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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#1
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073366/oral-treatment-with-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-attenuates-behavioural-deficits-and-immune-changes-in-chronic-social-stress
#2
Aadil Bharwani, M Firoz Mian, Michael G Surette, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe
BACKGROUND: Stress-related disorders involve systemic alterations, including disruption of the intestinal microbial community. Given the putative connections between the microbiota, immunity, neural function, and behaviour, we investigated the potential for microbe-induced gut-to-brain signalling to modulate the impact of stress on host behaviour and immunoregulation. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice treated orally over 28 days with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) ™ or vehicle were subjected to chronic social defeat and assessed for alterations in behaviour and immune cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065507/crystal-structure-of-4-6-%C3%AE-glucanotransferase-supports-diet-driven-evolution-of-gh70-enzymes-from-%C3%AE-amylases-in-oral-bacteria
#3
Yuxiang Bai, Joana Gangoiti, Bauke W Dijkstra, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Tjaard Pijning
Food processing and refining has dramatically changed the human diet, but little is known about whether this affected the evolution of enzymes in human microbiota. We present evidence that glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) glucansucrases from lactobacilli, synthesizing α-glucan-type extracellular polysaccharides from sucrose, likely evolved from GH13 starch-acting α-amylases, via GH70 4,6-α-glucanotransferases. The crystal structure of a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase explains the mode of action and unique product specificity of these enzymes...
December 21, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050493/anti-microbial-efficacy-of-soursop-leaf-extract-annona-muricata-on-oral-pathogens-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Bh Mithun Pai, Gururagavendra Rajesh, Ramya Shenoy, Ashwini Rao
INTRODUCTION: Annona muricata also called as Soursop is a, flowering evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America and parts of India. The miracle tree as it is widely known as a natural cancer killer that is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. Based on these miraculous claims, the leaves of these plants were used as an extract at varying concentrations as an antibacterial agent against oral pathogens. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Soursop leaf extarct (Annona muricata) on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049839/gas6-is-a-key-homeostatic-immunological-regulator-of-host-commensal-interactions-in-the-oral-mucosa
#5
Maria Nassar, Yaara Tabib, Tal Capucha, Gabriel Mizraji, Tsipora Nir, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Oded Heyman, Gabriel Nussbaum, Herve Bercovier, Asaf Wilensky, Eran Elinav, Tal Burstyn-Cohen, Avi-Hai Hovav
The oral epithelium contributes to innate immunity and oral mucosal homeostasis, which is critical for preventing local inflammation and the associated adverse systemic conditions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the oral epithelium maintains homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of growth arrest specific 6 (GAS6), a ligand of the TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) receptor family, in regulating oral mucosal homeostasis. Expression of GAS6 was restricted to the outer layers of the oral epithelium...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049206/novel-mechanisms-underlying-the-therapeutic-effect-of-glycomacropeptide-on-allergy-change-in-gut-microbiota-upregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-inhibition-of-mast-cells
#6
Mariela Jiménez, Daniel Cervantes-García, Yualli Haydee Muñoz, Alejandra García, Luis Miguel Haro, Eva Salinas
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic diseases is globally increasing. We have previously described that glycomacropeptide (GMP), a bioactive milk peptide, has therapeutic value in experimental models of skin hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and asthma, as it prevents an excessive T helper type 2 cell immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of GMP on key elements directly involved in the development or control of allergy, in order to improve the precise knowledge about its mechanism of action...
