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Proto genes

Bryan E Essien, Sinju Sundaresan, Ramon Ocadiz-Ruiz, Aaron Chavis, Amy C Tsao, Arthur J Tessier, Michael M Hayes, Amanda Photenhauer, Milena Saqui-Salces, Anthony J Kang, Yatrik M Shah, Balázs Györffy, Juanita L Merchant
In colorectal cancer (CRC), APC-mediated induction of unregulated cell growth involves post-translational mechanisms that prevent proteasomal degradation of proto-oncogene β-catenin (CTNNB1) and its eventual translocation to the nucleus. However, about 10 percent of colorectal tumors also exhibit increased CTNNB1 mRNA. Here we show in CRC that increased expression of ZNF148, the gene coding for transcription factor ZBP-89, correlated with reduced patient survival. Tissue arrays showed that ZBP-89 protein was overexpressed in the early stages of CRC...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Research
Ming-Shyen Yen, Jen-Ruei Chen, Peng-Hui Wang, Kuo-Chang Wen, Yi-Jen Chen, Heung-Tat Ng
Uterine sarcoma is a very aggressive and highly lethal disease. Even after a comprehensive staging surgery or en block cytoreduction surgery followed by multimodality therapy (often chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy), many patients relapse or present with distant metastases, and finally die of diseases. The worst outcome of uterine sarcomas is partly because of their rarity, unknown etiology, and highly divergent genetic aberration. Uterine sarcomas are often classified into four distinct subtypes, including uterine leiomyosarcoma, low-grade uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma, high-grade uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Wensheng Zhang, Erik K Flemington, Kun Zhang
Most cancers are driven by somatic mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Genetic changes in a tumor may accumulate in the tissue self-renewal phase prior to neoplasm. The risk of sporadic mutations increases with age. In this regard, a positive association between patient age and the accumulated mutation burden in tumors exists for many cancer types. However, the reported lines of evidence for such a connection are still limited. TP53 is the most frequently mutated cancer gene. The encoded p53 protein plays crucial roles in DNA repair...
September 2016: Cancer Genetics
Bin Guan, James M Welch, Julie C Sapp, Hua Ling, Yulong Li, Jennifer J Johnston, Electron Kebebew, Leslie G Biesecker, William F Simonds, Stephen J Marx, Sunita K Agarwal
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by parathyroid hormone excess and hypercalcemia and caused by hypersecreting parathyroid glands. Familial PHPT occurs in an isolated nonsyndromal form, termed familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), or as part of a syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The specific genetic or other cause(s) of FIHP are unknown. We performed exome sequencing on germline DNA of eight index-case individuals from eight unrelated kindreds with FIHP...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Xianglei Li, Yanhua Li, Hong Lu
MiRNAs are involved in breast cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-1193, a newly found and poorly studied miRNA, in the proliferation and invasion of human breast cancer cells. Our results showed that compared with the adjacent tissues and MCF-10A human normal breast cells, miR-1193 was sharply reduced in breast cancer tissues and 5 breast cancer cell lines, including MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-435, SKBR3, and MCF-7. The oligo miR-1193 mimic or anta-miR-1193 was then transfected into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines...
October 11, 2016: Oncology Research
Srinivas Suda, Des Field, Niall Barron
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kamalika Sen, Arijita Sarkar, Ranjan Kumar Maji, Zhumur Ghosh, Sanjib Gupta, Tapash Chandra Ghosh
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased proliferation or abnormal accumulation of granulocytic cell line without the depletion of their capacity to differentiate. A reciprocal chromosomal translocation proceeding to the 'Philadelphia chromosome', involving the ABL proto-oncogene and BCR gene residing on Chromosome 9 and 22 respectively, is observed to be attributed to CML pathogenesis. Recent studies have been unraveling the crucial role of genomic 'dark matter' or the non-coding repertoire in cancer initiation and progression...
