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Mariane S Sousa-Baena, Neelima R Sinha, José Hernandes-Lopes, Lúcia G Lohmann
Climbers are abundant in tropical forests, where they constitute a major functional plant type. The acquisition of the climbing habit in angiosperms constitutes a key innovation. Successful speciation in climbers is correlated with the development of specialized climbing strategies such as tendrils, i.e., filiform organs with the ability to twine around other structures through helical growth. Tendrils are derived from a variety of morphological structures, e.g., stems, leaves, and inflorescences, and are found in various plant families...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Béla P Molnár, Tina Boddum, Sharon R Hill, Bill S Hansson, Ylva Hillbur, Göran Birgersson
Insects use sensitive olfactory systems to detect relevant host volatiles and avoid unsuitable hosts in a complex environmental odor landscape. Insects with short lifespans, such as gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), are under strong selection pressure to detect and locate suitable hosts for their offspring in a short period of time. Ephemeral gall midges constitute excellent models for investigating the role of olfaction in host choice, host shift, and speciation. Midges mate near their site of emergence and females migrate in order to locate hosts for oviposition, thus females are expected to be more responsive to olfactory cues emitted by the host compared to males...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthew B Parks, Teofil Nakov, Elizabeth C Ruck, Norman J Wickett, Andrew J Alverson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diatoms are one of the most species-rich lineages of microbial eukaryotes. Similarities in clade age, species richness, and primary productivity motivate comparisons to angiosperms, whose genomes have been inordinately shaped by whole-genome duplication (WGD). WGDs have been linked to speciation, increased rates of lineage diversification, and identified as a principal driver of angiosperm evolution. We synthesized a large but scattered body of evidence that suggests polyploidy may be common in diatoms as well...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Vanessa M Schmidt, Gina Pinchbeck, Tim Nuttall, Steve Shaw, K Marie McIntyre, Neil McEwan, Susan Dawson, Nicola J Williams
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are increasingly isolated from veterinary patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among canine mucosal staphylococci following routine antimicrobial treatment with cefalexin (CFX), clavulanate-amoxicillin (AC), cefovecin (CVN), clindamycin (CD) or a fluoroquinolone (FQ). ANIMALS: Mucosal swab samples (n = 463) were collected from 127 dogs pre-treatment, immediately, and at one- and three-months post-treatment...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Jill A Hamilton, Joshua M Miller
Understanding the processes underlying speciation has long been a challenge to evolutionary biologists. This spurs from difficulties teasing apart the various mechanisms that contribute to the evolution of barriers to reproduction. The study by Rafati et al. () in this issue of Molecular Ecology combines spatially explicit whole-genome resequencing with evaluation of differential gene expression across individuals with mixed ancestry to associate the genomic architecture of reproductive barriers with expression of reproductive incompatibilities...
March 2018: Molecular Ecology
Tomaz Cendak, Lisa Sequeira, Mariana Sardo, Anabela Valente, Moisés Pinto, Luís Mafra
The wealth of site-selective structural information on CO2 speciation, obtained by spectroscopic techniques, is often hampered by the lack of easy-to-control synthetic routes. Herein, an alternative experimental protocol that relies on the high sensitivity of 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors to proton-transfer, is presented to unambiguously distinguish between ionic/charged and neutral CO2 species, formed upon adsorption of 13CO2 in amine-modified porous materials. Control of the surface amine spacing was achieved through the use of amine protecting groups during functionalization prior to CO2 adsorption...
April 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hai-Fei Yan, Cai-Yun Zhang, Arne A Anderberg, Gang Hao, Xue-Jun Ge, John J Wiens
What causes the disparity in biodiversity among regions is a fundamental question in biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Evolutionary and biogeographic processes (speciation, extinction, dispersal) directly determine species richness patterns, and can be studied using integrative phylogenetic approaches. However, the strikingly high richness of East Asia relative to other Northern Hemisphere regions remains poorly understood from this perspective. Here, for the first time, we test two general hypotheses (older colonization time, faster diversification rate) to explain this pattern, using the plant tribe Lysimachieae (Primulaceae) as a model system...
April 17, 2018: New Phytologist
Jia Lyu, Jia Song, Yuan Liu, Yuyao Wang, Junqing Li, Fang K Du
Oaks are important timber trees with wide distributions in China, but few genetic studies have been conducted on a fine scale. In this study, we seek to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of three sympatric oak species ( Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus dentata Thunb. ex Murray, and Quercus variabilis Blume) in their northern distribution in China using 17 bi-parentally inherited nSSRs markers and five maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments. Both the cpDNA and the nSSRs show a high level of genetic differentiation between different oak sections...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cristina Vergel, Carolina Mendiguchía, Carlos Moreno
The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution...
