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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456146/a-comprehensive-and-dated-phylogenomic-analysis-of-butterflies
#1
Marianne Espeland, Jesse Breinholt, Keith R Willmott, Andrew D Warren, Roger Vila, Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Sarah C Maunsell, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Gerard Talavera, Rod Eastwood, Marta A Jarzyna, Robert Guralnick, David J Lohman, Naomi E Pierce, Akito Y Kawahara
Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species representing 98% of tribes, a 35-fold increase in gene sampling and 3-fold increase in taxon sampling over previous studies [4]...
February 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455525/graphene-oxide-decorated-with-cerium-iv-oxide-in-determination-of-ultra-trace-metal-ions-and-speciation-of-selenium
#2
Anna Baranik, Rafal Sitko, Anna Gagor, Ignasi Queralt, Eva Margui, Beata Zawisza
Graphene oxide decorated with cerium (IV) oxide (GO/CeO2) was synthesized and applied in adsorption of several metal ions such as As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous samples. The important feature of GO/CeO2 nanocomposite is also its selectivity towards selenite in the presence of selenate. The structure of GO/CeO2 has been proven by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The maximum adsorption capacities of GO/CeO2 calculated by Langmuir model towards arsenic, selenium, copper and lead ions are between 6 and 30 mg g-1...
February 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455284/speciation-analysis-of-arsenic-in-seafood-and-seaweed-part-i-evaluation-and-optimization-of-methods
#3
Mesay Mulugeta Wolle, Sean D Conklin
Several extraction and chromatographic methods were evaluated to identify optimum conditions for arsenic speciation analysis in seafood and seaweed. The extraction systems, which include aqueous, aqueous-organic, acidic, basic, and enzymatic solutions, were examined for their efficiency in extracting arsenic from finfish, crustaceans, molluscs, and seaweed keeping the chemical forms of the native arsenicals intact. While dilute solutions of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) extract high fractions of arsenic from most of the matrices, the extractants oxidized arsenite (As3+ ) to arsenate (As5+ ) and converted some arsenosugars and non-polar arsenicals to known and/or unknown forms...
February 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455140/comparison-of-soil-organic-carbon-speciation-using-c-nexafs-and-cpmas-13-c-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
Jörg Prietzel, Svenja Müller, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Jürgen Thieme, Cherno Jaye, Daniel Fischer
We compared synchrotron-based C near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and CPMAS13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with respect to their precision and accuracy to quantify different organic carbon (OC) species in defined mixtures of soil organic matter source compounds. We also used both methods to quantify different OC species in organic surface horizons of a Histic Leptosol as well as in mineral topsoil and subsoil horizons of two soils with different parent material, stage of pedogenesis, and OC content (Cambisol: 15-30 OC mgg-1 , Podzol: 0...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454269/biological-effects-of-four-iron-containing-nanoremediation-materials-on-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-sp
#5
Nhung H A Nguyen, Nadia R Von Moos, Vera I Slaveykova, Katrin Mackenzie, Rainer U Meckenstock, Silke Thűmmler, Julian Bosch, Alena Ševců
As nanoremediation strategies for in-situ groundwater treatment extend beyond nanoiron-based applications to adsorption and oxidation, ecotoxicological evaluations of newly developed materials are required. The biological effects of four new materials with different iron (Fe) speciations ([i] FerMEG12 - pristine flake-like milled Fe(0) nanoparticles (nZVI), [ii] Carbo-Iron ® - Fe(0)-nanoclusters containing activated carbon (AC) composite, [iii] Trap-Ox® Fe-BEA35 (Fe-zeolite) - Fe-doped zeolite, and [iv] Nano-Goethite - 'pure' FeOOH) were studied using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454209/reconciling-discrepancies-in-the-source-characterization-of-vocs-between-emission-inventories-and-receptor-modeling
#6
Jiamin Ou, Junyu Zheng, Zibing Yuan, Dabo Guan, Zhijiong Huang, Fei Yu, Min Shao, Peter K K Louie
Emission inventory (EI) and receptor model (RM) are two of the three source apportionment (SA) methods recommended by Ministry of Environment of China and used widely to provide independent views on emission source identifications. How to interpret the mixed results they provide, however, were less studied. In this study, a cross-validation study was conducted in one of China's fast-developing and highly populated city cluster- the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. By utilizing a highly resolved speciated regional EI and a region-wide gridded volatile organic compounds (VOCs) speciation measurement campaign, we elucidated underlying factors for discrepancies between EI and RM and proposed ways for their interpretations with the aim to achieve a scientifically plausible source identification...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454170/enhanced-electrokinetic-remediation-of-polluted-soils-by-anolyte-ph-conditioning
#7
R López Vizcaíno, A Yustres, L Asensio, C Saez, P Cañizares, M A Rodrigo, V Navarro
