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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918392/cnvs-affecting-cancer-predisposing-genes-cpgs-detected-as-incidental-findings-in-routine-germline-diagnostic-chromosomal-microarray-cma-testing
#1
Josie Innes, Lisa Reali, Jill Clayton-Smith, Georgina Hall, Derek Hk Lim, George J Burghel, Kim French, Unzela Khan, Daniel Walker, Fiona Lalloo, D Gareth R Evans, Dominic McMullan, Eamonn R Maher, Emma R Woodward
BACKGROUND: Identification of CNVs through chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing is the first-line investigation in individuals with learning difficulties/congenital abnormalities. Although recognised that CMA testing may identify CNVs encompassing a cancer predisposition gene (CPG), limited information is available on the frequency and nature of such results. METHODS: We investigated CNV gains and losses affecting 39 CPGs in 3366 pilot index case individuals undergoing CMA testing, and then studied an extended cohort (n=10 454) for CNV losses at 105 CPGs and CNV gains at 9 proto-oncogenes implicated in inherited cancer susceptibility...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916833/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-histone-acetyltransferase-activity-by-rimonabant-a-therapeutic-target-for-colon-cancer
#2
Maria Chiara Proto, Donatella Fiore, Chiara Piscopo, Silvia Franceschelli, Valentina Bizzarro, Chiara Laezza, Gianluigi Lauro, Alessandra Feoli, Alessandra Tosco, Giuseppe Bifulco, Gianluca Sbardella, Maurizio Bifulco, Patrizia Gazzerro
In a high percentage (≥85%) of both sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), the inactivation of the APC tumor suppressor gene initiates tumor formation and modulates the Wnt/β-Catenin transduction pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and metastasis. Increasing evidence showed that the endocannabinoids control tumor growth and progression, both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the effect of Rimonabant, a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonist, on the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway in HCT116 and SW48 cell lines carrying the genetic profile of metastatic CRC poorly responsive to chemotherapies...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913164/haemoprotozoa-making-biological-sense-of-molecular-phylogenies
#3
REVIEW
Peter O'Donoghue
A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids) and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms). Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905283/chrysotile-effects-on-the-expression-of-anti-oncogene-p53-and-p16-and-oncogene-c-jun-and-c-fos-in-wistar-rats-lung-tissues
#4
Yan Cui, Yuchan Wang, Jianjun Deng, Gongli Hu, Faqin Dong, Qingbi Zhang
Chrysotile is the most widely used form of asbestos worldwide. China is the world's largest consumer and second largest producer of chrysotile. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile has been extensively documented, and accumulative evidence has shown that chrysotile is capable of causing lung cancer and other forms of cancer. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenic effects of chrysotile remained poorly understood. To explore the carcinogenicity of chrysotile, Wistar rats were administered by intratracheal instillation (by an artificial route of administration) for 0, 0...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903501/sex-differential-responses-of-tumor-promotion-associated-genes-and-dysregulation-of-novel-long-noncoding-rnas-in-constitutive-androstane-receptor-activated-mouse-liver
#5
Nicholas J Lodato, Tisha Melia, Andy Rampersaud, David J Waxman
Xenobiotic agonists of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induce many hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, but following prolonged exposure, promote hepatocellular carcinoma, most notably in male mouse liver. Here, we used nuclear RNA-seq to characterize global changes in the mouse liver transcriptome following exposure to the CAR-specific agonist ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), including changes in novel long noncoding RNAs that may contribute to xenobiotic-induced pathophysiology...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901494/molecular-mechanisms-of-pathogenesis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-revealed-by-rna%C3%A2-sequencing
#6
Yao Liu, Zhe Yang, Feng Du, Qiao Yang, Jie Hou, Xiaohong Yan, Yi Geng, Yaning Zhao, Hua Wang
The present study aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RNA‑sequencing profiles GSM629264 and GSM629265, from the GSE25599 data set, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and processed by quality evaluation. GSM629264 and GSM629265 were from HCC and adjacent non‑cancerous tissues, respectively. TopHat software was used for alignment analysis, followed by the detection of novel splicing sites. In addition, the Cufflinks software package was used to analyze gene expressions, and the Cuffdiff program was used to screen for differently expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed splicing variants...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901441/profiling-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-adipose-tissues-of-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis
#7
Ke Chen, Linghao Wang, Wenjun Yang, Changfa Wang, Gui Hu, Zhaohui Mo
Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is a rare disorder characterized by aberrant multiple and symmetric subcutaneous adipose tissue accumulation in the face, neck, shoulders, back, chest and abdomen, severely affecting the quality of life of patients. At present, precise MSL etiology and pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. The present study first utilized a digital gene expression technique with a next‑generation sequencing platform to profile differentially expressed genes in three cases of MSL vs. normal control tissue...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893641/high-intensity-interval-training-has-beneficial-effects-on-cardiac-remodeling-through-local-renin-angiotensin-system-modulation-in-mice-fed-high-fat-or-high-fructose-diets
#8
Guilherme de Oliveira Sá, Vívian Dos Santos Neves, Shyrlei R de Oliveira Fraga, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva
AIMS: HIIT (high-intensity interval training) has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effects on cardiac remodeling and local RAS (renin-angiotensin system) in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets still need to be fully addressed. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male C57BL/6 mice (12weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups, control (C), High-fat (HF), or High-fructose diet (HRU) and were monitored for eight weeks before being submitted to the HIIT...
