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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636791/isotretinoin-and-lymecycline-treatments-modify-the-skin-microbiota-in-acne
#1
Hanna-Leena Kelhälä, Velma T E Aho, Nanna Fyhrquist, Pedro A B Pereira, Minna E Kubin, Lars Paulin, Riitta Palatsi, Petri Auvinen, Kaisa Tasanen, Antti Lauerma
Oral retinoids and tetracyclines have a major role in acne treatment. Here, we report for the first time the effect of isotretinoin and lymecycline therapy on the skin microbiota in cheek, back and armpit swab samples of acne vulgaris patients using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing. Propionibacterium acnes was the most common in sebaceous areas of healthy and untreated acne skin and more abundant in back than cheek samples. Five taxa, including a Streptococcus taxon, differed significantly between the cheek samples of healthy controls and acne patients, and acne severity was positively correlated with the abundance of Propionibacterium...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632181/spirulina-protects-against-hepatic-inflammation-in-aging-an-effect-related-to-the-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#2
Audrey M Neyrinck, Bernard Taminiau, Hannah Walgrave, Georges Daube, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621325/the-oral-commensal-streptococcus-mitis-activates-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-human-oral-epithelial-cells
#3
Stian A Engen, Gro H Rørvik, Olav Schreurs, Inger Js Blix, Karl Schenck
Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis) is a pioneer commensal bacterial species colonizing many of the surfaces of the oral cavity in healthy individuals. Yet, not much information is available regarding its interaction with the host. We used examination of its transcriptional regulation in oral keratinocytes to elucidate some of its potential roles in the oral cavity. Transcription factor analysis of oral keratinocytes predicted S. mitis-mediated activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Activation and functionality of AhR was confirmed through nuclear translocation determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription analysis of CYP1A1, the hallmark gene for AhR activation...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617450/a-human-intestinal-m-cell-like-model-for-investigating-particle-antigen-and-microorganism-translocation
#4
Ana Beloqui, David J Brayden, Per Artursson, Véronique Préat, Anne des Rieux
The specialized microfold cells (M cells) in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of intestinal Peyer's patches serve as antigen-sampling cells of the intestinal innate immune system. Unlike 'classical' enterocytes, they are able to translocate diverse particulates without digesting them. They act as pathways for microorganism invasion and mediate food tolerance by transcellular transport of intestinal microbiota and antigens. Their ability to transcytose intact particles can be used to develop oral drug delivery and oral immunization strategies...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615301/irf4-dependent-cd103-cd11b-dendritic-cells-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-regulate-monocyte-and-macrophage-activation-and-intestinal-peristalsis-in-postoperative-ileus
#5
Judith-Mira Pohl, Sebastian Gutweiler, Stephanie Thiebes, Julia K Volke, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Denise Zwanziger, Matthias Gunzer, Steffen Jung, William W Agace, Daniel Robert Engel, Christian Kurts
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI), the most frequent complication after intestinal surgery, depends on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Here, we have investigated the mechanism that activates these cells and the contribution of the intestinal microbiota for POI induction. DESIGN: POI was induced by manipulating the intestine of mice, which selectively lack DCs, monocytes or macrophages. The disease severity in the small and large intestine was analysed by determining the distribution of orally applied fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and by measuring the excretion time of a retrogradely inserted glass ball...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612842/gastrointestinal-inflammation-by-gut-microbiota-disturbance-induces-memory-impairment-in-mice
#6
S-E Jang, S-M Lim, J-J Jeong, H-M Jang, H-J Lee, M J Han, D-H Kim
In this study, we tested our hypothesis regarding mechanistic cross-talk between gastrointestinal inflammation and memory loss in a mouse model. Intrarectal injection of the colitis inducer 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice caused colitis via activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and increase in membrane permeability. TNBS treatment increased fecal and blood levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the number of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Escherichia coli (EC), in the gut microbiota composition, but significantly reduced the number of Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ)...
