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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446519/cationic-polystyrene-resolves-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-by-promoting-eubiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-decreasing-endotoxemia
#1
Airu Zhu, Jingjing Chen, Pengfei Wu, Mei Luo, Yilan Zeng, Han Zheng, Li Zhang, Zishou Cheng, Qun Sun, Wenwen Li, Yixiang Duan, Danmei Su, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Li Bei, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhongyuan Ju, Richard Hu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
A pandemic of metabolic diseases, consisting of type-2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and obesity, has imposed critical challenges for societies worldwide, prompting investigation of underlying mechanisms and exploration of low cost and effective treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that metabolic disorders in mice generated by feeding with a high-fat diet without dietary vitamin D (HD) can be prevented by oral administration of polycationic amine resin. Oral administration of cholestyramine , but not the control uncharged polystyrene, was able to sequester negatively charged bacterial endotoxin in the gut, leading to (1) reducing plasma endotoxin levels, (2) resolving systemic inflammation and hepatic steatohepatitis,and (3) improving insulin sensitivity...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443073/feed-supplementation-with-red-seaweeds-chondrus-crispus-and-sarcodiotheca-gaudichaudii-reduce-salmonella-enteritidis-in-laying-hens
#2
Garima Kulshreshtha, Bruce Rathgeber, Janice MacIsaac, Martine Boulianne, Lehoux Brigitte, Glenn Stratton, Nikhil A Thomas, Alan T Critchley, Jeff Hafting, Balakrishnan Prithiviraj
Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442421/distinct-roles-for-dietary-lipids-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-on-atherosclerosis-progression-and-the-gut-microbiota
#3
Carolyn D Kramer, Alexandra M Simas, Xianbao He, Robin R Ingalls, Ellen O Weinberg, Caroline Attardo Genco
Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus leading to the development of atherosclerosis, activation of multiple pathways related to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sustain the process by stimulating recruitment of leukocytes and immune cells into the sub-endothelial layer...
April 22, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438184/microbiota-activated-cd103-dcs-stemming-from-microbiota-adaptation-specifically-drive-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-proliferation-and-activation
#4
Chris Fleming, Yihua Cai, Xuan Sun, Venkatakrishna R Jala, Feng Xue, Samantha Morrissey, Yu-Ling Wei, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Huang-Ge Zhang, Bodduluri Haribabu, Jian Huang, Jun Yan
BACKGROUND: IL-17-producing γδT cells (γδT17) promote autoinflammatory diseases and cancers. Yet, γδT17 peripheral regulation has not been thoroughly explored especially in the context of microbiota-host interaction. The potent antigen-presenting CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) is a key immune player in close contact with both γδT17 cells and microbiota. This study presents a novel cellular network among microbiota, CD103(+) DCs, and γδT17 cells. METHODS: Immunophenotyping of IL-17r(-/-) mice and IL-17r(-/-) IRF8(-/-) mice were performed by ex vivo immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis...
April 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425154/rifaximin-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-an-open-label-pilot-study
#5
Jeremy F L Cobbold, Stephen Atkinson, Julian R Marchesi, Ann Smith, Sann N Wai, Julie Stove, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Nicola Jackson, A Margot Umpleby, Julie Fitzpatrick, E Louise Thomas, Jimmy D Bell, Elaine Holmes, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Robert D Goldin, Michael S Yee, Quentin M Anstee, Mark R Thursz
AIM: Gut microbial dysbiosis is implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated downstream effects of gut microbiota modulation on markers of hepatic inflammation, steatosis, and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with NASH using Rifaximin therapy. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven NASH and elevated aminotransferase values were included in this open-label pilot study, all receiving 6 weeks Rifaximin 400 mg twice daily, followed by a 6 week observation period...
