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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449274/a-dna-barcode-library-for-germany-s-mayflies-stoneflies-and-caddisflies-ephemeroptera-plecoptera-trichoptera
#1
Jérôme Morinière, Lars Hendrich, Michael Balke, Arne J Beermann, Tobias König, Monika Hess, Stefan Koch, Reinhard Müller, Florian Leese, Paul D N Hebert, Axel Hausmann, Christoph F Schubart, Gerhard Haszprunar
Mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) are prominent representatives of aquatic macroinvertebrates, commonly used as indicator organisms for water quality and ecosystem assessments. However, unambiguous morphological identification of EPT species, especially their immature life stages, is a challenging, yet fundamental task. However, a comprehensive DNA barcode library based upon taxonomically well-curated specimens can overcome the problematic identification. Once available, this library will support the implementation of fast, cost-efficient, and reliable DNA-based identifications and assessments of ecological status...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448934/release-of-dissolved-phosphorus-from-riparian-wetlands-evidence-for-complex-interactions-among-hydroclimate-variability-topography-and-soil-properties
#2
Sen Gu, Gérard Gruau, Rémi Dupas, Cornélia Rumpel, Alexandra Crème, Ophélie Fovet, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Laurent Jeanneau, Guillaume Humbert, Patrice Petitjean
In agricultural landscapes, establishment of vegetated buffer zones in riparian wetlands (RWs) is promoted to decrease phosphorus (P) emissions because RWs can trap particulate P from upslope fields. However, long-term accumulation of P risks the release of dissolved P, since the unstable hydrological conditions in these zones may mobilize accumulated particulate P by transforming it into a mobile dissolved P species. This study evaluates how hydroclimate variability, topography and soil properties interact and influence this mobilization, using a three-year dataset of molybdate-reactive dissolved P (MRDP) and total dissolved P (TDP) concentrations in soil water from two RWs located in an agricultural catchment in western France (Kervidy-Naizin), along with stream P concentrations...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448909/changes-in-heavy-metal-mobility-and-availability-from-contaminated-wetland-soil-remediated-with-combined-biochar-compost
#3
Jie Liang, Zhaoxue Yang, Lin Tang, Guangming Zeng, Man Yu, Xiaodong Li, Haipeng Wu, Yingying Qian, Xuemei Li, Yuan Luo
The combination of biochar and compost has been proven to be effective in heavy metals contaminated wetland soil restoration. However, the influence of different proportions between biochar and compost on immobilization of heavy metals in soil has been less studied up to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of different ratios of biochar-compost mixtures on availability and speciation distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in wetland soil. The results showed that applying all amendment combinations into wetland soil increased gradually the total organic carbon (TOC) and water-extract organic carbon (WEOC) as the compost percentage rose in biochar-composts...
April 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448907/characterization-of-typical-metal-particles-during-haze-episodes-in-shanghai-china
#4
Rui Li, Xin Yang, Hongbo Fu, Qingqing Hu, Liwu Zhang, Jianmin Chen
Aerosol particles were collected during three heavy haze episodes at Shanghai in the winter of 2013. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to study the morphology and speciation of typical metal particles at a single-particle level. In addition, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) was applied to identify the speciation of the Fe-containing particles. TEM analysis indicated that various metal-containing particles were hosted by sulfates, nitrates, and oxides...
April 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448139/suppression-of-nitrite-oxidizing-bacteria-in-intermittently-membrane-aerated-biofilms-a-model-based-explanation
#5
Yunjie Ma, Carlos Domingo-Félez, Benedek Gy Plosz, Barth F Smets
Autotrophic ammonium oxidation in membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) can make treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters more energy-efficient, especially within the context of short-cut ammonium removal. The challenge is to exclusively enrich ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). To achieve nitritation, strategies to suppress nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are needed, which are ideally grounded on an understanding of underlying mechanisms. In this study, a counter-diffusion nitrifying biofilm reactor was operated under intermittent aeration...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447172/selenium-speciation-in-the-fountain-creek-watershed-and-its-effects-on-fish-diversity
#6
James Carsella, Igor Melnykov, Sandra Bonetti, Irma Sánchez-Lombardo, Debbie C Crans
Se is an environmental concern as it can be toxic if present in high concentrations even though it is a dietary requirement for all animals. Se levels are a special concern in the Fountain Creek Watershed located in southeastern Colorado whose geological source is the Se-rich Pierre Shale. Segments of Fountain Creek have Se water levels that exceed the current EPA limit of 5 µg/l. In the studies described here, the effects of river water containing selenium were examined on fish populations at different sites along the Fountain Creek Watershed...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446920/two-highly-similar-poplar-paleo-subgenomes-suggest-an-autotetraploid-ancestor-of-salicaceae-plants
#7
Yinzhe Liu, Jinpeng Wang, Weina Ge, Zhenyi Wang, Yuxian Li, Nanshan Yang, Sangrong Sun, Liwei Zhang, Xiyin Wang
As a model plant to study perennial trees in the Salicaceae family, the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genome was sequenced, revealing recurrent paleo-polyploidizations during its evolution. A comparative and hierarchical alignment of its genome to a well-selected reference genome would help us better understand poplar's genome structure and gene family evolution. Here, by adopting the relatively simpler grape (Vitis vinifera) genome as reference, and by inferring both intra- and inter-genomic gene collinearity, we produced a united alignment of these two genomes and hierarchically distinguished the layers of paralogous and orthologous genes, as related to recursive polyploidizations and speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446570/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-achromobacter-species-infections-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-north-american-cohort-study
