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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147070/evidences-of-a-new-psychobiotic-formulation-on-body-composition-and-anxiety
#1
Carmela Colica, Ennio Avolio, Patrizio Bollero, Renata Costa de Miranda, Simona Ferraro, Paola Sinibaldi Salimei, Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo
Background: Gut microbiota is implied in obesity, because of its ability to harvest energy from diet, and in the regulation of behavior. Given the link between gut microbiota, body composition, obesity, and anxiety, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new psychobiotic formulation. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly divided into three groups: psychobiotics oral suspension group (POSG); dietary treatment group (DTG); combined treatment group (CTG)...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145201/dietary-fructo-oligosaccharides-attenuate-early-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-which-produce-both-th1-and-th2-cytokines-in-the-intestinal-lymphoid-tissues-of-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#2
Masato Tsuda, Haruka Arakawa, Narumi Ishii, Chihiro Ubukata, Mana Michimori, Masanari Noda, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
BACKGROUND: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. METHODS: OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation...
November 17, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142301/alteration-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-characterizes-preclinical-inflammatory-arthritis-in-mice-and-its-modulation-attenuates-established-arthritis
#3
Rebecca Rogier, Heather Evans-Marin, Julia Manasson, Peter M van der Kraan, Birgitte Walgreen, Monique M Helsen, Liduine A van den Bersselaar, Fons A van de Loo, Peter L van Lent, Steven B Abramson, Wim B van den Berg, Marije I Koenders, Jose U Scher, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
Perturbations of the intestinal microbiome have been observed in patients with new-onset and chronic autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. However, it is currently unknown whether these alterations precede the development of arthritis or are rather a consequence of disease. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by oral antibiotics or germ-free condition can prevent arthritis in mice. Yet, the therapeutic potential of modulation of the microbiota after the onset of arthritis is not well characterized. We here show that the intestinal microbial community undergoes marked changes in the preclinical phase of collagen induced arthritis (CIA)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#4
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134744/acute-oral-sodium-propionate-supplementation-raises-resting-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-oxidation-in-fasted-humans
#5
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Karen Aspey, Yanjie Chen, Saadiyah Khan, Douglas J Morrison, Gary Frost
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism. Previous work using rodent models have demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 females and 9 males; Age: 25±1 y; Body Mass Index: 24...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133348/non-pathogenic-colonization-with-chlamydia-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-oral-vaccination-for-inducing-transmucosal-protection
#6
Luying Wang, Cuiming Zhu, Tianyuan Zhang, Qi Tian, Nu Zhang, Sandra Morrison, Richard Morrison, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. We now report that gastrointestinal Chlamydia muridarum is able to induce robust transmucosal protection in mice. C. muridarum colonization in the gastrointestinal tract correlated with both a shortened course of C. muridarum genital infection and stronger protection against subsequent genital tract challenge infection. Mice pre-inoculated intragastrically with C. muridarum became highly resistant to subsequent C. muridarum infection in the genital tract, resulting in prevention of pathology in the upper genital tract...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129876/-microbial-ecology-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
Ethan T Hillman, Hang Lu, Tianming Yao, Cindy H Nakatsu
The ecosystem of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract traverses a number of environmental, chemical, and physical conditions because it runs from the oral cavity to the anus. These differences in conditions along with food or other ingested substrates affect the composition and density of the microbiota as well as their functional roles by selecting those that are the most suitable for that environment. Previous studies have mostly focused on Bacteria, with the number of studies conducted on Archaea, Eukarya, and Viruses being limited despite their important roles in this ecosystem...
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125139/salivary-proteins-and-microbiota-as-biomarkers-for-early-childhood-caries-risk-assessment
#8
REVIEW
Abdullah S Hemadi, Ruijie Huang, Yuan Zhou, Jing Zou
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a term used to describe dental caries in children aged 6 years or younger. Oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sorbrinus, are considered to be the main etiological agents of tooth decay in children. Other bacteria, such as Prevotella spp. and Lactobacillus spp., and fungus, that is, Candida albicans, are related to the development and progression of ECC. Biomolecules in saliva, mainly proteins, affect the survival of oral microorganisms by multiple innate defensive mechanisms, thus modulating the oral microflora...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123385/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-elderly-an-update-on-management
#9
REVIEW
Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau
The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. In the USA, recent epidemiological studies estimate that two out of every three health care-associated CDIs occur in patients 65 years or older...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121702/preventive-effects-of-a-probiotic-mixture-in-an-ovalbumin-induced-food-allergy-model
#10
Hee-Soon Shin, Ji-Eun Eom, Dong-Uk Shin, Sung-Hum Yeon, Seong-Il Lim, So-Young Lee
Although there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of food allergies worldwide in recent decades, no effective therapeutic strategies have been developed. Modulation of the gut microbiota composition and/or function through probiotics has been highlighted as a promising target for protection against food allergies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of a probiotic mixture (P5: Lactococcus lactis KF140, Pediococcus pentosaceus KF159, Lactobacillus pentosus KF340, Lactobacillus paracasei 698, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 26N) in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119385/intestinal-permeabiliy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
M C Buscarinu, S Romano, R Mechelli, R Pizzolato Umeton, M Ferraldeschi, A Fornasiero, R Reniè, B Cerasoli, E Morena, C Romano, N D Loizzo, R Umeton, M Salvetti, G Ristori
Changes of intestinal permeability (IP) have been extensively investigated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), underpinned by a known unbalance between microbiota, IP and immune responses in the gut. Recently the influence of IP on brain function has greatly been appreciated. Previous works showed an increased IP that preceded experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development and worsened during disease with disruption of TJ. Moreover, studying co-morbidity between Crohn's disease and MS, a report described increased IP in a minority of cases with MS...