January 4, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030924/identification-of-infectious-microbiota-from-oral-cavity-environment-of-various-population-group-patients-as-a-preventive-approach-to-human-health-risk-factors
#8
Paweł J Zawadzki, Konrad Perkowski, Bohdan Starościak, Wanda Baltaza, Marcin Padzik, Krzysztof Pionkowski, Lidia Chomicz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as risk factors of local and general infections were assessed...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029408/gut-microbiota-and-allergy-asthma-from-pathogenesis-to-new-therapeutic-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Y B Kang, Y Cai, H Zhang
Asthma and atopy, classically associated with hyper-activation of the T helper 2 (Th2) arm of adaptive immunity, are among the most common chronic illnesses worldwide. Emerging evidence relates atopy and asthma to the composition and function of gut microbiota composition. Moreover, certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental models. Although still a relatively nascent field of research, evidence to date suggests that the gut microbiome may represent fertile targets for prevention or management of allergic asthma and other diseases in which adaptive immune dysfunction is a prominent feature...
October 28, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025886/comparative-analysis-of-the-rats-gut-microbiota-composition-in-animals-with-different-ginsenosides-metabolizing-activity
#10
Wei-Wei Dong, Fang-Ling Xuan, Fei-Liang Zhong, Jun Jiang, Songquan Wu, Donghao Li, Lin-Hu Quan
Following oral intake of Panax ginseng, major ginsenosides are metabolized to deglycosylated ginsenosides by gut microbiota before absorption into the blood. As the composition of gut microbiota varies between individuals, metabolic activities are significantly different. We selected 6 rats with low efficiency metabolism (LEM) and 6 rats with high efficiency metabolism (HEM) from 60 rats following oral administration of Panax ginseng extract, and analyzed their gut microbiota composition using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025548/improvement-of-intestinal-immune-cell-function-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-dairy-products
#11
Tomonori Kamiya, Yohei Watanabe, Seiya Makino, Hiroshi Kano, Noriko M Tsuji
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a major component of gut microbiota and are often used as probiotics for fermented foods, such as yoghurt. In this study, we aimed to evaluate immunomodulatory activity of LAB, especially that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ME-552 (ME552) and Streptococcus thermophilus ME-553 (ME553). In vivo/in vitro assay was performed in order to investigate their effects on T cell function. After oral administration of ME553 to C57BL/6 mice, the amount of both interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 17 (IL-17) produced by cluster of differentiation (CD) 4⁺ T cells from Peyer's patches (PPs) were significantly enhanced...
December 23, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018362/visualization-of-probiotic-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-vivo
#12
Takahiro Adachi, Shigeru Kakuta, Yoshiko Aihara, Tomonori Kamiya, Yohei Watanabe, Naomi Osakabe, Naoki Hazato, Atsushi Miyawaki, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Takako Usami, Hajime Karasuyama, Hiromi Kimoto-Nira, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Noriko M Tsuji
Probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus subtilis var. natto, have been shown to modulate immune responses. It is important to understand how probiotic bacteria impact intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), because IECs are the first line of defense at the mucosal surface barrier and their activities substantially affect the gut microenvironment and immunity. However, to date, their precise mechanism remains unknown due to a lack of analytical systems available for live animal models. Recently, we generated a conditional Ca(2+) biosensor Yellow Cameleon (YC3...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013437/exploration-of-bacterial-species-associated-with-the-salivary-microbiome-of-individuals-with-a-low-susceptibility-to-dental-caries
#13
Haruna Yasunaga, Toru Takeshita, Yukie Shibata, Michiko Furuta, Yoshihiro Shimazaki, Sumio Akifusa, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Ichiro Takahashi, Yoshihisa Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: Dental caries is caused by acidogenic plaque microbiota formed on saliva-bathed tooth surfaces, in which multiple organisms act collectively to initiate and expand a cavity. We explored bacterial species associated with the salivary microbiome of individuals with low susceptibility to dental caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bacterial composition of saliva from 19 young adults was analyzed using barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene; we compared 10 caries-experienced (CE) and nine caries-free (CF) individuals...