In the treatment of a polluted soil, the pH has a strong impact on the development of different physicochemical processes as precipitation/dissolution, adsorption/desorption or ionic exchange. In addition, the pH determines the chemical speciation of the compounds present in the system and, consequently, it conditions the transport processes by which those compounds will move. This question has aroused great interest in the development of pH control technologies coupled to soil remediation processes. In electrokinetic remediation processes, pH has usually been controlled by catholyte pH conditioning with acid solutions, applied to cases of heavy metals pollution...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453545/cytotoxicity-and-physiological-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-marine-invertebrates
#8
Adriano Magesky, Émilien Pelletier
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation in commercial products is increasing due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties and their low cost on the market. Silver has been known for a long time to be highly toxic to bacterial communities, aquatic organisms, and particularly to marine biota. Strong chloro-complexes dominate Ag speciation in seawater and facilitate its persistence in dissolved form. It has a great impact on marine organisms because low concentration of silver can lead to strong bioaccumulation, partly because the neutral silver chloro complex (AgCl 0 ) is highly bioavailable...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453068/effect-of-selenium-enriched-organic-material-amendment-on-selenium-fraction-transformation-and-bioavailability-in-soil
#9
Dan Wang, Quang Toan Dinh, Tran Thi Anh Thu, Fei Zhou, Wenxiao Yang, Mengke Wang, Weiwei Song, Dongli Liang
To exploit the plant byproducts from selenium (Se) biofortification and reduce environmental risk of inorganic Se fertilizer, pot experiment was conducted in this study. The effects of Se-enriched wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS + Se) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) (P + Se) amendment on organo-selenium speciation transformation in soil and its bioavailability was evaluated by pak choi uptake. The Se contents of the cultivated pak choi in treatments amended with the same amount of Se-enriched wheat straw and pak choi were 1...
February 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453061/effect-of-u-vi-aqueous-speciation-on-the-binding-of-uranium-by-the-cell-surface-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-a-natural-yeast-isolate-from-bentonites
#10
Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Maria Romero-González, Alix Günther, Pier L Solari, Mohamed L Merroun
This study presents the effect of aqueous uranium speciation (U-hydroxides and U-hydroxo-carbonates) on the interaction of this radionuclide with the cells of the yeast Rhodotorula mucigilanosa BII-R8. This strain was isolated from Spanish bentonites considered as reference materials for the engineered barrier components of the future deep geological repository of radioactive waste. X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy showed that the aqueous uranium speciation has no effect on the uranium binding process by this yeast strain...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453009/advances-in-concrete-materials-for-sewer-systems-affected-by-microbial-induced-concrete-corrosion-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Cyrill Grengg, Florian Mittermayr, Neven Ukrainczyk, Günther Koraimann, Sabine Kienesberger, Martin Dietzel
Microbial induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is recognized as one of the main degradation mechanisms of subsurface infrastructure worldwide, raising the demand for sustainable construction materials in corrosive environments. This review aims to summarize the key research progress acquired during the last decade regarding the understanding of MICC reaction mechanisms and the development of durable materials from an interdisciplinary perspective. Special focus was laid on aspects governing concrete - micoorganisms interaction since being the central process steering biogenic acid corrosion...
February 6, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452767/uptake-and-distribution-of-organo-iodine-in-deep-sea-corals
#12
Nancy G Prouty, E Brendan Roark, Leslye M Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452110/exploring-the-impact-of-house-screening-intervention-on-entomological-indices-and-incidence-of-malaria-in-arba-minch-town-southwest-ethiopia-a-randomized-control-trial
#13
Solomon Kinde Getawen, Temesgen Ashine, Fekadu Massebo, Daniel Woldeyes, Bernt Lindtjørn
House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451571/sea-spray-aerosol-chemical-composition-elemental-and-molecular-mimics-for-laboratory-studies-of-heterogeneous-and-multiphase-reactions
#14
REVIEW
Timothy H Bertram, Richard E Cochran, Vicki H Grassian, Elizabeth A Stone
Sea spray aerosol particles (SSA), formed through wave breaking at the ocean surface, contribute to natural aerosol particle concentrations in remote regions of Earth's atmosphere, and alter the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on Earth's radiation budget. In addition, sea spray aerosol serves as suspended surface area that can catalyze trace gas reactions. It has been shown repeatedly that sea spray aerosol is heavily enriched in organic material compared to the surface ocean. The selective enrichment of organic material complicates the selection of representative molecular mimics of SSA for laboratory or computational studies...
