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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725001/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-elicited-effects-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-alterations-in-biosynthesis-enterohepatic-circulation-and-microbial-metabolism
#1
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Chen Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Jack R Harkema, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and pericholangitis. Mass spectrometry analysis detected a 4.6-fold increase in total hepatic bile acid levels, despite the coordinated repression of genes involved in cholesterol and primary bile acid biosynthesis including Cyp7a1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724921/saliva-and-tooth-biofilm-bacterial-microbiota-in-adolescents-in-a-low-caries-community
#2
Linda Eriksson, Pernilla Lif Holgerson, Ingegerd Johansson
The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716079/the-human-jejunum-has-an-endogenous-microbiota-that-differs-from-those-in-the-oral-cavity-and-colon
#3
Olof H Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714029/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-5%C3%A2-ht-expression-m2-macrophage-abundance-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Serotonin (5‑hydroxytryptamine; 5‑HT) may be a key player in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the GI immune system. In the present study, the effect of gut microbiota on the association between GI motility, and 5‑HT expression and macrophage abundance in the GI tract was examined. Germ‑free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen‑free mice and their GI tissues were evaluated 4 weeks later. The expression of 5‑HT and mannose receptor (MR) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and GI transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713826/characterization-of-oral-microbiota-in-removable-dental-prosthesis-users-influence-of-arterial-hypertension
#5
Leila Maria Marchi-Alves, Dayana Freitas, Denise de Andrade, Simone de Godoy, Adrielle Naiara Toneti, Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes
INTRODUCTION: Studies have described the possible relation between oral infections and atherosclerotic events. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the oral microbiota of normotensive and hypertensive users of dental prostheses. METHODS: The sample consisted of 41 complete dental prosthesis users, divided into groups: 21 participants with systemic arterial hypertension and 20 normotensive participants. The data collection included the characteristics of the sociodemographic variables and the determination of the microbial load in the saliva...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713343/the-bacterial-ecosystem-of-mother-s-milk-and-infant-s-mouth-and-gut
#6
Elena Biagi, Sara Quercia, Arianna Aceti, Isadora Beghetti, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Giacomo Faldella, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi, Luigi Corvaglia
The progressive building of the infants' gut microbiota is pivotal for educating their immune system. Human breast milk is among the first sources of microbes for the assembly of the infant's microbiota, but research struggles to give a demonstration for the origin of bacteria in milk. Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on assembly of the mother's milk and infant's microbiome, here we characterized the oral, gut and milk ecosystems in a homogeneous cohort of 36 healthy mother-infants pairs, by 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#7
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708089/effects-of-consuming-xylitol-on-gut-microbiota-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mice
#8
Takashi Uebanso, Saki Kano, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Chisato Naito, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5-4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706193/polydextrose-changes-the-gut-microbiome-and-attenuates-fasting-triglyceride-and-cholesterol-levels-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#9
Ghulam Shere Raza, Heli Putaala, Ashley A Hibberd, Esa Alhoniemi, Kirsti Tiihonen, Kari Antero Mäkelä, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Obesity and dyslipidemia are hallmarks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Polydextrose (PDX), a soluble fiber has lipid lowering effects. We hypothesize that PDX reduces triglycerides and cholesterol by influencing gut microbiota, which in turn modulate intestinal gene expression. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a Western diet (WD) ±75 mg PDX twice daily by oral gavage for 14 days. Body weight and food intake were monitored daily. Fasting plasma lipids, caecal microbiota and gene expression in intestine and liver were measured after 14 days of feeding...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704648/diabetes-enhances-il-17-expression-and-alters-the-oral-microbiome-to-increase-its-pathogenicity
#10
E Xiao, Marcelo Mattos, Gustavo Henrique Apolinário Vieira, Shanshan Chen, Jôice Dias Corrêa, Yingying Wu, Mayra Laino Albiero, Kyle Bittinger, Dana T Graves
Diabetes is a risk factor for periodontitis, an inflammatory bone disorder and the greatest cause of tooth loss in adults. Diabetes has a significant impact on the gut microbiota; however, studies in the oral cavity have been inconclusive. By 16S rRNA sequencing, we show here that diabetes causes a shift in oral bacterial composition and, by transfer to germ-free mice, that the oral microbiota of diabetic mice is more pathogenic. Furthermore, treatment with IL-17 antibody decreases the pathogenicity of the oral microbiota in diabetic mice; when transferred to recipient germ-free mice, oral microbiota from IL-17-treated donors induced reduced neutrophil recruitment, reduced IL-6 and RANKL, and less bone resorption...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704437/impact-of-environmental-microbiota-on-human-microbiota-of-workers-in-academic-mouse-research-facilities-an-observational-study
#11
Peggy S Lai, Joseph G Allen, Diane S Hutchinson, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Thomas Winters, Christopher Hug, Gary R Wartenberg, Jose Vallarino, David C Christiani
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbial environment of workers in academic mouse research facilities using endotoxin, 16S qPCR, and 16S amplicon sequencing. To determine whether the work microbiome contributes to the human microbiome of workers. METHODS: We performed area air sampling from the animal rooms, dirty, middle, and setup cage wash locations in four academic mouse research facilities. 10 workers in the dirty cage wash area underwent personal air sampling as well as repeated collection of nasal, oral, and skin samples before and after the work shift...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698824/on-the-tear-proteome-of-the-house-mouse-mus-musculus-musculus-in-relation-to-chemical-signalling
#12
Romana Stopkova, Petr Klempt, Barbora Kuntova, Pavel Stopka