April 15, 2018: Membranes
Tatiana Minkina, Dina Nevidomskaya, Tatiana Bauer, Victoria Shuvaeva, Alexander Soldatov, Saglara Mandzhieva, Yan Zubavichus, Alexander Trigub
For a correct assessment of risk of polluted soil, it is crucial to establish the speciation and mobility of the contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the speciation and transformation of Zn in strongly technogenically transformed contaminated Spolic Technosols for a long time in territory of sludge collectors by combining analytical techniques and synchrotron techniques. Sequential fractionation of Zn compounds in studied soils revealed increasing metal mobility. Phyllosilicates and Fe and Mn hydroxides were the main stabilizers of Zn mobility...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Vdacný
Trichostome ciliates are among the most conspicuous protists in the gastrointestinal tract of a large variety of vertebrates. However, little is still known about phylogeny of the trichostome/vertebrate symbiotic systems, evolutionary correlations between trichostome extrinsic traits, and character-dependent diversification of trichostomes. These issues were investigated here, using the relaxed molecular clock technique along with stochastic mapping of character evolution, and binary-state speciation and extinction models...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Ryan P Walter, Melissa M Mark, Daniel J Mennill
Given the important role that animal vocalizations play in mate attraction and resource defence, acoustic signals are expected to play a significant role in speciation. Most studies, however, have focused on the acoustic traits of male animals living in the temperate zone. In contrast to temperate environments, in the tropics it is commonplace for both sexes to produce complex acoustic signals. Therefore tropical birds offer the opportunity to compare the sexes and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of animal signals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Emma Sherratt, Arne R Rasmussen, Kate L Sanders
Viviparous sea snakes are the most rapidly speciating reptiles known, yet the ecological factors underlying this radiation are poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed dated trees for 75% of sea snake species and quantified body shape (forebody relative to hindbody girth), maximum body length and trophic diversity to examine how dietary specialization has influenced morphological diversification in this rapid radiation. We show that sea snake body shape and size are strongly correlated with the proportion of burrowing prey in the diet...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ronel Pienaar, Abdalla A Latif, Ben J Mans
All Theileria parasites have definitive natural hosts that act as carriers. Incidental infections of uncommon hosts do occur raising questions regarding host specificity and its drivers. Reported hosts for Theileria taurotragi include bushbuck, cattle and eland. More recently T. taurotragi was detected in African buffalo, which may have implications for accurate diagnostics of T. parva. The current study therefore investigated the host specificity of T. taurotragi by developing a specific and sensitive real-time Taqman PCR assay...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Todd J Widhelm, Francesca R Bertoletti, Matt J Asztalos, Joel A Mercado-Díaz, Jen-Pan Huang, Bibiana Moncada, Robert Lücking, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, Bernard Goffinet, Nicholas Crouch, Roberta Mason-Gamer, H Thorsten Lumbsch
A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors that act at different times and geographic locations but it is still not clear which have a significant impact and how drivers interact. To study diversification, we chose the lichen genus Sticta, by sampling through most of the global range and producing a time tree. We estimate that Sticta originated about 30 million years ago, but biogoegraphic analysis was unclear in estimating the origin of the genus...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Francisco Dini-Andreote, Jos M Raaijmakers
Community assembly is mediated by selection, dispersal, drift, and speciation. Environmental selection is mostly used to date to explain patterns in plant microbiome assembly, whereas the influence of the other processes remains largely elusive. Recent studies highlight that adopting community ecology concepts provides a mechanistic framework for plant microbiome research.
April 11, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Nesrine Ouadah, Claudine Moire, Fabien Brothier, Jean-François Kuntz, Olivier Deschaume, Carmen Bartic, Hervé Cottet
Aluminum chlorohydrates (ACH) are used in numerous applications and commercial products on a global scale including water treatment, catalysis or antiperspirants. They are complex mixtures of water soluble aluminum polycations of different degrees of polymerization, that are difficult to separate and quantify due to their susceptibility to depolymerize in solution when placed out of equilibrium, which is inherent to any separation process. We recently achieved the first capillary electrophoresis separation and characterization of ACH oligomers using 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (MES) as background electrolyte counter-ion...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Qing Huang, Shiwei Zhou, Lina Lin, Yongchun Huang, Fangjun Li, Zhengguo Song
Herein, we utilize sequential extraction and high-throughput sequencing to investigate the effects of nanomaterial additives on As volatilization from flooded soils. We reveal that maximum volatilization is achieved in the fourth week and is followed by stabilization. The extent of volatilization decreased in the order of control > nano-zerovalent iron >40-nm hydroxyapatite > nano-Fe3 O4  > 20-nm hydroxyapatite > multilayer graphene oxide > high-quality graphene oxide. The most abundant forms of As in soil corresponded to As-Fe and Al oxides...
April 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Denis Allemand, Paola Furla
Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation...
April 9, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Song Yi Baek, Ji Hyoun Kang, Seo Hee Jo, Ji Eun Jang, Seo Yeon Byeon, Ju-Hyoun Wang, Hwang-Goo Lee, Jun-Kil Choi, Hyuk Je Lee
BACKGROUND: Life history characteristics are considered important factors influencing the evolutionary processes of natural populations, including the patterns of population genetic structure of a species. The sister species Cottus hangiongensis and C. koreanus are small bottom-dwelling freshwater sculpin fishes from South Korea that display marked life history divergence but are morphologically nearly indistinguishable. Cottus hangiongensis evolved an 'amphidromous' life history with a post-hatching pelagic larval phase...
April 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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