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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346904/single-particle-mass-spectral-signatures-from-vehicle-exhaust-particles-and-the-source-apportionment-of-on-line-pm2-5-by-single-particle-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#1
Jian Yang, Shexia Ma, Bo Gao, Xiaoying Li, Yanjun Zhang, Jing Cai, Mei Li, Ling'ai Yao, Bo Huang, Mei Zheng
In order to accurately apportion the many distinct types of individual particles observed, it is necessary to characterize fingerprints of individual particles emitted directly from known sources. In this study, single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles in a tunnel were performed. These data were used to evaluate particle signatures in a real-world PM2.5 apportionment study. The dominant chemical type originating from average positive and negative mass spectra for vehicle exhaust particles are EC species...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346552/incorporation-of-vanadium-into-the-framework-of-hydroxyapatites-importance-of-the-vanadium-content-and-ph-conditions-during-the-precipitation-step
#2
Sarah Petit, Thrimurthulu Gode, Cyril Thomas, Stanislaw Dzwigaj, Yannick Millot, Dalil Brouri, Jean-Marc Krafft, Gwenaelle Rousse, Christel Laberty-Robert, Guylène Costentin
Even though vanadium-modified hydroxyapatite (V-HAp) samples are very promising systems for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, the incorporation of vanadium into the hydroxyapatite framework was reported to be limited and to lead to over-stoichiometric compounds. Here, the synthesis of a Ca10(PO4)6-x(VO4)x(OH)2 stoichiometric solid solution using a co-precipitation method is monitored in the whole composition range (0 ≤ x ≤ 6) by controlling the pH of the precipitation medium, with continuous (the first series of samples) or periodic (the second series of samples) addition of NH4OH during the precipitation step or during the maturation step, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345963/accumulation-and-speciation-of-cd-in-avicennia-marina-tissues
#3
Li Jian, Yan Chongling, Du Daolin, Lu Haoliang, Liu Jingchun
Avicennia marina is a high Cd tolerant species in the mangrove wetlands. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to research the accumulation and chemical form distribution of Cd in the tissues of A. marina under different concentration and time of Cd stress. It was found that the concentrations of Cd in plant tissues followed the order of root> stem>leaf. The data suggested that root activity decreased, Cd accumulation ability weakened in roots and the Translocation Factor increased in stems and leaves with the increase of stress time...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345182/can-genomic-data-alone-tell-us-whether-speciation-happened-with-gene-flow
#4
Ming Yang, Ziwen He, Suhua Shi, Chung-I Wu
The allopatric model, which requires a period of geographical isolation for speciation to complete, has been the standard model in the modern era. Recently, "speciation with gene flow" has been widely discussed in relation to the model of "strict allopatry" and the level of DNA divergence across genomic regions. We wish to caution that genomic data by themselves may only permit the rejection of the simplest form of allopatry. Even a slightly more complex and realistic model that starts with sub-divided populations would be impossible to reject by the genomic data alone...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345104/biology-and-toxicology-of-tellurium-explored-by-speciation-analysis
#5
Yasumitsu Ogra
Tellurium (Te) is widely used in industry because it has unique physicochemical properties. Although Te is a non-essential element in animals and plants, it is expected to be metabolized to organometallic compounds having a carbon-Te bond in living organisms exposed to inorganic Te compounds. Thus, the speciation and identification of tellurometabolites are expected to contribute to the depiction of the metabolic chart of Te. Speciation by elemental mass spectrometry and identification by molecular mass spectrometry coupled with separation techniques have significantly contributed to the discovery of tellurometabolites in animals and plants...
March 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344106/molecular-phylogenetic-relationships-reveal-contrasting-evolutionary-patterns-in-gorgoniidae-octocorallia-in-the-eastern-pacific
#6
M M Soler-Hurtado, P J López-González, A Machordom
The description and delimitation of species in an evolutionary framework is essential for understanding patterns of biodiversity and distribution, and in the assessment of conservation strategies for natural resources. This study seeks to clarify the evolutionary history and genetic variation within and between closely related octocoral species that are fundamental to benthic marine ecosystems for harbouring a high diversity of associated fauna. For our study system, we focused on members of the Gorgoniidae family in the Eastern Pacific, particularly of the Ecuadorian littoral, a less studied marine ecosystem...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344097/whence-river-blindness-the-domestication-of-mammals-and-host-parasite-co-evolution-in-the-nematode-genus-onchocerca
#7
Emilie Lefoulon, Alessio Giannelli, Benjamin L Makepeace, Yasen Mutafchiev, Simon Townson, Shigehiko Uni, Guilherme G Verocai, Domenico Otranto, Coralie Martin
The genus Onchocerca includes 34 described species and represents one of the largest genera of the filarial nematodes within the family Onchocercidae. Representative members of this genus are mainly parasites of ungulates, with some exceptions such as Onchocerca lupi and Onchocerca volvulus, infecting carnivores and/or humans. For a long time, the evolutionary relationships amongst onchocercids remained poorly studied, as the systematics of this genus was impaired by the high morphological variability of species included in the taxon...