February 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451383/arsenic-speciation-in-mekong-delta-sediments-depends-on-their-depositional-environment
#15
Yuheng Wang, Pierre Le Pape, Guillaume Morin, Maria Asta, Georgina King, Barbora Bartova, Elena Suvorova, Manon Frutschi, Maya Ikogou, Vu Hoai Cong Pham, Phu Le Vo, Frédéric Herman, Laurent Charlet, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is pervasive throughout deltaic regions of Southeast Asia and threatens the health of millions. The speciation of As in sediments overlying contaminated aquifers is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate the chemical and mineralogical compositions of sediment cores collected from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, elucidate the speciation of iron and arsenic, and relate them to the sediment depositional environment. Gradual dissolution of ferric (oxyhydr)oxides with depth is observed down to 7 m, corresponding to the establishment of reducing conditions...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451365/the-genome-of-the-freshwater-monogonont-rotifer-brachionus-calyciflorus
#16
Hui-Su Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Hye-Min Kang, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Spiros Papakostas, Steven A J Declerck, Ik-Young Choi, Atsushi Hagiwara, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Monogononta is the most speciose class of rotifers, with more than 2000 species. The monogonont genus Brachionus is widely distributed at a global scale, and a few of its species are commonly used as ecological and evolutionary models to address questions related to aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, evolutionary ecology, the evolution of sex, and ecotoxicology. With the importance of Brachionus species in many areas of research, it is remarkable that the genome has not been characterized. This study aims to address this lacuna by presenting, for the first time, the whole genome assembly of the freshwater species Brachionus calyciflorus...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450772/dissolved-organic-matter-distribution-and-its-association-with-colloidal-aluminum-and-iron-in-the-selenga-river-basin-from-ulaanbaatar-to-lake-baikal
#17
Morimaru Kida, Orgilbold Myangan, Bolormaa Oyuntsetseg, Viacheslav Khakhinov, Masayuki Kawahigashi, Nobuhide Fujitake
The Selenga River Basin (Mongolia and Russia) has suffered from heavy metal contamination by placer gold mining and urban activities in recent decades. The objectives of this study were to provide the first distribution data of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and humic substances (HS) in this data-scarce region, and to investigate their association with dissolved and colloidal metals. Two sampling campaigns were conducted in August of 2013 and 2014. A constant proportion of HS (%HS; coefficient of variation of 2%) was observed from the headwater of Tuul River to the end of the delta before Lake Baikal, spanning > 1000 km in distance...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449108/effect-of-nitrogen-and-zinc-fertilization-on-zinc-and-iron-bioavailability-and-chemical-speciation-in-maize-silage
#18
Djordje Grujcic, Thomas Hesselhøj Hansen, Søren Husted, Milanka Drinic, Bal Ram Singh
Agronomic biofortification is one of the main strategies for alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in food and feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of N supply on total concentration of Zn and Fe and their chemical species in the soluble extracts of maize silage grown under field conditions. Total concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, S and P were measured by flow-injection inductive coupled plasma (ICP) - mass spectrometer (MS). Soluble Fe and Zn were extracted and analyzed by size exclusion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448175/metals-in-mangrove-ecosystems-and-associated-biota-a-global-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Rasika Kulkarni, Deepti Deobagkar, Smita Zinjarde
Mangrove forests prevalent along the intertidal regions of tropical and sub-tropical coastlines are inimitable and dynamic ecosystems. They protect and stabilize coastal areas from deleterious consequences of natural disasters such as hurricanes and tsunamis. Although there are reviews on ecological aspects, industrial uses of mangrove-associated microorganisms and occurrence of pollutants in a region-specific manner, there is no exclusive review detailing the incidence of metals in mangrove sediments and associated biota in these ecosystems on a global level...
February 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448159/polyploid-arabidopsis-species-originated-around-recent-glaciation-maxima
#20
REVIEW
Polina Yu Novikova, Nora Hohmann, Yves Van de Peer
Polyploidy may provide adaptive advantages and is considered to be important for evolution and speciation. Polyploidy events are found throughout the evolutionary history of plants, however they do not seem to be uniformly distributed along the time axis. For example, many of the detected ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs) seem to cluster around the K/Pg boundary (∼66Mya), which corresponds to a drastic climate change event and a mass extinction. Here, we discuss more recent polyploidy events using Arabidopsis as the most developed plant model at the level of the entire genus...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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