November 8, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118979/the-effects-of-starter-microbiota-and-the-early-life-feeding-of-medium-chain-triglycerides-on-the-gastric-transcriptome-profile-of-2-or-3-week-old-cesarean-delivered-piglets
#12
Paolo Trevisi, Davide Priori, Vincenzo Motta, Diana Luise, Alfons J M Jansman, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Paolo Bosi
Background: The stomach is an underestimated key interface between the ingesta and the digestive system, affecting the digestion and playing an important role in several endocrine functions. The quality of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides may affect porcine gastric maturation. Two trials (T1, T2) were carried out on 12 and 24 cesarean-delivered piglets (birth, d0), divided over two microbiota treatments, but slaughtered and sampled at two or three weeks of age, respectively...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118411/gut-remediation-a-potential-approach-to-reducing-chromium-accumulation-using-lactobacillus-plantarum-tw1-1
#13
Gaofeng Wu, Xingpeng Xiao, Pengya Feng, Fuquan Xie, Zhengsheng Yu, Wenzhen Yuan, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
Some lactobacilli have protective effects against some heavy metals in mammals, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To evaluate the remediation potency and the mechanism of Lactobacillus against chromium (Cr) in mice, Lactobacillus plantarum TW1-1 was orally administrated to Kunming mice for 7 weeks during exposure to 1 mM K2Cr2O7 in drinking water. Results showed that TW1-1 helped to decrease Cr accumulation in tissues and increase Cr excretion in feces, and may also attenuate alterations in oxidative stress and histopathological changes caused by Cr exposure...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114647/the-effect-of-orthodontic-treatment-on-periodontal-tissue-inflammation-a-systematic-review
#14
Carmine Verrusio, Vincenzo Iorio-Siciliano, Andrea Blasi, Stefania Leuci, Daniela Adamo, Michele Nicolò
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the periodontal tissue inflammation indexes in patients undergoing different orthodontic treatment. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The Cochrane Oral Health Group specialist trials, Medline, and Embase databases were used for the research. All the included studies had to report bleeding on probing (BOP) depth as primary outcome. Changes in probing depth, clinical attachment level, Gingival Index, and Periodontal Index were included in the review as secondary outcome measurements...
November 7, 2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114101/gut-microbiota-oral-bacteria-a-cause-of-ibd
#15
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#16
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111180/effects-of-kestose-on-gut-mucosal-immunity-in-an-atopic-dermatitis-mouse-model
#17
Ha-Jung Kim, Seung-Hwa Lee, Han-Na Go, Jae-Rin Ahn, Hye-Jung Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is recently increasing among populations, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Interactions between the gut microbiota and mucosal immunity are considered to be a crucial etiology. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), prebiotics have been reported as activators of the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of kestose, the smallest FOS and FOS on atopic dermatitis in mice. METHODS: An AD mouse model was developed by (ovalbumin) epidermal sensitization using BALB/c mice...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109537/neuroprotective-effect-of-ruminococcus-albus-on-oxidatively-stressed-sh-sy5y-cells-and-animals
#18
Jieun Park, Jiyun Lee, Zia Yeom, Donghyuk Heo, Young-Hee Lim
Recent evidence shows that the gut microbiota has an important role in gut-brain crosstalk and is linked to neuronal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intestinal Ruminococcus albus with probiotic potential on neuroprotection in oxidatively stressed SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and animals. To investigate these effects, conditioned medium was prepared using Caco-2 cells cultured with heat-killed R. albus (CRA-CM). Caco-2 cells cultured with heat-killed R. albus showed increased BDNF expression and BDNF protein levels increased in CRA-CM...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107046/pharmacological-efficacy-toxicity-of-drugs-a-comprehensive-update-about-the-dynamic-interplay-of-microbes
#19
REVIEW
J A Gimenez-Bastida, L Martinez, A Moya-Pérez, J M Laparra
Oral ingestion is a common, easy to access, route for therapeutic drugs to be delivered. The conception of the gastrointestinal tract as a passive physiological compartment has evolved towards a dynamic perspective of the same. Thus, microbiota plays an important role in contributing with additional metabolic capacities to its host as well as to its phenotypic heterogeneity. These adaptations in turn influence the efficacy and toxicity of a broad range of drugs. Notwithstanding, xenobiotics and therapeutic drugs affecting the microbiome's activity also significantly impact metabolism affecting different organs and tissues, and thereby drugs' toxicity/efficacy effects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105152/proton-pump-inhibitor-alters-oral-microbiome-in-gastrointestinal-tract-of-healthy-volunteers
#20
Tsuyoshi Mishiro, Kentaro Oka, Yasutoshi Kuroki, Motomichi Takahashi, Kasumi Tatsumi, Tsukasa Saitoh, Hiroshi Tobita, Norihisa Ishimura, Shuichi Sato, Shunji Ishihara, Joji Sekine, Koichiro Wada, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acid suppressive agents including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as first-line treatment for various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Although known to profoundly reduce gastric acid production, their influence on inhibition of acid secretion as part of the function of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of PPI usage on oral and gut microbiota in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Ten healthy adult volunteers receiving no medications were enrolled...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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