April 20, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424689/antimicrobial-and-attractant-roles-for-chemerin-in-the-oral-cavity-during-inflammatory-gum-disease
#6
Urszula Godlewska, Piotr Brzoza, Aneta Sroka, Pawel Majewski, Holger Jentsch, Martin Eckert, Sigrun Eick, Jan Potempa, Brian A Zabel, Joanna Cichy
Periodontal inflammation is one of the most common chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Despite recent advances in identifying and characterizing oral microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of gum disease, just how host factors maintain a healthy homeostatic oral microbial community or prevent the development of a pathogenic oral microbiota remains poorly understood. An important determinant of microbiota fate is local antimicrobial proteins. Here, we report that chemoattractant protein chemerin, which we recently identified as a potent endogenous antimicrobial agent in body barriers such as the skin, is present in the oral cavity under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419236/studying-the-effect-of-administration-route-and-treatment-dose-on-the-selection-of-enrofloxacin-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-broilers
#7
Ilias Chantziaras, Annemieke Smet, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Jeroen Dewulf
Objectives: Factors potentially contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance selection in commensal Escherichia coli strains in poultry were studied through a series of in vivo experiments. The effect of the initial prevalence of enrofloxacin resistance in the E. coli gut microbiota, effect of the bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant strain and effect of treatment with enrofloxacin (effect of dose and effect of route of administration) were assessed. Methods: Four in vivo studies with broiler chickens were performed...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413200/the-oral-microbiome-community-variations-associated-with-normal-potentially-malignant-disorders-and-malignant-lesions-of-the-oral-cavity
#8
S F Mok, C Karuthan, Y K Cheah, W C Ngeow, Z Rosnah, S F Yap, H K A Ong
The human oral microbiome has been known to show strong association with various oral diseases including oral cancer. This study attempts to characterize the community variations between normal, oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and cancer associated microbiota using 16S rDNA sequencing. Swab samples were collected from three groups (normal, OPMD and oral cancer) with nine subjects from each group. Bacteria genomic DNA was isolated in which full length 16S rDNA were amplified and used for cloned library sequencing...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411689/moutan-cortex-and-paeoniae-radix-rubra-reverse-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-disorder-and-restore-gut-microbiota-homeostasis
#9
Ling-Jun Zhong, Zhi-Sheng Xie, Hua Yang, Ping Li, Xiao-Jun Xu
The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effcts of Moutan Cortex (CM, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) and Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PR, root of Paeonia veitchii Lynch) on metabolic disorders, focusing on the infuence of CM and PR on the obesity-related gut microbiota homeostasis. The diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model was used to test the therapeutic effects of CM and PR. The mice were orally administered with CM and PR for 6 weeks, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed to evaluate the insulin sensitivity of the mice...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411687/oral-administration-of-red-ginseng-powder-fermented-with-probiotic-alleviates-the-severity-of-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Sun-Hee Jang, Jisang Park, Sae-Hae Kim, Kyung-Min Choi, Eun-Sil Ko, Jeong-Dan Cha, Young-Ran Lee, Hyonseok Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
Red ginseng is a well-known alternative medicine with anti-inflammatory activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of red ginseng likely vary among individuals. In order to produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we prepared probiotic-fermented red ginseng and evaluated its activity using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407784/relationships-between-gut-microbiota-plasma-metabolites-and-metabolic-syndrome-traits-in-the-metsim-cohort
#11
Elin Org, Yuna Blum, Silva Kasela, Margarete Mehrabian, Johanna Kuusisto, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Zeneng Wang, Mika Ala-Korpela, Stanley L Hazen, Markku Laakso, Aldons J Lusis
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community that directly influences host phenotypes. In this study, we profile gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 531 well-phenotyped Finnish men from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study. RESULTS: We investigate gut microbiota relationships with a variety of factors that have an impact on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identify novel associations between gut microbiota and fasting serum levels of a number of metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, lipids, and glucose...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406998/structure-and-dynamics-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiota-of-the-bark-beetle-dendroctonus-rhizophagus-curculionidae-scolytinae-across-their-life-stages
#12
Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, Juan Alfredo Hernández-García, Roman Gonzalez-Escobedo, L Viridiana Soto-Robles, Flor N Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404159/a-microbiota-centric-view-of-diseases-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
REVIEW
Gerardo Nardone, Debora Compare, Alba Rocco
The distinctive anatomy and physiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the difficulty of obtaining samples led to the theory that it was bacteria free. However, multiomics studies are indicating otherwise. Although influenced by both oral and gastric bacteria, the resident microbial ecosystem in the oesophagus is dominated by Streptococcus. A shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria occurs in oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and this shift might be involved in the pathogenesis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404012/a-non-endoscopic-device-to-sample-the-oesophageal-microbiota-a-case-control-study
#14
Daffolyn R Fels Elliott, Alan W Walker, Maria O'Donovan, Julian Parkhill, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: The strongest risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma is reflux disease, and the rising incidence of this coincides with the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, both of which might alter the oesophageal microbiota. We aimed to profile the microbiota at different stages of Barrett's carcinogenesis and investigate the Cytosponge as a minimally invasive tool for sampling the oesophageal microbiota. METHODS: In this case-control study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was done on 210 oesophageal samples from 86 patients representing the Barrett's oesophagus progression sequence (normal squamous controls [n=20], non-dysplastic [n=24] and dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus [n=23], and oesophageal adenocarcinoma [n=19]), relevant negative controls, and replicates on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
January 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403947/berberine-induced-bioactive-metabolites-of-the-gut-microbiota-improve-energy-metabolism
#15
Yan Wang, Jia-Wen Shou, Xiao-Yang Li, Zhen-Xiong Zhao, Jie Fu, Chi-Yu He, Ru Feng, Chao Ma, Bao-Ying Wen, Fang Guo, Xin-Yi Yang, Yan-Xing Han, Lu-Lu Wang, Qian Tong, Xue-Fu You, Yuan Lin, Wei-Jia Kong, Shu-Yi Si, Jian-Dong Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Berberine (BBR) clinically lowers blood lipid and glucose levels via multi-target mechanisms. One of the possible mechanisms is related to its effect on the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of the gut microbiota. The goal of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect and mode of action of BBR working through SCFAs of the gut microbiota (especially, butyrate). METHODS: Gas chromatography (GC) was used to detect butyrate and other SCFAs chemically...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394824/from-microbiome-to-infectome-in-autoimmunity
#16
Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the pros and cons of the microbiome studies conducted in search of the association between microbiota and autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on the role of infectome and autoinfectome as a bridge to link the findings of microbiome studies with those emerging from investigations of the role of specific viruses and antiviral responses as triggers of autoimmunity (through various mechanisms such as molecular mimicry)...
April 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393073/a-comparative-study-of-oral-microbiota-in-infants-with-complete-cleft-lip-and-palate-or-cleft-soft-palate
#17
Agnieszka Machorowska-Pieniążek, Anna Mertas, Małgorzata Skucha-Nowak, Marta Tanasiewicz, Tadeusz Morawiec
Few reports have been published on the early microbiota in infants with various types of cleft palate. We assessed the formation of the oral microbiota in infants with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP n = 30) or cleft soft palate (CSP n = 25) in the neonatal period (T1 time) and again in the gum pad stage (T2 time). Culture swabs from the tongue, palate, and/or cleft margin at T1 and T2 were taken. We analysed the prevalence of the given bacterial species (the percentage) and the proportions in which the palate and tongue were colonised by each microorganism...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384519/kefir-alleviates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-mycobiota-targeted-and-untargeted-community-analysis-with-correlation-of-biomarkers
#19
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384049/intestinal-iga-as-a-modulator-of-the-gut-microbiota
#20
Shinsaku Okai, Fumihito Usui, Misa Ohta, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Satoshi Matsumoto, Tamotsu Kato, Eiji Miyauchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Reiko Shinkura
Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbiosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as extra-intestinal disorders. As a modulator of the intestinal microbiota, we isolated a mouse monoclonal IgA antibody (clone W27) with high affinities for multiple commensal bacteria, but not for beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei). Via specific recognition of an epitope in serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), a bacterial metabolic enzyme, W27 IgA selectively inhibited the in vitro growth of bound bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E...
April 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
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