March 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343716/transformation-of-zinc-concentrate-in-surface-and-subsurface-environments-implications-for-assessing-zinc-mobility-toxicity-and%C3%A2-choosing-an-optimal-remediation-strategy
#8
Man Jae Kwon, Maxim I Boyanov, Jung-Seok Yang, Seunghak Lee, Yun Ho Hwang, Ju Yeon Lee, Bhoopesh Mishra, Kenneth M Kemner
Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS)...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343393/selenium-bioaccessibility-and-speciation-in-selenium-enriched-lettuce-investigation-of-the-selenocompounds-liberated-after-in-vitro-simulated-human-digestion-using-two-dimensional-hplc-icp-ms
#9
Emanueli DO Nascimento DA Silva, Federica Aureli, Marilena D'Amato, Andrea Raggi, Solange Cadore, Francesco Cubadda
The evaluation of selenium-enriched vegetables as potential dietary sources of selenium, an essential element for humans, requires an assessment of the plant accumulation ability as well as of the bioaccessibility and speciation of the accumulated selenium, which influence its biological effects in humans. Lettuce hydroponically grown at three selenite (SeVI)/selenate (SeIV) amendment levels was characterized accordingly. Selenium accumulation in lettuce leaves was greatest with Se(VI) amendment, whereas bioaccessibility was 70% on average in both cases...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343020/selenium-speciation-influences-bioaccumulation-in-limnodynastes-peronii-tadpoles
#10
C M Lanctôt, S D Melvin, T Cresswell
Despite being essential for animal health and fitness, Se has a relatively narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and excess Se can cause a variety of adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants during larval aquatic life stage, because they can accumulate toxic ions through various routes including skin, gills, lungs and digestive tract. Few attempts have been made to understand the tissue-specific accumulation of trace elements, including the impacts of chemical speciation in developing amphibian larvae...
March 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342548/in-situ-reactive-zone-with-modified-mg-oh-2-for-remediation-of-heavy-metal-polluted-groundwater-immobilization-and-interaction-of-cr-iii-pb-ii-and-cd-ii
#11
Jun Dong, Bowen Li, Qiburi Bao
Mg(OH)2 dissolves slowly and can provide a long-term source of alkalinity, thus a promising alternative reagent for the in situ remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater. However, the application of Mg(OH)2 on in situ reactive zone (IRZ) for heavy metal polluted groundwater has never been investigated. In this study, the behaviors of heavy metals in a Mg(OH)2 IRZ were monitored for 45d. The heavy metals show a sequential precipitation by modified Mg(OH)2 due to the difference of Ksp. Column tests were conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals in Mg(OH)2 IRZ and evaluate the stabilization effect for multi-heavy metal polluted groundwater...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340993/antimony-speciation-as-geochemical-tracer-for-anthropogenic-emissions-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#12
Daniel Sánchez-Rodas, Louay Alsioufi, Ana M Sánchez de la Campa, Yolanda González-Castanedo
The chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has been studied at the cities of Cordoba and Granada (South of Spain) between 2007 and 2013, considering urban background, traffic and industrial monitoring stations. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that geochemical anomalies observed in the ambient air of Cordoba (mainly Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) are closely related to the geochemical profile obtained from fugitive metallurgy emissions of brass industries. These findings have been confirmed performing an Sb speciation analysis of PM10 samples, which allowed to distinguish between Sb(III) and Sb(V)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340780/development-of-a-robust-fast-screening-method-for-the-potentiometric-determination-of-iodide-in-urine-and-salt-samples
#13
Ana Machado, Raquel B R Mesquita, Sara Oliveira, Adriano A Bordalo
In this work, a potentiometric flow injection method is described for the fast bi-parametric determination of iodide and iodate in urine and salt samples. The developed methodology aimed for iodine speciation with a potentially portable system (running on batteries). The iodate reduction to iodide was effectively attained in line within the same manifold. The iodide determination was accomplished in the dynamic range of 2.50×10(-6)-1.00×10(-3)M and the total iodine dynamic range, resulted from iodide plus iodate, was 3...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340756/simultaneous-quantification-of-iodine-and-high-valent-metals-via-icp-ms-under-acidic-conditions-in-complex-matrices
#14
Kristina Brix, Christina Hein, Jonas Michael Sander, Ralf Kautenburger
