keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pseudoobscura

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233985/mating-system-manipulation-and-the-evolution-of-sex-biased-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#1
Paris Veltsos, Yongxiang Fang, Andrew R Cossins, Rhonda R Snook, Michael G Ritchie
Sex differences in dioecious animals are pervasive and result from gene expression differences. Elevated sexual selection has been predicted to increase the number and expression of male-biased genes, and experimentally imposing monogamy on Drosophila melanogaster has led to a relative feminisation of the transcriptome. Here, we test this hypothesis further by subjecting another polyandrous species, D. pseudoobscura, to 150 generations of experimental monogamy or elevated polyandry. We find that sex-biased genes do change in expression but, contrary to predictions, there is usually masculinisation of the transcriptome under monogamy, although this depends on tissue and sex...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187965/the-role-of-species-specific-sensory-cues-in-male-responses-to-mating-rivals-in-drosophila-melanogaster-fruitflies
#2
Amanda Bretman, James Rouse, James D Westmancoat, Tracey Chapman
Complex sets of cues can be important in recognizing and responding to conspecific mating competitors and avoiding potentially costly heterospecific competitive interactions. Within Drosophila melanogaster, males can detect sensory inputs from conspecifics to assess the level of competition. They respond to rivals by significantly extending mating duration and gain significant fitness benefits from doing so. Here, we tested the idea that the multiple sensory cues used by D. melanogaster males to detect conspecifics also function to minimize "off-target" responses to heterospecific males that they might encounter (Drosophila simulans, Drosophila yakuba, Drosophila pseudoobscura, or Drosophila virilis)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109277/gut-microbiomes-and-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#3
Philip T Leftwich, Naomi V E Clarke, Matthew I Hutchings, Tracey Chapman
Experimental studies of the evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) in real time are a powerful way in which to reveal fundamental, early processes that initiate divergence. In a classic speciation experiment, populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura were subjected to divergent dietary selection and evolved significant positive assortative mating by diet. More recently, a direct role for the gut microbiome in determining this type of RI in Drosophila melanogaster has been proposed. Manipulation of the diet, and hence the gut microbiome, was reported to result in immediate assortative mating by diet, which could be eliminated by reducing gut microbes using antibiotics and recreated by adding back Lactobacillus plantarum We suggest that the evolutionary significance of this result is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055159/genomics-of-natural-populations-evolutionary-forces-that-establish-and-maintain-gene-arrangements-in-drosophila-pseudoobscura
#4
Zachary L Fuller, Gwilym D Haynes, Stephen Richards, Stephen W Schaeffer
The evolution of complex traits in heterogeneous environments may shape the order of genes within chromosomes. Drosophila pseudoobscura has a rich gene arrangement polymorphism that allows one to test evolutionary genetic hypotheses about how chromosomal inversions are established in populations. D. pseudoobscura has >30 gene arrangements on a single chromosome that were generated through a series of overlapping inversion mutations with > 10 inversions with appreciable frequencies and wide geographic distributions...
October 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769666/first-canadian-records-of-genera-apimela-mulsant-rey-and-gyronycha-casey-from-new-brunswick-description-of-two-new-species-and-new-provincial-distribution-records-coleoptera-staphylinidae-aleocharinae
#5
Jan Klimaszewski, Reginald P Webster, Adriano Zanetti, Caroline Bourdon
Two genera, Apimela Mulsant & Rey and Gyronycha Casey (both Aleocharinae: Oxypodini: Meoticina), are recorded from New Brunswick and Canada for the first time. The following species are newly recorded or described as new in New Brunswick and Canada: Apimela fusciceps (Casey); A. canadensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.; and Gyronycha pseudoobscura Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The genera are defined and the key for species identification is provided. Color habitus images and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, tergite, and sternite VIII are provided for all species occurring in Canada, and Apimela macella (Erichson), the type species of genus Apimela, and G...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322435/genomic-changes-following-the-reversal-of-a-y-chromosome-to-an-autosome-in-drosophila-pseudoobscura
#6
Ching-Ho Chang, Amanda M Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10-15 Mya...
May 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286046/rudimentary-expression-of-ryamide-in-drosophila-melanogaster-relative-to-other-drosophila-species-points-to-a-functional-decline-of-this-neuropeptide-gene
#7
Jan A Veenstra, Hela Khammassi
RYamides are arthropod neuropeptides with unknown function. In 2011 two RYamides were isolated from D. melanogaster as the ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor CG5811. The D. melanogaster gene encoding these neuropeptides is highly unusual, as there are four RYamide encoding exons in the current genome assembly, but an exon encoding a signal peptide is absent. Comparing the D. melanogaster gene structure with those from other species, including D. virilis, suggests that the gene is degenerating. RNAseq data from 1634 short sequence read archives at NCBI containing more than 34 billion spots yielded numerous individual spots that correspond to the RYamide encoding exons, of which a large number include the intron-exon boundary at the start of this exon...
