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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#1
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327263/proton-pump-inhibitors-increase-the-susceptibility-of-mice-to-oral-infection-with-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#2
Eiichiro Yasutomi, Namiko Hoshi, Soichiro Adachi, Takafumi Otsuka, Lingling Kong, Yuna Ku, Haruka Yamairi, Jun Inoue, Tsukasa Ishida, Daisuke Watanabe, Makoto Ooi, Masaru Yoshida, Tomoya Tsukimi, Shinji Fukuda, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed medications. Side effects including an increased risk of intestinal infections have been reported. It is assumed that PPIs can increase susceptibility to enteropathogens; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here in this study, we explored whether Lansoprazole (Laz), one of the PPIs, increases the susceptibility to enteropathogens, and further investigated the mechanism of it. METHODS: Mice were administered Laz intraperitoneally once daily and orally infected with Citrobacter rodentium (C...
January 11, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323208/composition-of-salivary-microbiota-in-elderly-subjects
#3
Taiji Ogawa, Yujiro Hirose, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Minami Sugimoto, Satoshi Sasaki, Masahito Kibi, Shigetada Kawabata, Kazunori Ikebe, Yoshinobu Maeda
Frailty is gaining attention worldwide with the aging of society. Despite the potential lethality and multiple signs and symptoms in affected individuals, preclinical detection of early manifestations leading to frailty syndrome have not been established. We speculated that the composition of the oral microbiota is associated with general frailty, as well as a relationship between gut microbiota and general health condition. In the present study, we investigated the salivary microbiota composition in samples from healthy and frail elderly individuals using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis for characterization...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316977/the-lung-tissue-microbiota-of-mild-and-moderate-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Alexa A Pragman, Tianmeng Lyu, Joshua A Baller, Trevor J Gould, Rosemary F Kelly, Cavan S Reilly, Richard E Isaacson, Chris H Wendt
BACKGROUND: Oral taxa are often found in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung microbiota, but it is not clear if this is due to a physiologic process such as aspiration or experimental contamination at the time of specimen collection. METHODS: Microbiota samples were obtained from nine subjects with mild or moderate COPD by swabbing lung tissue and upper airway sites during lung lobectomy. Lung specimens were not contaminated with upper airway taxa since they were obtained surgically...
January 9, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316223/probiotic-lactobacillus-sp-inhibit-growth-biofilm-formation-and-gene-expression-of-caries-inducing-streptococcus-mutans
#5
Reham Wasfi, Ola A Abd El-Rahman, Mai M Zafer, Hossam M Ashour
Streptococcus mutans contributes significantly to dental caries, which arises from homoeostasic imbalance between host and microbiota. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus sp. inhibits growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of Streptococcus mutans. Antibacterial (agar diffusion method) and antibiofilm (crystal violet assay) characteristics of probiotic Lacobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) were evaluated. We investigated whether Lacobacillus casei (ATCC 393), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 14917) or Lactobacillus salivarius (ATCC 11741) inhibit expression of Streptococcus mutans genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing or stress survival using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#6
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312828/profiling-of-subgingival-plaque-biofilm-microbiota-in-female-adult-patients-with-clear-aligners-a-three-month-prospective-study
#7
Runzhi Guo, Yunfei Zheng, Hao Liu, Xiaobei Li, Lingfei Jia, Weiran Li
Background: Clear aligners are well known for facilitating oral hygiene maintenance and decreasing susceptibility to periodontal diseases as compared to conventional fixed appliances. However, few research studies focus on the subgingival microbial community during clear aligner treatment (CAT). Hence, this study investigates changes of the subgingival microbial community and its association with clinical characteristics during the first three months of CAT. Methods: Ten female patients with clear aligners were enrolled in this study...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304768/long-term-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-bmx-54-application-to-restore-a-balanced-vaginal-ecosystem-a-promising-solution-against-hpv-infection
#8
Ettore Palma, Nadia Recine, Lavinia Domenici, Margherita Giorgini, Alessandra Pierangeli, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