September 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888985/a-point-mutation-in-the-heavy-chain-complementarity-determining-region-3-hcdr3-significantly-enhances-the-specificity-of-an-anti-ros1-antibody
#9
Hwa Kyoung Lee, Junyeong Jin, Sang Il Kim, Min Jueng Kang, Eugene C Yi, Ji Eun Kim, Jong Bae Park, Hyori Kim, Junho Chung
The proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase ROS1 plays a key role in carcinogenesis through gene rearrangement to form a fusion protein with other genes, in which the C-terminal intracellular region of ROS1 participates. The possibility of wild type ROS1 overexpression through epigenetic regulation has been proposed. Here, we generated an antibody, 3B20, reactive to the N-terminal region of ROS1 to use it for the detection of wild type ROS1 in cancerous tissues. Using immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses, we found that 3B20 also reacted with heat shock proteins (Hsp)70s...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887306/the-long-noncoding-rna-pcat-1-links-the-microrna-mir-215-to-oncogene-crkl-mediated-signaling-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Yanli Ren, Jinhua Shang, Jinliang Li, Wenjuan Liu, Zhao Zhang, Jupeng Yuan, Ming Yang
The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) PCAT-1 resides in chromosome 8q24 cancer-risk locus and acts as a vital oncogene during tumorigenesis and progression. However, how PCAT-1 is posttranscriptionally regulated, for example, by small ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) is largely unknown. Here, we report how miRNAs regulate PCAT-1 expression and also investigate the biological significance of this regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that miR-215, a P53-inducible miRNA, is a key regulator of PCAT-1 expression in HCC and identified an interaction between miR-215 and PCAT-1 in dual luciferase reporter gene assays...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874141/stress-alters-the-expression-of-cancer-related-genes-in-the-prostate
#11
Ivan E Flores, Jorge A Sierra-Fonseca, Olinamyr Davalos, Luis A Saenz, Maria M Castellanos, Jaidee K Zavala, Kristin L Gosselink
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a major contributor to mortality worldwide, and significant efforts are being undertaken to decipher specific cellular and molecular pathways underlying the disease. Chronic stress is known to suppress reproductive function and promote tumor progression in several cancer models, but our understanding of the mechanisms through which stress contributes to cancer development and progression is incomplete. We therefore examined the relationship between stress, modulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system, and changes in the expression of cancer-related genes in the rat prostate...
September 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857533/-prophylactic-thyroidectomy-in-ret-proto-oncogen-mutation
#12
L Rodríguez Caraballo, J Gómez-Chacón Villalba, P Rodríguez Iglesias, J Cortés Sáez, F Moreno Macián, A Marco Macián, J J Vila Carbó
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of prophylactic thyroidectomy cases carried out in our Center in patients with RET gene mutations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 25 patients with RET proto-oncogene mutations subjected to prophylactic thyroidectomy between January 2000 and January 2016. Epidemiologic variables, surgical technique, histological results and follow-up were studied. RESULTS: Our sample consists of 25 patients, 15 males and 10 females...
