation as a reference standard...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Pierre Grumet, Laurent Kodjikian, Audrey de Parisot, Marie-Hélène Errera, Neila Sedira, Emmanuel Heron, Laurent Pérard, Pierre-Loïc Cornut, Christelle Schneider, Sophie Rivière, Priscille Ollé, Grégory Pugnet, Pascal Cathébras, Pierre Manoli, Bahram Bodaghi, David Saadoun, Stéphanie Baillif, Nathalie Tieulie, Marc Andre, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Nicolas Bonin, Philip Bielefeld, Alain Bron, Frédéric Mouriaux, Boris Bienvenu, Stéphanie Vicente, Sylvie Bin, Marc Labetoulle, Christiane Broussolle, Yvan Jamilloux, Evelyne Decullier, Pascal Sève
PURPOSE: ULISSE is the only study that prospectively assessed the efficiency of a standardized strategy, compared to an open strategy for the etiologic diagnosis of uveitis. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of the tests prescribed in the ULISSE study to clarify their relevance. METHODS: ULISSE is a non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter and cluster randomized study. The standardized strategy is a two-steps strategy: in the first step, common standard tests were performed, and in the second step, tests were guided by the clinical and anatomic type of uveitis...
February 7, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Angeline Thomas, Els F M Dobbels, Priscilla E Springer, Christelle Ackermann, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
The first case of Glutaric aciduria Type 1(GA1) in an African child was reported in 2001. GA1 has a prevalence of 1:5000 in black South Africans. Although early diagnosis is essential for a favourable outcome, newborn screening is not routine in South Africa where an estimated 320,000 children have HIV infection. Neurodevelopmental delay and encephalopathy are complications of both HIV and GA1. In such a setting it is important to recognise that HIV and GA1 can occur simultaneously. We present an HIV-infected South African male child of Xhosa descent with macrocephaly who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 8 weeks of age in a clinical trial which included a neurodevelopmental sub-study...
February 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Michał K Krzysiak, Artur Jabłoński, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Magdalena Larska
After the complete extinction from the wild of European bison (Bison bonasus) at the beginning of the twentieth century, the worldwide species population was restored to approximately 5500 individuals, with the species however remaining endangered. Despite numerous studies on the ecology and genetics of European bison, the threats of infectious diseases have been largely unexamined. The aim of this study was to screen the exposure of the world's largest population of European bison to the pathogens, which may influence the condition and development of the endangered species...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa, Issack Lekule, Esther S Ngadaya, Godfather Kimaro, Pammla Petrucka, Dong-Jin Kim, Johnson Lymo, Rudovick Kazwala, Fausta Mosha, Sayoki G Mfinanga
OBJECTIVE: The gap between patients diagnosed with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and enrolment in treatment is one of the major challenges in tuberculosis control programmes. A 4-year (2013-2016) retrospective review of patients' clinical data and subsequent in-depth interviews with health providers were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the GeneXpert GxAlert platform for MDR-TB diagnosis and its impact on linkage of patients to care in Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 782 new rifampicin resistant cases were notified, but only 242 (32...
February 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Terefe Gone Fuge, Solomon Gebre Bawore, Deneke Wolde Solomon, Tadele Yohannes Hegana
OBJECTIVE: To assess patient delay in seeking tuberculosis diagnosis and associated factors in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. RESULTS: The median patient delay in tuberculosis diagnosis in Hadiya Zone was found to be 30 days. Socioeconomic and perception related factors were identified as independent predictors for tuberculosis diagnosis delay. Socioeconomic characteristics like urban residence [OR 2.36; CI 1.64-3.40], religious views [OR 1.24; CI 1.73-7.0], low monthly income [OR 3...
February 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Nathan B W Chimbatata, Changming Zhou, Chikondi M Chimbatata, Lucky Mhango, Vinod K Diwan, Biao Xu
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in China has improved remarkably, partly benefiting from the reducing delay to TB care, whereas the timeliness of TB care in Malawi remains problematic. Methods: This study investigates barriers hindering timely TB diagnosis in Malawi and China, and attempts to share the experience in high burden countries. A cross-sectional study on TB diagnostic delay was conducted among 254 Malawian and 146 Chinese TB patients. Results: The medians of patient's delays were 22 and 20 days (p>0...
February 7, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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