April 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116047/remating-responses-are-consistent-with-male-postcopulatory-manipulation-but-not-reinforcement-in-d-%C3%A2-pseudoobscura
#8
Jeremy S Davis, Dean M Castillo, Leonie C Moyle
Reinforcement occurs when hybridization between closely related lineages produces low-fitness offspring, prompting selection for elevated reproductive isolation specifically in areas of sympatry. Both premating and postmating prezygotic behaviors have been shown to be the target of reinforcing selection, but it remains unclear whether remating behaviors experience reinforcement, although they can also influence offspring identity and limit formation of hybrids. Here, we evaluated evidence for reinforcing selection on remating behaviors in Drosophila pseudoobscura, by comparing remating traits in females from populations historically allopatric and sympatric with Drosophila persimilis...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078516/dense-gene-physical-maps-of-the-non-model-species-drosophila-subobscura
#9
Dorcas J Orengo, Eva Puerma, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra, Montserrat Aguadé
The comparative analysis of genetic and physical maps as well as of whole genome sequences had revealed that in the Drosophila genus, most structural rearrangements occurred within chromosomal elements as a result of paracentric inversions. Genome sequence comparison would seem the best method to estimate rates of chromosomal evolution, but the high-quality reference genomes required for this endeavor are still scanty. Here, we have obtained dense physical maps for Muller elements A, C, and E of Drosophila subobscura, a species with an extensively studied rich and adaptive chromosomal polymorphism...
June 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007886/different-evolutionary-strategies-to-conserve-chromatin-boundary-function-in-the-bithorax-complex
#10
Fabienne Cleard, Daniel Wolle, Andrew M Taverner, Tsutomu Aoki, Girish Deshpande, Peter Andolfatto, Francois Karch, Paul Schedl
Chromatin boundary elements subdivide chromosomes in multicellular organisms into physically independent domains. In addition to this architectural function, these elements also play a critical role in gene regulation. Here we investigated the evolution of a Drosophila Bithorax complex boundary element called Fab-7, which is required for the proper parasegment specific expression of the homeotic Abd-B gene. Using a "gene" replacement strategy, we show that Fab-7 boundaries from two closely related species, D...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994208/the-genus-drosophila-is-characterized-by-a-large-number-of-sibling-species-showing-evolutionary-significance
#11
REVIEW
Bashisth N Singh
Mayr (1942) defined sibling species as sympatric forms which are morphologically very similar or indistinguishable, but which possess specific biological characteristics and are reproductively isolated. Another term, cryptic species has also been used for such species. However, this concept changed later. Sibling species are as similar as twins. This category does not necessarily include phylogenetic siblings as members of a superspecies. Since the term sibling species was defined by Mayr, a large number of cases of sibling species pairs/groups have been reported and thus they are widespread in the animal kingdom...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960619/we-also-canfly-the-2nd-mexfly-drosophila-research-conference
#12
Fanis Missirlis, Marcos Nahmad
The 2nd Mexican Drosophila Research Conference (MexFly) took place on June 30th and July 1st, 2016 in Mexico City, at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav). Principal investigators, postdocs, students, and technicians from Drosophila labs across Mexico attended. The guest speaker was Chris Rushlow from New York University, who presented work on Zelda, a key transcriptional activator of the early zygotic genome. Here we provide a brief report of the meeting, which sketches the present landscape of Drosophila research in Mexico...