June 14, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611755/efficacy-of-phage-therapy-in-controlling-rabbit-colibacillosis-and-changes-in-cecal-microbiota
#7
Jian Zhao, Yan Liu, Chenwen Xiao, Shaojie He, Huochun Yao, Guolian Bao
Phage therapy is a valid weapon that we could use to fight against pathogens. Bacteriophages kill bacteria and self-proliferate in the digestive tract. Furthermore, it was assumed that phage therapy could preserve the existing gut microbiota. In this study, 45 rabbits were equally divided into three groups after they were orally inoculated with pathogenic Escherichia coli to induce gut infection. Each group was treated with bacteriophage ZRP1 (Group P), ciprofloxacin lactate (Group A), or phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (Group N)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604268/mucosal-immunization-with-a-flagellin-adjuvanted-hgp44-vaccine-enhances-protective-immune-responses-in-a-murine-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-model
#8
Sao Puth, Seol Hee Hong, Mi Jin Park, Hye Hwa Lee, Youn Suhk Lee, Kwangjoon Jeong, In-Chol Kang, Jeong Tae Koh, Byounggon Moon, Sang Chul Park, Joon Haeng Rhee, Shee Eun Lee
Chronic periodontitis is caused by interactions between the oral polymicrobial community and host factors. Periodontal diseases are associated with dysbiotic shift in oral microbiota. Vaccination against periodontopathic bacteria could be a fundamental therapeutic to modulate polymicrobial biofilms. Because oral cavity is the site of periodontopathic bacterial colonization, mucosal vaccines should provide better protection than vaccines administered systemically. We previously reported that bacterial flagellin is an excellent mucosal adjuvant...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602746/role-of-oral-and-gut-microbiome-in-nitric-oxide-mediated-colon-motility
#9
REVIEW
Miriam Y Walker, Pratap S, Janet H Southerland, C Farmer-Dixon, L Kesavalu, P Gangula
Periodontal disease (PD), a severe form of gum disease, is among the most prevalent chronic infection in humans and is associated with complex microbial synergistic dysbiosis in the subgingival cavity. The immune system of the body interacts with the microbes as the plaque extends and propagates below the gingival sulcus. Once bacteria reach the gingival sulcus, it can enter the blood stream and affect various areas of the human body. The polymicrobial nature of periodontal disease, if left untreated, promotes chronic inflammation, not only within the oral cavity, but also throughout the human body...
June 7, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591241/the-anti-caries-activity-and-toxicity-of-an-experimental-propolis-containing-varnish
#10
Mariana Passos DE Luca, Irlan Almeida Freires, Alfonso Gala-García, Vagner Rodrigues Santos, Miriam Pimenta Vale, Severino Matias de Alencar, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM) and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group): G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV); G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle); G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®); and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum) for 4 weeks...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590519/probiotic-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-attenuates-5-fluorouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis-in-mice-via-suppression-of-dysbiosis-related-secondary-inflammatory-responses
#11
Shinichi Kato, Nahla Hamouda, Yoshitaro Kano, Yousuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Masaki Shimakawa
Bifidobacterium, a major component of the intestinal microbiota, has been clinically used for the treatment of diarrhoea and constipation. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), widely used for cancer chemotherapy, is known to frequently induce intestinal mucositis accompanied by severe diarrhoea. The present study examined the effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced by repeated administration of 5-FU for 6 days. BBG9-1 was administered orally once daily for 9 days, beginning 3 days before the onset of 5-FU treatment...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589214/-individualized-treatment-strategies-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#12
REVIEW
P Solbach, P Dersch, O Bachmann
Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued...
