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Hsin-Liang Huang, Yu Jhe Wei
By synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, chemical structures of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))/trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) adsorbed on humic acid (HA)-zeolite Y and extracted in an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4])) have been studied. By combining the competitive adsorption results and reduction of Cr(VI)-HA with the carboxyl groups of HA, Cr(III)-HA (58%) was shown to be the major compound in HA-zeolite Y using synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy...
November 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Jie Deng, Jennifer Auchtung, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Alejandro Caro-Quintero, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred Höfle, James M Tiedje
Niche partitioning and sequence evolution drive genomic and phenotypic divergence, which ultimately leads to bacterial diversification. This study investigated genomic composition of two Shewanella baltica clades previously identified through multi-locus sequencing typing and recovered from the redox transition zone in the central Baltic Sea. Comparative genomic analysis revealed significantly higher inter- than intra-clade genomic dissimilarity, and that a subset of genes present in Clade A were associated with potential adaptation to respiration of sulfur compounds present in the redox-transition zone...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Félicien Tosso, Olivier J Hardy, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Esra Kaymak, Jérémy Migliore
Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Seul Gi Lee, Jinhye Kim, Hyunjoon Park, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Kwang-Won Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jennifer E Halstead, James A Smith, Elizabeth A Carter, Peter A Lay, Emma L Johnston
Microplastics and fibres occur in high concentrations along urban coastlines, but the occurrence of microplastic ingestion by fishes in these areas requires further investigation. Herein, the ingestion of debris (i.e., synthetic and natural fibres and synthetic fragments of various polymer types) by three benthic-foraging fish species Acanthopagrus australis (yellowfin bream), Mugil cephalus (sea mullet) and Gerres subfasciatus (silverbiddy) in Sydney Harbour, Australia has been quantified and chemically speciated by vibrational spectroscopy to identify the polymer type...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ruben Vera, Clàudia Fontàs, Josep Galceran, Olga Serra, Enriqueta Anticó
Metal speciation studies can be performed with a new technique based on a functionalized membrane. The estimation of not only the total amount of metal, but also the metal available to living organisms is very important. In this context, we have investigated the use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) in a new tool for the determination of free metal ion concentration. In order to check the usefulness of PIM devices in metal speciation studies and metal availability to potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), Zn has been chosen as a case study...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fang Liu, Wilfred Chen, Nosang V Myung
Traditional methods for fabricating nanoscale arrays are usually based on lithographic techniques while alternative new approaches rely on the use of nanoscale templates made of synthetic or biological materials. Here, gold (Au) nanocrystals were grown on the surface of the microbiologically formed As-S nanotubes through the process of galvanic displacement. The size and organization of the synthesized Au nanocrystals were affected by the pH dependent speciation of HAuCl4 precursors as well as the initial ratio of As-S/HAuCl4...
December 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
Lingling Jin, Ian McQuillan, Longhai Li
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are interspersed DNA sequences that can move or copy to new positions within a genome. TEs are believed to promote speciation and their activities play a significant role in human disease. In the human genome, the 22 AluY and 6 AluS TE subfamilies have been the most recently active, and their transposition has been implicated in many inherited human diseases and in various forms of cancer. Therefore, understanding their transposition activity is very important and identifying the factors that affect their transpositional activity is of great interest...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
Keita Omote, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Chizuko Nishida, Keisuke Saito, Satoshi Fujimoto, Ryuichi Masuda
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) includes many genes that are essential for the adaptive immune system, and variation in the antigen binding site (ABS) is related to resistance against pathogens. In the present study, quantitative real-time PCR indicated a larger number of MHC gene copies in the endangered population of Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) than in five other owl species, and massively parallel pyrosequencing detected more MHC class IIβ per individual alleles in B. blakistoni than in the other species...
December 2017: Zoological Science
Qing-Long Fu, Nanyan Weng, Manabu Fujii, Dong-Mei Zhou
Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Jennifer Gonzales, Teresa Tymon, Frithjof C Küpper, Matthew S Edwards, Carl J Carrano
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180755.].