December 24, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011612/oral-vancomycin-followed-by-fecal-transplantation-versus-tapering-oral-vancomycin-treatment-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Susy S Hota, Valerie Sales, George Tomlinson, Mary Jane Salpeter, Allison McGeer, Bryan Coburn, David S Guttman, Donald E Low, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: Fecal transplantation (FT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but its true effectiveness remains unknown. We compared 14 days of oral vancomycin followed by a single FT by enema with oral vancomycin taper (standard of care) in adult patients experiencing acute recurrence of CDI. METHODS: In a phase 2/3, single-center, open-label trial, participants from Ontario, Canada, experiencing recurrence of CDI were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 14 days of oral vancomycin treatment followed by a single 500-mL FT by enema, or a 6-week taper of oral vancomycin...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009106/metabolic-effects-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Reza Mobini, Valentina Tremaroli, Marcus Ståhlman, Fredrik Karlsson, Max Levin, Maria Ljungberg, Maja Sohlin, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Rosie Perkins, Fredrik Bäckhed, Per-Anders Jansson
AIMS: To investigate the metabolic effects of 12-week oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind trial, we randomized 46 patients with type 2 diabetes to placebo or a low (10(8) CFU/day) or high dose (10(10) CFU/day) of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the effect of supplementation on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (assessed by glucose clamp), liver fat content, body composition, body fat distribution, fecal microbiota composition and serum bile acids...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008783/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-ncdc17-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes-by-improving-gut-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-and-streptozotocintreated-rats
#16
S Singh, R K Sharma, S Malhotra, R Pothuraju, U K Shandilya
Restoration of dysbiosed gut microbiota through probiotic may have profound effect on type 2 diabetes. In the present study, rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks and injected with low dose streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. Diabetic rats were then fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17 and L. rhamnosus GG with HFD for six weeks. L. rhamnosus NCDC 17 improved oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver), bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in cecum, expression of glucagon like peptide-1 producing genes in cecum, and adiponection in epididymal fat, while decreased propionate proportions (%) in caecum, and expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and interlukin-6 in epididymal fat of diabetic rats as compared to diabetes control group...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006907/differences-in-metabolism-of-ellagitannins-by-human-gut-microbiota-ex-vivo-cultures
#17
Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Joanna Stefańska, Anna K Kiss
Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are used as popular remedies in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Urolithins are gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins and are considered responsible for in vivo health effects. Various natural products have been studied that are known sources of urolithins. However, few studies have focused on the metabolism of ellagitannin molecules. The aim of the study was to examine the metabolic fate of select ellagitannins using ex vivo cultures of human gut microbiota...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005295/antibiotics-in-endodontics-a-review
#18
REVIEW
J J Segura-Egea, K Gould, B Hakan Şen, P Jonasson, E Cotti, A Mazzoni, H Sunay, L Tjäderhane, P M H Dummer
The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibiotics to deal with oral and dental infections. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on the indications and use of antibiotics and to make recommendations for their prescription in endodontic patients. Odontogenic infections, including endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, and in most cases, the prescription of antibiotics is empirical...
December 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000190/-short-term-efficacy-on-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-combined-with-soluble-dietary-fiber-and-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-slow-transit-constipation
#19
Xiaolong Ge, Chao Ding, Jianfeng Gong, Hongliang Tian, Yao Wei, Qiyi Chen, Lili Gu, Ning Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) combined with soluble dietary fiber and probiotics for slow transit constipation(STC). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with STC from Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University were prospectively enrolled between April 2015 and January 2016. STC patients received FMT combined with soluble dietary fiber and probiotics. Fresh stool(100 g) was immediately mixed in a blender with 500 ml of 0...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999436/food-allergy-and-the-gut
#20
REVIEW
Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Hania Szajewska, Gideon Lack
Food allergy develops as a consequence of a failure in oral tolerance, which is a default immune response by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues to ingested antigens that is modified by the gut microbiota. Food allergy is classified on the basis of the involvement of IgE antibodies in allergic pathophysiology, either as classic IgE, mixed pathophysiology or non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy include emesis, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dysphagia, food impaction, protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive...
December 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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