June 6, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588016/commensal-microbes-provide-first-line-defense-against-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#13
Simone Becattini, Eric R Littmann, Rebecca A Carter, Sohn G Kim, Sejal M Morjaria, Lilan Ling, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Emily Fontana, Ying Taur, Ingrid M Leiner, Eric G Pamer
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis and chorioamnionitis and is associated with high mortality. Immunocompetent humans and animals, however, can tolerate high doses of L. monocytogenes without developing systemic disease. The intestinal microbiota provides colonization resistance against many orally acquired pathogens, and antibiotic-mediated depletion of the microbiota reduces host resistance to infection. Here we show that a diverse microbiota markedly reduces Listeria monocytogenes colonization of the gut lumen and prevents systemic dissemination...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584146/a-targeted-metabolomics-analysis-identifies-intestinal-microbiota-derived-urinary-biomarkers-of-colonization-resistance-in-antibiotic-treated-mice
#14
Mark E Obrenovich, Mary Ann Tima, Alex Polinkovsky, Renliang Zhang, Steven N Emancipator, Curtis J Donskey
Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract may disrupt the microbiota that provide colonization resistance against enteric pathogens and alter normal metabolic functions of the microbiota. Many of the bacterial metabolites produced in the intestinal tract are absorbed systemically and excreted in urine. Here, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that alterations in levels of targeted bacterial metabolites in urine specimens could provide useful biomarkers indicating disrupted or intact colonization resistance...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575713/characterization-of-the-peptide-fraction-from-digested-parmigiano-reggiano-cheese-and-its-effect-on-growth-of-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#15
Benedetta Bottari, Andrea Quartieri, Barbara Prandi, Stefano Raimondi, Alan Leonardi, Maddalena Rossi, Alessandro Ulrici, Monica Gatti, Stefano Sforza, Marco Nocetti, Alberto Amaretti
Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) is a raw-milk, hard cooked, long-ripened cheese of high quality and nutritional value. Long ripening times allow for extensive proteolysis of milk proteins to yield a number of peptides, some of which have potential healthy bioactive properties. This study aimed to: i) determine the peptide profile of PR cheese subjected to simulated gastrointestinal transit; ii) evaluate in vitro whether the peptides could support growth of beneficial microbial groups of the gut microbiota. PR samples were subjected to in vitro digestion, simulating oral, gastric, and duodenal transit...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575220/vancomycin-taper-and-risk-of-failure-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Roberto L Patron, Carlos A Hartmann, Sorcha Allen, Cheryl L Griesbach, Heidi E Kosiorek, John K DiBaise, Robert Orenstein
We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 109 subjects treated for rCDI with FMT at tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2014 to determine risk factors for FMT failure.. In a multivariate analysis, failure to use an oral vancomycin taper preceding FMT was associated with a significant risk of FMT failure (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.15 [0.007-0.40]).
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575164/genetic-mouse-models-with-intestinal-specific-tight-junction-deletion-resemble-an-ulcerative-colitis-phenotype
#17
Wolfgang Stremmel, Simone Staffer, Mathias Jochen Schneider, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Andreas Wannhoff, Nicole Stuhrmann, Annika Gauss, Hartwig Wolburg, Anne Mahringer, Alexander Swidsinski, Thomas Efferth
Background and Aims: A key pathogenetic feature of ulcerative colitis(UC) is an intrinsic low mucus phosphatidylcholine(PC) content. Recently, a paracellular transport for PC across tight junctions(TJ) was described, suggesting TJ disturbance as cause of diminished luminal PC transport. Therefore we aimed to generate mutant mice with TJ deletion to evaluate whether an UC phenotype developed. Methods: CL57BL/6 control wild-type mice were compared to mutant mice with tamoxifen-induced villin-Cre dependent intestinal deletion of kindlin 1 and 2...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572645/editorial-making-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-easier-to-swallow-freeze-dried-preparation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections
#18
Ilan Youngster, Dale N Gerding
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as an effective and increasingly popular therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections in patients that have failed standard antimicrobial treatment. Patient access to FMT is hampered by the logistics of manufacturing, storing, and delivering the inocula. An observational study describes the development and clinical efficacy of freeze-dried FMT capsules for oral administration. While awaiting the emergence of defined bacterial therapeutics for Clostridium difficile infections, this refinement of FMT is an encouraging step toward simplifying FMT treatment...
June 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571487/targeting-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms-by-a-novel-small-molecule-prevents-dental-caries-and-preserves-the-oral-microbiome
#19
S S Garcia, M S Blackledge, S Michalek, L Su, T Ptacek, P Eipers, C Morrow, E J Lefkowitz, C Melander, H Wu
Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569200/faecal-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-marmoset
#20
Yumiko Yamazaki, Shinpei Kawarai, Hidetoshi Morita, Takefumi Kikusui, Atsushi Iriki
BACKGROUND: The common marmoset has been used as an experimental animal for various purposes. Because its average weight ranges from 250 to 500 g, weight loss quickly becomes critical for sick animals. Therefore, effective and non-stressful treatment for chronic diseases, including diarrhoea, is essential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case in which faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) led to immediate recovery from chronic and recurrent diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile infection...
May 31, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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