2017: PloS One
Maryam Delavarrafiee, H Christopher Frey
Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) typically operate on gasoline or E85, an 85%/15% volume blend of ethanol and gasoline, E85. Differences in FFV fuel use and tailpipe emission rates are quantified for E85 versus gasoline based on real-world measurements of five FFVs with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), supplemented chassis dynamometer data and estimates from the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model. Because of inter-vehicle variability, an individual FFV may have higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) or carbon monoxide (CO) emission rates on E85 versus gasoline, even though average rates are lower...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Nombuso P Ngubane, Leanne L Dreyer, Kenneth C Oberlander, Francois Roets
The inflorescences and infructescences of African Protea trees provide habitat for a large diversity of Sporothrix species. Here we describe two additional members, Sporothrix nsini sp. nov. and Sporothrix smangaliso sp. nov., that are associated with the infructescences of various Protea species from grasslands and savannas in the KwaZulu-Natal, North-West, Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. Their description raises the number of described Protea-associated Sporothrix species to twelve. S. smangaliso sp...
December 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Allie M Graham, Philip Lavretsky, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Andy J Green, Robert E Wilson, Kevin G McCracken
Local adaptation frequently occurs across populations as a result of migration-selection balance between divergent selective pressures and gene flow associated with life in heterogeneous landscapes. Studying the effects of selection and gene flow on the adaptation process can be achieved in systems that have recently colonized extreme environments. This study utilizes an endemic South American duck species, the speckled teal (Anas flavirostris), which has both high- and low-altitude populations. High-altitude speckled teal (A...
December 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Elise Eymard-Vernain, Cécile Lelong, Ana Elena Pradas Del Real, Romain Soulas, Sarah Bureau, Vanessa Isabel Tardillo Suarez, Benoit Gallet, Olivier Proux, Hiram A Castillo-Michel, Géraldine Sarret
Sulfidation is a key process for silver nanoparticles released from consumer products in the environment. This study focuses on the impact of a model soil microorganism, Bacillus subtilis, on the fate of pristine and already sulfidized Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were incubated with the initial growth medium, isolated secretome and living bacteria, and characterized for their size and morphology, agglomeration state, structure and Ag speciation. No Ag internalization or sorption on the cell wall was detected...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Victoria E Sepúlveda, Roberto Márquez, David A Turissini, William E Goldman, Daniel R Matute
Histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus that causes life-threatening lung infections. About 500,000 people are exposed to H. capsulatum each year in the United States, and over 60% of the U.S. population has been exposed to the fungus at some point in their life. We performed genome-wide population genetics and phylogenetic analyses with 30 Histoplasma isolates representing four recognized areas where histoplasmosis is endemic and show that the Histoplasma genus is composed of at least four species that are genetically isolated and rarely interbreed...
December 5, 2017: MBio
Chao Tong, Fei Tian, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies on highland adaptation mechanism in terrestrial animal have been widely reported with few available for aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae species are ideal model systems to study speciation and adaptation of fish. The Schizothoracine fish, Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis had underwent the ecological niche shift from salt water to freshwater, and also experienced a recent split from Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii. In addition, G. p. ganzihonensis inhabited harsh aquatic environment including low temperature and hypoxia as well as other Schizothoracinae species, its genetic mechanism of highland adaptation have yet to be determined...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
Emanuele Pallozzi, Ilaria Lusini, Lucia Cherubini, Ramilla A Hajiaghayeva, Paolo Ciccioli, Carlo Calfapietra
In the Mediterranean ecosystem, wildfires are very frequent and the predicted future with a probable increase of fires could drastically modify the vegetation scenarios. Vegetation fires are an important source of gases and primary emissions of fine carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. In this paper, we present gaseous and particulate emissions data from the combustion of different plant tissues (needles/leaves, branches and needle/leaf litter), obtained from one conifer (Pinus halepensis) and one deciduous broadleaf tree (Quercus pubescens)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ting Zhang, Shelby L Brantley, Dominique Verreault, Raja Dhankani, Steven A Corcelli, Heather Cecile Allen
The pH-induced surface speciation of organic surfactants such as fatty acids and phospholipids in monolayers and coatings is considered to be an important factor controlling their interfacial organization and properties. Yet, correctly predicting the surface speciation requires the determination of the surface dissociation constants (surface-pKa) of the protic functional group(s) present. Here, we use three independent methods, compression isotherms, surface tension pH titration, and infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) to study the protonation state of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) monolayers on water and NaCl solutions...
December 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Serena E Dool, Sven Künzel, Martin Haase, Mike D Picker, Monika J B Eberhard
The recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea currently comprises 19 Southern African species. These mainly occur in allopatry, have high levels of colour polymorphism and communicate via species- and gender-specific vibratory signals. High levels of interspecific morphological conservatism mean that cryptic species are likely to be uncovered. These aspects of Mantophasmatodean biology make them an ideal group in which to investigate population divergence due to habitat-specific adaptation, sexual selection and potentially sensory speciation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
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