BACKGROUND: Over recent years, a growing interest has developed in microbiota and in the concept of maintaining a special balance between Lactobacillus and other bacteria species in order to promote women's well-being. The aim of our study was to confirm that vaginal Lactobacilli long-lasting implementation in women with HPV-infections and concomitant bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis might be able to help in solving the viral infection, by re-establishing the original eubiosis. METHODS: A total of 117 women affected by bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis with concomitant HPV-infections were enrolled at Department of Gynecological Obstetrics and Urological Sciences, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy between February 2015 and March 2016...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297829/occurrence-of-pasteurellaceae-bacteria-in-the-oral-cavity-of-selected-marsupial-species
#9
Mie Johanne Hansen, Mads F Bertelsen, Androo Kelly, Anders Miki Bojesen
Eighty-two Pasteurellaceae isolates from marsupials characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences formed five distinct groups. Twenty-one strains from long-nosed potoroos ( Potorous tridactylus apicalis), spotted-tailed quolls ( Dasyurus maculatus), and eastern quolls ( Dasyurus viverrinus) made up group 1, which classified with Frederiksenia canicola. Group 2, 15 strains from Tasmanian devils ( Sarcophilus harrisii), common wombats ( Vombatus ursinus), common ring-tailed possums ( Pseudocheirus peregrinus), and eastern quolls, grouped with Pasteurella multocida...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297500/oral-gut-connection-one-step-closer-to-an-integrated-view-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#10
R Lira-Junior, E A Boström
Although an enrichment of orally derived bacteria is reported in the gut microbiota of patients with several diseases, it is mostly unknown whether oral bacteria can colonize and induce intestinal inflammation. In a recent paper in Science, Atarashi et al.1 from Kenya Honda's laboratory show that a subset of orally derived bacteria colonizes and persists in the gut, leading to activation of the intestinal immune system and subsequent chronic inflammation in a susceptible host. The impact of oral health status as a potential contributor to inflammatory diseases at distal sites of the body deserves consideration...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295502/physiological-translocation-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-pregnancy-contributes-to-the-composition-of-the-milk-microbiota-in-mice
#11
Javier de Andrés, Esther Jiménez, Isabel Chico-Calero, Manuel Fresno, Leónides Fernández, Juan Miguel Rodríguez
The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk...
December 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288512/pretreatment-of-probiotic-bifico-ameliorates-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice-transcriptome-and-gut-flora-profiling
#12
Huan Song, Weiyi Wang, Bo Shen, Hao Jia, Zhaoyuan Hou, Ping Chen, Yunwei Sun
Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a high risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Strategies to block the process from IBD to CAC should be considered. In the experiment, we aim to explore the chemopreventive efficacy of the probiotic cocktail Bifico and its potential mechanism in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Oral pretreatment of Bifico was adopted to evaluate its protective effect. The colorectums of thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were collected and examined for degree of inflammation and tumorigenesis...
December 30, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285925/yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-suppresses-the-chronic-inflammation-and-improves-the-microenvironment-in-adipose-tissues-of-ob-ob-mice
#13
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Bingchao Duan, Mengying Sun, Xiaojuan Xu
Inflammation in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) contributes to the pathology of diabetes. This study focused on the inflammatory regulation in VATs by a yeast β-1,3-glucan (BYG) orally administered to ob/ob mice. BYG decreased pro-inflammatory modulators of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2, and SAA3, and increased anti-inflammatory factors of Azgp1 (2.53±0.02 fold change) at protein and/or mRNA levels (p<0.05). Remarkably, BYG decreased the degree of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltration to 82.5±8...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279259/change-in-gut-microbiota-for-eczema-implications-for-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai, W Pan
Eczema is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, often constituting a lifelong burden for afflicted individuals. The complex interaction of host genetic and multiple environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. A relationship between maladjustment of gut microbiota and eczema has been brought into the light of day in most previous studies. In eczema preclinical models, specific intestinal microbial species have been demonstrated to prohibit or dwindle immune responsiveness, indicating that these strains among commensal gut bacteria may exert either a morbific or phylactic function in eczema progression...