#8
B D Edwards, J Greysson-Wong, R Somayaji, B Waddell, F J Whelan, D G Storey, H R Rabin, M G Surette, M D Parkins
Introduction:Achromobacter species are now increasingly recognized in CF, with unclear epidemiology and impact.Methods: We studied a cohort of patients attending a Canadian adult CF clinic who had positive sputum cultures for Achromobacter species from 1984-2013. Infection was categorized as transient or persistent (≥50% positive cultures in one year). Those with persistent infection were matched 2:1 with age, sex, and time-matched controls without history of Achromobacter infection and mixed effects models used to assess pulmonary exacerbation(PEx) frequency and lung function decline...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445822/identification-of-the-inactivating-factors-and-mechanisms-exerted-on-ms2-coliphage-in-concentrated-synthetic-urine
#9
Wakana Oishi, Daisuke Sano, Loic Decrey, Syunsuke Kadoya, Tamar Kohn, Naoyuki Funamizu
Volume reduction (condensation) is a key for the practical usage of human urine as a fertilizer because it enables the saving of storage space and the reduction of transportation cost. However, concentrated urine may carry infectious disease risks resulting from human pathogens frequently present in excreta, though the survival of pathogens in concentrated urine is not well understood. In this study, the inactivation of MS2 coliphage, a surrogate for single-stranded RNA human enteric viruses, in concentrated synthetic urine was investigated...
April 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445045/intermediates-and-reactivity-in-iron-catalyzed-cross-couplings-of-alkynyl-grignards-with-alkyl-halides
#10
Jared L Kneebone, William W Brennessel, Michael L Neidig
Iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using alkynyl nucleophiles represent an attractive approach for the incorporation of alkynyl moieties into organic molecules. In the present study, a multi-technique approach combining inorganic spectroscopic methods, inorganic synthesis, and reaction studies is applied to iron-SciOPP catalyzed alkynyl-alkyl cross-couplings, providing the first detailed insight into the effects of variation from sp(2) to sp nucleophiles on iron speciation and reactivity. Reaction studies demonstrate that reaction of FeBr2(SciOPP) with 1 equiv (triisopropylsilyl)ethynylmagnesium bromide (TIPS-CC-MgBr) leads to a distribution of mono-, bis-, and tris-alkynylated iron(II)-SciOPP species due to rapid alkynyl ligand redistribution...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445036/ag-nanoparticles-and-wheat-roots-a-complex-interplay
#11
Ana Elena Pradas Del Real, Vladimir Vidal, Marie Carriere, Hiram A Castillo-Michel, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Géraldine Sarret
Agricultural soils are major sinks of silver nanoparticles in the environment, and crops are directly exposed to these emerging contaminants. A clear picture of their chemical transformations, uptake and transport mechanisms, and phytotoxic impacts is still lacking. In this work, wheat plants were exposed to pristine metallic (Ag-NPs) and sulfidized (Ag2S-NPs) silver nanoparticles and ionic Ag. Data on Ag distribution and speciation, phytotoxicity markers and gene expression were studied. A multi-technique and multi-scale approach was applied combining innovating tools at both laboratory and synchrotron...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444332/mitochondrial-recombination-and-introgression-during-speciation-by-hybridization
#12
Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Mathieu Henault, Guillaume Charron, Lou Nielly-Thibault, Yves Terrat, Heather L Fiumera, B Jesse Shapiro, Christian R Landry
Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following inter-species hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria bi-parentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444297/rapid-and-parallel-adaptive-evolution-of-the-visual-system-of-neotropical-midas-cichlid-fishes
#13
Julián Torres-Dowdall, Michele E R Pierotti, Andreas Härer, Nidal Karagic, Joost M Woltering, Frederico Henning, Kathryn R Elmer, Axel Meyer
Midas cichlid fish are a Central American species flock containing 13 described species that has been dated to only few thousand years old, a historical timescale infrequently associated with speciation. Their radiation involved the colonization of several clear water crater lakes from two turbid great lakes. Therefore, Midas cichlids have been subjected to widely varying photic conditions during their radiation. Being a primary signal relay for information from the environment to the organism, the visual system is under continuing selective pressure and a prime organ system for accumulating adaptive changes during speciation, particularly in the case of dramatic shifts in photic conditions...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444136/asymmetrical-natural-hybridization-varies-among-hybrid-swarms-between-two-diploid-rhododendron-species
#14
Li-Jun Yan, Kevin S Burgess, Richard Milne, Chao-Nan Fu, De-Zhu Li, Lian-Ming Gao
Background and Aims: The extent to which hybridization leads to gene flow between plant species depends on the structure of hybrid populations. However, if this varies between locations, species barriers might prove permeable in some locations but not in others. To assess possible variation in hybrid population structure, the magnitude and direction of natural hybridization between two Chinese endemic species, Rhododendron spiciferum and Rhododendron spinuliferum , were evaluated. Methods: Thirteen nuclear microsatellite markers were employed to characterize 566 individuals collected from 15 non-allopatric populations and nine allopatric parental populations...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442558/gene-flow-ancient-polymorphism-and-ecological-adaptation-shape-the-genomic-landscape-of-divergence-among-darwin-s-finches
#15
Fan Han, Sangeet Lamichhaney, B Rosemary Grant, Peter R Grant, Leif Andersson, Matthew T Webster
Genomic comparisons of closely related species have identified "islands" of locally elevated sequence divergence. Genomic islands may contain functional variants involved in local adaptation or reproductive isolation and may therefore play an important role in the speciation process. However, genomic islands can also arise through evolutionary processes unrelated to speciation, and examination of their properties can illuminate how new species evolve. Here, we performed scans for regions of high relative divergence (FST) in 12 species pairs of Darwin's finches at different genetic distances...