The determination of iodine as a main fission product (especially the isotopes I-129 and I-131) of stored HLW in a disposal beside its distribution as a natural ingredient of many different products like milk, food and seawater is a matter of particular interest. The simultaneous ICP-MS determination of iodine as iodide together with other elements (especially higher valent metal ions) relevant for HLW is analytically very problematic. A reliable ICP-MS quantification of iodide must be performed at neutral or alkaline conditions in contrast to the analysis of metal ions which are determined in acidic pH ranges...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339058/toenail-selenium-as-an-indicator-of-environmental-exposure-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Tommaso Filippini, Angela Ferrari, Bernhard Michalke, Peter Grill, Luciano Vescovi, Chiara Salvia, Carlotta Malagoli, Marcella Malavolti, Sabina Sieri, Vittorio Krogh, Annalisa Bargellini, Antonio Martino, Margherita Ferrante, Marco Vinceti
The relation between toxicity and essentiality of selenium (Se) is of growing interest in human health, as the effects may widely differ depending of its different chemical species and the exposure levels. Toenail Se has been proposed as a reliable biomarker of long-term Se exposure, but few studies investigated the correlation between its toenail content and environmental determinants (i.e., dietary food intake). We aimed to determine the relation of toenail Se levels with serum Se species as well as food items...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337988/molecular-heterogeneity-in-major-urinary-proteins-of-mus-musculus-subspecies-potential-candidates-involved-in-speciation
#16
Jane L Hurst, Robert J Beynon, Stuart D Armstrong, Amanda J Davidson, Sarah A Roberts, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Carole M Smadja, Guila Ganem
When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337395/isolation-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-loci-for-smilax-sieboldii-smilacaceae
#17
Yalu Ru, Ruijing Cheng, Jing Shang, Yunpeng Zhao, Pan Li, Chengxin Fu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Smilax sieboldii (Smilacaceae), a member of the S. hispida group with a biogeographic disjunction between eastern Asia and North America, to study the phylogeography and incipient speciation of this species and its close relatives. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transcriptome sequencing produced 47,628 unigenes. Seventeen loci were developed from 122 randomly selected primer pairs. Polymorphism and genetic variation were evaluated for 68 accessions representing five populations of S...
March 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337116/assessment-of-usefulness-of-synchrotron-radiation-techniques-to-determine-arsenic-species-in-hair-and-rice-grain-samples
#18
Jun Lin, Guo-Fang Lin, Yu-Lan Li, Xiao-Yan Gao, Hui Du, Chao-Gang Jia, Hong-Chao Lu, Klaus Golka, Jian-Hua Shen
The arseniasis in Southwest Guizhou, China has been identified as a unique case of endemic arseniasis caused by exposure to indoor combustion of high As-content coal. Present investigation targeted the microdistribution and speciation of the element arsenic in human hair and environmental samples collected in one of the hyper-endemic villages of arseniasis in the area. Analyses were performed by micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The total As level in hair samples of diagnosed patients was detected at almost the same level as in their asymptomatic neighbors...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336840/spectroscopic-characterization-of-copper-chitosan-nanoantimicrobials-prepared-by-laser-ablation-synthesis-in-aqueous-solutions
#19
Maria Chiara Sportelli, Annalisa Volpe, Rosaria Anna Picca, Adriana Trapani, Claudio Palazzo, Antonio Ancona, Pietro Mario Lugarà, Giuseppe Trapani, Nicola Cioffi
Copper-chitosan (Cu-CS) nanoantimicrobials are a novel class of bioactive agents, providing enhanced and synergistic efficiency in the prevention of biocontamination in several application fields, from food packaging to biomedical. Femtosecond laser pulses were here exploited to disrupt a Cu solid target immersed into aqueous acidic solutions containing different CS concentrations. After preparation, Cu-CS colloids were obtained by tuning both Cu/CS molar ratios and laser operating conditions. As prepared Cu-CS colloids were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), to study copper complexation with the biopolymer...
December 30, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336067/measuring-and-imaging-metal-ions-with-fluorescence-based-biosensors-speciation-selectivity-kinetics-and-other-issues
#20
Richard B Thompson, Carol A Fierke
Fluorescence-based biosensors have shown themselves to be a powerful tool for the study of a variety of chemical species in biological systems, notably including metal ions. This chapter provides an overview of several important issues in using such sensors to study metallobiochemistry. These issues include selectivity for the analyte over potential interferents, including those that do not themselves induce a signal, the different forms in which metal ions are found (speciation), the utility of metal ion buffers, and the importance of kinetics in studying metal ion binding reactions...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
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