October 12, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
T Tsuruyama, T Hiratsuka, N Yamada
Extensive research has been performed regarding the integration sites of murine leukemia retrovirus (MLV) for the identification of proto-oncogenes. To date, the overlap of mutations within specific oligonucleotides across different tumor genomes has been regarded as a rare event; however, a recent study of MLV integration into the oncogene Zfp521 suggested the existence of a hotspot oligonucleotide for MLV integration. In the current review, we discuss the hotspots of MLV integration into several genes: c-Myc, Stat5a and N-myc, as well as ZFP521, as examined in tumor genomes...
October 10, 2016: Oncogene
Rahul Mannan, Tejinder Singh Bhasin, Mridu Manjari, Gagandeep Singh, Puneet Kaur Bhatia, Sonam Sharma
BACKGROUND: Prostate carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males worldwide. The burden is expected to grow 1.7 million new cases and 499,000 new deaths by 2030. In developing countries such as India, prostate carcinoma will show an increase by 140% in the next few years. Although the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma can usually be made on histological features, now a days many immunohistochemical (IHC) markers are used to distinguish it from benign mimickers as well as in predicting prognosis and treatment...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Josep Sardanyés, Regina Martínez, Carles Simó, Ricard Solé
The dynamics of heterogeneous tumor cell populations competing with healthy cells is an important topic in cancer research with deep implications in biomedicine. Multitude of theoretical and computational models have addressed this issue, especially focusing on the nature of the transitions governing tumor clearance as some relevant model parameters are tuned. In this contribution, we analyze a mathematical model of unstable tumor progression using the quasispecies framework. Our aim is to define a minimal model incorporating the dynamics of competition between healthy cells and a heterogeneous population of cancer cell phenotypes involving changes in replication-related genes (i...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Jan Lakota, Radivojka Vulic, Maria Dubrovcakova, Silvia Tyciakova
Spontaneous tumour regression after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation is associated with the aplastic anaemia-like syndrome and the presence of polyclonal autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase I (CA I). When tumour cells were grown in vitro in the presence of patients' sera positive for anti-CA I autoantibodies, their morphological pattern was altered. These changes were accompanied by modifications in the gene expression profile. We observed downregulation of genes of the basal lamina assembly (collagen type IV alpha 4, the laminin subunit gamma 2), the extracellular matrix (collagen type I alpha 1), the cytoskeleton (keratin 14 type I), the collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 and the proto-oncogene WNT7B...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
William Grey, Rosaline Hulse, Anna Yakovleva, Dilyana Genkova, Benjamin Whitelaw, Ellen Solomon, Salvador J Diaz-Cano, Louise Izatt
The REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in growth and differentiation during embryogenesis and maintenance of the urogenital and nervous systems in mammals. Distinct mutations across hotspot RET exons can cause Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A (MEN2A) characterised by development of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. Here, we report a 42-year-old man presented in the clinic with a unilateral PCC, with subsequent investigations revealing a nodular and cystic thyroid gland...
October 5, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
David G McFadden, Katerina Politi, Arjun Bhutkar, Frances K Chen, Xiaoling Song, Mono Pirun, Philip M Santiago, Caroline Kim-Kiselak, James T Platt, Emily Lee, Emily Hodges, Adam P Rosebrock, Roderick T Bronson, Nicholas D Socci, Gregory J Hannon, Tyler Jacks, Harold Varmus
Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hong-Jin Zou, Yu-Shu Li, Zhong-Yan Shan
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) is characterized by the coexistence of tumors that involve two or more endocrine glands within the same patient, and is defined as the occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma in association with pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and parathyroid tumors or hyperparathyroidism. The pathogenesis of MEN2A is due to the mutation of a tyrosine kinase receptor that is encoded by the rearrangement during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene. The mutation often occurs in exon 10q11.2. The present study reports the case of a 73-year-old man with severe hypercalcemia, bilateral adrenal PHEO and a thyroid nodule...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Thomas Schmidt, Andreas Leha, Gabriela Salinas-Riester
The hypomethylation of DNA may support tumor progression; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that the in vitro application of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) leads to promoter remethylation and the downregulation of proto-oncogene expression in cancer cells. It is not clear if this represents a general mechanism of SAM or is limited to selected genes. We examined this problem using new bisulfite sequencing and transcriptomic technologies...