April 25, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442140/cystic-neutrophilic-granulomatous-mastitis-associated-with-corynebacterium-including-corynebacterium-kroppenstedtii
#16
Kate J Johnstone, Jennifer Robson, Sarah G Cherian, Jenny Wan Sai Cheong, Kris Kerr, Judith F Bligh
Granulomatous (lobular) mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease affecting parous reproductive-aged women. Once considered idiopathic, there is growing evidence of an association with corynebacteria infection, especially in the setting of a distinct histological pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM). We describe 15 cases with histological features either confirming (n = 12) or suggesting (n = 3) CNGM, and concurrent microbiological evidence of Corynebacterium species. The organism was detected by culture or 16S rRNA gene sequencing of specimens obtained at surgery or fine needle aspiration...
April 22, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441933/identification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
John W Riggs, Philip C Cavales, Sonia M Chapiro, Judy Callis
BACKGROUND: Fructose is an abundant sugar in plants as it is a breakdown product of both major sucrose-cleaving enzymes. To enter metabolism, fructose is phosphorylated by a fructokinase (FRK). Known FRKs are members of a diverse family of carbohydrate/purine kinases known as the phosphofructokinase B (pfkB) family. The complete complement of active fructokinases has not been reported for any plant species. RESULTS: Protein sequence analysis of the 22 Arabidopsis thaliana pfkB members identified eight highly related predicted proteins, including one with previously demonstrated FRK activity...
April 26, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441602/fluoride-and-iodine-enrichment-in-groundwater-of-north-china-plain-evidences-from-speciation-analysis-and-geochemical-modeling
#18
Junxia Li, Hailing Zhou, Kun Qian, Xianjun Xie, Xiaobin Xue, Yijun Yang, Yanxin Wang
To better understand the enrichment of fluoride and iodine in groundwater at North China Plain (NCP), speciation analysis and geochemical modeling were conducted to identify the key hydrochemical processes controlling their mobilization in groundwater system. Groundwater fluoride and iodine concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 5.59mg/L and from 1.51 to 1106μg/L, respectively, and approximately 63% and 32.3% of groundwater fluoride and iodine were higher than the guidelines for drinking water (1.5mg/L and 150μg/L)...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441535/investigation-of-the-vertical-distribution-and-speciation-of-137-cs-in-soil-profiles-at-burnt-and-unburnt-forest-sites-in-the-belarusian-exclusion-zone
#19
M Dowdall, Y Bondar, L Skipperud, V Zabrotski, M Nandrup Pettersen, Ø G Selnæs, J E Brown
The effects of fire events on contaminant radionuclides within soils of the Belarusian Exclusion Zone were investigated. A number of cores were taken from locations known to have been subject to fire events in the past as well as a series of cores from nearby unburnt locations. Both burnt and unburnt cores were analyzed for contaminant radionuclides as well as a range of relevant soil parameters. The distribution of (137)Cs between various fractions (reversibly bound, irreversibly bound and insoluble) was analyzed...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441489/a-comparison-of-gasoline-direct-injection-gdi-and-port-fuel-injection-pfi-vehicle-emissions-emission-certification-standards-cold-start-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-potential-and-potential-climate-impacts
#20
Georges Saliba, Rawad Saleh, Yunliang Zhao, Albert A Presto, Andrew T Lambe, Bruce Frodin, Satya Sardar, Hector Maldonado, Christine Maddox, Andrew A May, Greg T Drozd, Allen H Goldstein, Lynn M Russell, Fabian P Hagen, Allen L Robinson
Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from eighty-two light duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most stringent emissions standard, super-ultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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