Mammalian tears are produced by lacrimal glands to protect eyes and may function in chemical communication and immunity. Recent studies on the house mouse chemical signalling revealed that major urinary proteins (MUPs) are not individually unique in Mus musculus musculus. This fact stimulated us to look for other sexually dimorphic proteins that may-in combination with MUPs-contribute to a pool of chemical signals in tears. MUPs and other lipocalins including odorant binding proteins (OBPs) have the capacity to selectively transport volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their eight-stranded beta barrel, thus we have generated the tear proteome of the house mouse to detect a wider pool of proteins that may be involved in chemical signalling...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#13
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689869/effects-of-oral-antibiotics-and-isotretinoin-on-the-murine-gut-microbiota
#14
Eugenia Becker, Thomas S B Schmidt, Susan Bengs, Lucy Poveda, Lennart Opitz, Kirstin Atrott, Claudia Stanzel, Luc Biedermann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniel Jonas, Christian von Mering, Gerhard Rogler, Isabelle Frey-Wagner
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may develop due to an immunogenic response to commensal gut microbiota triggered by environmental factors in the genetically susceptible host. Isotretinoin, applied in the treatment of severe acne, has been variably associated with IBD, but prior treatment with antibiotics, also associated with IBD development, confounds confirmation of this association. This study investigated the effects of doxycycline, metronidazole (frequently used in the treatment of acne and IBD, respectively) and isotretinoin on murine gut (faecal) microbiota after 2 weeks of treatment and after a 4-week recovery period...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683818/longitudinal-profiling-reveals-a-persistent-intestinal-dysbiosis-triggered-by-conventional-anti-tuberculosis-therapy
#15
Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Mamoudou Maiga, Wuxing Yuan, Vishal Thovarai, Diego L Costa, Lara R Mittereder, Matthew F Wipperman, Michael S Glickman, Amiran Dzutsev, Giorgio Trinchieri, Alan Sher
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires at least 6 months of daily therapy with multiple orally administered antibiotics. Although this drug regimen is administered annually to millions worldwide, the impact of such intensive antimicrobial treatment on the host microbiome has never been formally investigated. Here, we characterized the longitudinal outcome of conventional isoniazid-rifampin-pyrazinamide (HRZ) TB drug administration on the diversity and composition of the intestinal microbiota in Mtb-infected mice by means of 16S rRNA sequencing...
July 7, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678309/fenticonazole-an-effective-topical-treatment-for-superficial-mycoses-as-the-first-step-of-antifungal-stewardship-program
#16
F Tumietto, L Giacomelli
The resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs is a major issue for public health, with important consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality and resource use. The phenomenon is so serious that in some areas of the world resistant strains to all available drugs have been selected. Many conditions may result in the development of resistance: they include the indiscriminate or inappropriate (e.g., for viral infection or colonization) use of antibiotics, the excessive duration of the prescribed treatment regimens, as well as inadequate dosing or administration routes...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677765/expression-and-antimicrobial-character-of-cells-transfected-with-human-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-defensin%C3%A2-3-against-periodontitis%C3%A2-associated-microbiota-in-vitro
#17
Minwen Zhu, Bo Miao, Jianhua Zhu, Haiyan Wang, Zengtong Zhou
Periodontitis is an oral chronic inflammatory disease induced by microorganisms that can destroy tooth‑supporting structures. Human β‑defensin‑3 (HBD‑3) is a type of endogenous antimicrobial peptide that inhibits a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The objectives of the present study were to transfect human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) with lentivirus containing the HBD‑3 gene, determine the transfection efficiency, and investigate the antimicrobial activity of the experimental cells against periodontal pathogens...
July 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675020/-relationship-between-oral-and-gut-microbes
#18
Cheng Xingqun, Xu Xin, Zhou Xuedong
Oral cavity and gut are important parts of the human digestive tract. The structure and pathogenesis of oral and gut microbial communities have been extensively investigated. The interaction and pathogenic effects of oral and gut microbiota have also been widely explored. This review aimed to integrate data from literature and discuss the structures and functions of microbial communities in the oral cavity and gut. The mutual colonization and pathogenesis of oral and gut microbes and the relationship between these phenomena and involved systemic diseases are also described...
June 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674502/treatment-of-abnormal-vaginal-microbiota-before-frozen-embryo-transfer-case-report-and-minireview-to-discuss-the-longitudinal-treatment-efficacy-of-oral-clindamycin
#19
Thor Haahr, Helle O Elbaek, Rita J Laursen, Birgit Alsbjerg, Jørgen S Jensen, Peter Humaidan
Abnormal vaginal microbiota (AVM) or bacterial vaginosis (BV) might negatively impact reproductive outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, before randomized controlled trials are initiated to investigate cause and effect, it is necessary to establish the optimal treatment for AVM. Metronidazole seems ineffective to treat the biofilm in AVM; thus, clindamycin could be suggested as a relevant antibiotic agent for future intervention based studies. In the present case report, we present the first longitudinal follow-up of the vaginal microbiota with molecular methods during and after oral clindamycin treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669650/next-generation-dna-sequencing-of-tissues-from-infected-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#20
M Malone, K Johani, S O Jensen, I B Gosbell, H G Dickson, H Hu, K Vickery
We used next generation DNA sequencing to profile the microbiome of infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs). The microbiota was correlated to clinical parameters and treatment outcomes to determine if directed antimicrobial therapy based on conventional microbiological cultures are relevant based on genomic analysis. Patients≥18years presenting with a new Diabetic Foot Infection (DFI) who had not received topical or oral antimicrobials in the two weeks prior to presentation, were eligible for enrolment. Tissue punch biopsies were obtained from infected DFUs for analysis...
June 27, 2017: EBioMedicine
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