April 3, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897175/accelerated-pseudogenization-on-the-neo-x-chromosome-in-drosophila-miranda
#13
Masafumi Nozawa, Kanako Onizuka, Mai Fujimi, Kazuho Ikeo, Takashi Gojobori
Y chromosomes often degenerate via the accumulation of pseudogenes and transposable elements. By contrast, little is known about X-chromosome degeneration. Here we compare the pseudogenization process between genes on the neo-sex chromosomes in Drosophila miranda and their autosomal orthologues in closely related species. The pseudogenization rate on the neo-X is much lower than the rate on the neo-Y, but appears to be higher than the rate on the orthologous autosome in D. pseudoobscura. Genes under less functional constraint and/or genes with male-biased expression tend to become pseudogenes on the neo-X, indicating the accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations and the feminization of the neo-X...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760228/mistaken-identity-another-bias-in-the-use-of-relative-genetic-divergence-measures-for-detecting-interspecies-introgression
#14
Kathryn R Ritz, Mohamed A F Noor
Measures of genetic divergence have long been used to identify evolutionary processes operating within and between species. However, recent reviews have described a bias in the use of relative divergence measures towards incorrectly identifying genomic regions that are seemingly immune to introgression. Here, we present a novel and opposite bias of relative divergence measures: misidentifying regions of introgression between sister species. We examine two distinct haplotypes of intermediate frequency within Drosophila pseudoobscura at the DPSX009 locus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535930/repeated-duplication-of-argonaute2-is-associated-with-strong-selection-and-testis-specialization-in-drosophila
#15
Samuel H Lewis, Claire L Webster, Heli Salmela, Darren J Obbard
Argonaute2 (Ago2) is a rapidly evolving nuclease in the Drosophila melanogaster RNA interference (RNAi) pathway that targets viruses and transposable elements in somatic tissues. Here we reconstruct the history of Ago2 duplications across the D. obscura group and use patterns of gene expression to infer new functional specialization. We show that some duplications are old, shared by the entire species group, and that losses may be common, including previously undetected losses in the lineage leading to D. pseudoobscura We find that while the original (syntenic) gene copy has generally retained the ancestral ubiquitous expression pattern, most of the novel Ago2 paralogs have independently specialized to testis-specific expression...
October 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527791/potential-direct-regulators-of-the-drosophila-yellow-gene-identified-by-yeast-one-hybrid-and-rnai-screens
#16
Gizem Kalay, Richard Lusk, Mackenzie Dome, Korneel Hens, Bart Deplancke, Patricia J Wittkopp
The regulation of gene expression controls development, and changes in this regulation often contribute to phenotypic evolution. Drosophila pigmentation is a model system for studying evolutionary changes in gene regulation, with differences in expression of pigmentation genes such as yellow that correlate with divergent pigment patterns among species shown to be caused by changes in cis- and trans-regulation. Currently, much more is known about the cis-regulatory component of divergent yellow expression than the trans-regulatory component, in part because very few trans-acting regulators of yellow expression have been identified...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516612/hubby-and-lewontin-on-protein-variation-in-natural-populations-when-molecular-genetics-came-to-the-rescue-of-population-genetics
#17
Brian Charlesworth, Deborah Charlesworth, Jerry A Coyne, Charles H Langley
The 1966 GENETICS papers by John Hubby and Richard Lewontin were a landmark in the study of genome-wide levels of variability. They used the technique of gel electrophoresis of enzymes and proteins to study variation in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura, at a set of loci that had been chosen purely for technical convenience, without prior knowledge of their levels of variability. Together with the independent study of human populations by Harry Harris, this seminal study provided the first relatively unbiased picture of the extent of genetic variability in protein sequences within populations, revealing that many genes had surprisingly high levels of diversity...
August 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513559/comparative-genomic-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-heterochromatin-in-drosophila
#18
Ruggiero Caizzi, Roberta Moschetti, Lucia Piacentini, Laura Fanti, Renè Massimiliano Marsano, Patrizio Dimitri
The term heterochromatin has been long considered synonymous with gene silencing, but it is now clear that the presence of transcribed genes embedded in pericentromeric heterochromatin is a conserved feature in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. Several studies have addressed the epigenetic changes that enable the expression of genes in pericentric heterochromatin, yet little is known about the evolutionary processes through which this has occurred. By combining genome annotation analysis and high-resolution cytology, we have identified and mapped 53 orthologs of D...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512614/genomic-and-expression-analysis-of-transition-proteins-in-drosophila
#19
Zain A Alvi, Tin-Chun Chu, Valerie Schawaroch, Angela V Klaus
The current study was aimed at analyzing putative protein sequences of the transition protein-like proteins in 12 Drosophila species based on the reference sequences of transition protein-like protein (Tpl (94D) ) expressed in Drosophila melanogaster sperm nuclei. Transition proteins aid in transforming chromatin from a histone-based nucleosome structure to a protamine-based structure during spermiogenesis - the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis. Sequences were obtained from NCBI Ref-Seq database using NCBI ORF-Finder (PSI-BLAST)...
September 2015: Spermatogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432989/union-of-phylogeography-and-landscape-genetics
#20
Leslie J Rissler
Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
keyword
keyword
66077
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"