September 26, 2016: Gene
Jamille A Bitencourt, Iracilda Sampaio, Robson T C Ramos, Marcelo Ricardo Vicari, Paulo Roberto A de M Affonso
American soles (family Achiridae) have been characterized by remarkable chromosomal variation even though several species lack basic cytogenetic information. This trend indicates that chromosomal traits can be useful to taxonomy once the morphological identification of some taxa in this family (e.g., Achirus species) is controversial. In this work, we expand the cytogenetic data in Achiridae by providing the first karyotypic analysis of Achirus achirus. An unusual multiple sex chromosome system (X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y) was detected, once males presented 2n = 33 with three unpaired chromosomes (X1X2Y) while females presented 2n = 34 with two acrocentric pairs (X1X1 and X2X2) found in hemizygosis in males...
September 27, 2016: Zebrafish
Ferenc Sipos, Gábor Firneisz, Györgyi Műzes
Colonic inflammation is required to heal infections, wounds, and maintain tissue homeostasis. As the seventh hallmark of cancer, however, it may affect all phases of tumor development, including tumor initiation, promotion, invasion and metastatic dissemination, and also evasion immune surveillance. Inflammation acts as a cellular stressor and may trigger DNA damage or genetic instability, and, further, chronic inflammation can provoke genetic mutations and epigenetic mechanisms that promote malignant cell transformation...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jessica Reagh, Martyn Bullock, Juliana Andrici, John Turchini, Loretta Sioson, Adele Clarkson, Nicole Watson, Amy Sheen, Grace Lim, Leigh Delbridge, Stan Sidhu, Mark Sywak, Ahmad Aniss, Phillip Shepherd, Daniel Ng, Paul Oei, Michael Field, Diana Learoyd, Bruce G Robinson, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Anthony J Gill
A quarter of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene indicating MEN2. Therefore genetic testing is recommended for all patients presenting with MTC. Approximately 40% of MTCs have somatic RET mutations. Somatic mutations in the RAS genes are the next most common driver mutations and appear to be mutually exclusive with germline RET mutation. The single most common somatic RAS mutation is HRASQ61R (c.182A>G), reported in 4.6% to 11% of all MTCs. Mutation-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) initially developed to identify the NRASQ61R mutation in melanoma (clone SP174) has proven highly sensitive and specific...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Zongyu Li, Xin Huang, Jinkai Xu, Qinghua Su, Jun Zhao, Jiancang Ma
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer and represent approximately 80% of all thyroid cancers. The present study is aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-449 in the progression of PTC. Our results revealed that miR-449 was underexpressed in the collected PTC specimens compared with non-cancerous PTC tissues. Overexpression of miR-449 induced a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and inhibited PTC cell growth in vitro. Further studies revealed that RET proto-oncogene (RET) is a novel miR-449 target, due to miR-449 bound directly to its 3'-untranslated region and miR-449 mimic reduced the protein expression of RET...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Gabriele Ciasca, Massimiliano Papi, Eleonora Minelli, Valentina Palmieri, Marco De Spirito
Colorectal cancer (CRC) development represents a multistep process starting with specific mutations that affect proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. These mutations confer a selective growth advantage to colonic epithelial cells that form first dysplastic crypts, and then malignant tumours and metastases. All these steps are accompanied by deep mechanical changes at the cellular and the tissue level. A growing consensus is emerging that such modifications are not merely a by-product of the malignant progression, but they could play a relevant role in the cancer onset and accelerate its progression...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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