April 20, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855972/epigenetic-response-of-imprinted-domains-during-carcinogenesis
#13
Corey L Bretz, Ingeborg M Langohr, Joomyeong Kim
BACKGROUND: Imprinted domains have been identified as targets for aberrant DNA methylation during carcinogenesis, but it remains unclear when these epigenetic alterations occur and how they contribute to tumor progression. Epigenetic instability at key cis-regulatory elements within imprinted domains can concomitantly activate proto-oncogenes and turn off tumor suppressor genes. Thus, to further characterize the epigenetic response of imprinted domains during carcinogenesis, we compared the stability of DNA methylation at a variety of cis-regulatory elements within imprinted domains in two fundamentally different mouse tumors, benign and malignant, induced by the KrasG12D mutation...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853922/origin-and-evolution-of-the-universal-genetic-code
#14
Eugene V Koonin, Artem S Novozhilov
The standard genetic code (SGC) is virtually universal among extant life forms. Although many deviations from the universal code exist, particularly in organelles and prokaryotes with small genomes, they are limited in scope and obviously secondary. The universality of the code likely results from the combination of a frozen accident, i.e., the deleterious effect of codon reassignment in the SGC, and the inhibitory effect of changes in the code on horizontal gene transfer. The structure of the SGC is nonrandom and ensures high robustness of the code to mutational and translational errors...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852935/shp2-regulates-proliferation-and-tumorigenicity-of-glioma-stem-cells
#15
Laura Roccograndi, Zev A Binder, Logan Zhang, Nicola Aceto, Zhuo Zhang, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, Ichiro Nakano, Nadia Dahmane, Donald M O'Rourke
SHP2 is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) involved in multiple signaling pathways and was the first identified proto-oncogene PTPase. Previous work in glioblastoma (GBM) has demonstrated the role of SHP2 PTPase activity in modulating the oncogenic phenotype of adherent GBM cell lines. Mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding SHP2, have been identified with increasing frequency in GBM. Given the importance of SHP2 in developing neural stem cells, and the importance of glioma stem cells (GSCs) in GBM oncogenesis, we explored the functional role of SHP2 in GSCs...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843992/tracking-met-de-addiction-in-lung-cancer-a-road-towards-the-oncogenic-target
#16
REVIEW
S Pilotto, L Carbognin, N Karachaliou, P C Ma, R Rosell, G Tortora, E Bria
The discovery of druggable oncogenic drivers (i.e. EGFR and ALK), along with the introduction of comprehensive tumor genotyping techniques into the daily clinical practice define non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) asa group of heterogeneous diseases, requiring a context-personalized clinico-therapeutical approach. Among the most investigated biomarkers, the MET proto-oncogene has been extensively demonstrated to play a crucial role throughout the lung oncogenesis, unbalancing the proliferation/apoptosis signaling and influencing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasive phenotype...
August 20, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843253/plasma-calcitonin-levels-and-mirna323-expression-in-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-patients-with-or-without-ret-mutation
#17
Samira Ehyaei, Mehdi Hedayati, Marjan Zarif-Yeganeh, Sara Sheikholeslami, Mahsa Ahadi, Sayed Asadollah Amini
Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an endocrine tumor featuring parafollicular or C-cell differentiation, with calcitonin as a specific biomarker in MTC diagnosis. Germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are considered responsible for its familial occurrence and somatic mutations can cause sporadic lesions. MicroRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors by inhibiting the expression of target genes.. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between plasma levels of calcitonin and miRNA323 expression in MTC patients with or without RET mutation...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842482/nuclear-gene-33-mig6-regulates-the-dna-damage-response-through-an-atm-dependent-mechanism
#18
Cen Li, Soyoung Park, Xiaowen Zhang, Leonard M Eisenberg, Hong Zhao, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Dazhong Xu
Gene 33 (Mig6, ERRFI1) is an adaptor protein with multiple cellular functions. We recently linked Gene 33 to the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that ectopic expression of Gene 33 triggers DDR in an ATM serine/threonine kinase-dependent fashion and through pathways dependent or not dependent on ABL proto-oncogene 1 non-receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Abl). We observe clear presence of Gene 33 in the nucleus and chromatin fractions of the cell...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838211/ccat1-and-ccat2-long-noncoding-rnas-located-within-the-8q-24-21-gene-desert-serve-as-important-prognostic-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
T Ozawa, T Matsuyama, Y Toiyama, N Takahashi, T Ishikawa, H Uetake, Y Yamada, M Kusunoki, G Calin, A Goel
Background: 8q24.21 is a frequently amplified genomic region in colorectal cancer (CRC). This region is often referred to as a 'gene desert' due to lack of any important protein-coding genes, highlighting the potential role of noncoding RNAs, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) located around the proto-oncogene MYC. In this study, we have firstly evaluated the clinical significance of altered expression of lncRNAs mapped to this genomic locus in CRC. Patients and methods: A total of 300 tissues, including 280 CRC and 20 adjacent normal mucosa specimens were evaluated for the expression of 12 lncRNAs using qRT-PCR assays...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835080/-high-throughput-targeted-sequencing-panel-for-exploring-radiosensitivity-associated-genes-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Y Qiao, C X Hu, D A Song, S Q Li, L H Zhou, X D Jiang
Objective: To explore radiosensitivity-associated genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by targeted sequencing panel. Methods: The peripheral blood from 22 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients received radiotherapy alone were collected, respectively. The genomic DNA (gDNA) of peripheral blood was extracted and used to create a library of gDNA restriction fragments. The gDNA restriction fragments were hybridized to the HaloPlex probe capture library, which comprises 356 cancer genes selected from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (Cosmic) database of 2011 updated edition...
August 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
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