December 23, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278022/recurrent-aphthous-ulceration-a-review-of-potential-causes-and-novel-treatments
#15
Sami Kameel Saikaly, Tanya Siham Saikaly, Lara Elizabeth Saikaly
Purpose of Article: This review examines studies published between May 2012 and May 2017 with a specific interest in potential recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) etiologies and treatment modalities/efficacy, including topical treatments, systemic regimens, vitamin repletion, and laser therapy, among others. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using various combinations of: 'aphthous', 'ulcer', and 'treatment'. The titles and abstracts from the initial literature search were appraised to identify articles for full review, and reference sections from each article were searched manually for relevant publications...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276172/dysbiosis-associated-change-in-host-metabolism-generates-lactate-to-support-salmonella-growth
#16
Caroline C Gillis, Elizabeth R Hughes, Luisella Spiga, Maria G Winter, Wenhan Zhu, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Rachael B Chanin, Cassie L Behrendt, Lora V Hooper, Renato L Santos, Sebastian E Winter
During Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis, mucosal inflammation creates a niche that favors the expansion of the pathogen population over the microbiota. Here, we show that Salmonella Typhimurium infection was accompanied by dysbiosis, decreased butyrate levels, and substantially elevated lactate levels in the gut lumen. Administration of a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor blunted lactate production in germ-free mice, suggesting that lactate was predominantly of host origin. Depletion of butyrate-producing Clostridia, either through oral antibiotic treatment or as part of the pathogen-induced dysbiosis, triggered a switch in host cells from oxidative metabolism to lactate fermentation, increasing both lactate levels and Salmonella lactate utilization...
December 15, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274283/mechanistic-and-structural-insight-into-promiscuity-based-metabolism-of-cardiac-drug-digoxin-by-gut-microbial-enzyme
#17
Kundan Kumar, Shubham K Jaiswal, Gaurao V Dhoke, Gopal N Srivastava, Ashok K Sharma, Vineet K Sharma
The recent advances in microbiome studies have revealed the role of gut microbiota in altering the pharmacological properties of oral drugs, which contributes to patient-response variation and undesired effect of the drug molecule. These studies are essential to guide us for achieving the desired efficacy and pharmacological activity of the existing drug molecule or for discovering novel and more effective therapeutics. However, one of the main limitations is the lack of atomistic details on the binding and metabolism of these drug molecules by gut-microbial enzymes...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273269/extended-pulsed-fidaxomicin-versus-vancomycin-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-60-years-and-older-extend-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-phase-3b-4-trial
#18
Benoit Guery, Francesco Menichetti, Veli-Jukka Anttila, Nicholas Adomakoh, Jose Maria Aguado, Karen Bisnauthsing, Areti Georgopali, Simon D Goldenberg, Andreas Karas, Gbenga Kazeem, Chris Longshaw, Jose Alejandro Palacios-Fabrega, Oliver A Cornely, Maria J G T Vehreschild
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection causes severe complications and frequently recurs. An extended-pulsed fidaxomicin regimen might facilitate sustained clinical cure by prolonging C difficile suppression and supporting gut microbiota recovery. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes of extended-pulsed fidaxomicin with standard vancomycin. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label, superiority study, we recruited hospitalised adults aged 60 years and older with confirmed C difficile infection at 86 European hospitals...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#19
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260763/-optimization-of-wound-healing-by-correction-of-the-oral-microbiota-at-the-stage-of-surgical-treatment-of-tongue-cancer
#20
S N Lebedev, V M Chervinets, A B Davydov, Yu V Chervinets, Yu V Lebedeva, E A Belyaeva
Post-resection wound healing, oral microbiota composition and saliva lysozyme activity were assessed in 36 patients with tongue carcinoma before and after surgery with the local application of 2% solution of acid-diluted chitosan in the postoperative period. The microbiocenosis of the oral cavity before treatment in cancer patients was represented by conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria, whose number is more than 4 lg CFU/cm2, indicating dysbiosis; the lysozyme level was reduced, accounting for 25...
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
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