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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323029/environmental-cues-determine-the-fate-of-astrocytes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Fatima M Nathan, Shuxin Li
Reactive astrogliosis occurs after central nervous system (CNS) injuries whereby resident astrocytes form rapid responses along a graded continuum. Following CNS lesions, naïve astrocytes are converted into reactive astrocytes and eventually into scar-forming astrocytes that block axon regeneration and neural repair. It has been known for decades that scarring development and its related extracellular matrix molecules interfere with regeneration of injured axons after CNS injury, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms for controlling astrocytic scar formation and maintenance are not well known...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317235/differentiating-breast-carcinoma-with-signet-ring-features-from-gastrointestinal-signet-ring-carcinoma-assessment-of-immunohistochemical-markers
#2
Yiang Hui, Yihong Wang, Gahie Nam, Jacqueline Fanion, Ashlee Sturtevant, Kara A Lombardo, Murray B Resnick
Signet-ring morphology is recognized throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, this pattern may be observed in other primary sites giving rise to diagnostic challenges in the work-up of metastases. Relatively newer immunohistochemical markers have not been evaluated in this context. We assessed expression patterns of several common immunohistochemical markers in tumors with signet-ring morphology to delineate a pragmatic approach to this differential diagnosis. Primary breast and gastrointestinal carcinomas showing signet-ring features were reviewed...
January 6, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291271/shared-mechanisms-regulate-spatiotemporal-rhoa-dependent-actomyosin-contractility-during-adhesion-and-cell-division
#3
Patrick W B Derksen, Robert A H van de Ven
Local modulation of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for the initiation and maintenance of strong homotypic adhesive interfaces between neighboring cells. The epithelial adherens junction (AJ) fulfils a central role in this process by mediating E-cadherin interactions and functioning as a signaling scaffold to control the activity of the small GTPase RhoA and subsequent actomyosin contractility. Interestingly, a number of regulatory proteins that modulate RhoA activity at the AJ also control RhoA during cytokinesis, an actomyosin-dependent process that divides the cytoplasm to generate two daughter cells at the final stages of mitosis...
December 31, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279096/e-cadherin-its-dysregulation-in-carcinogenesis-and-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Sonia How Ming Wong, Chee Mun Fang, Lay-Hong Chuah, Chee Onn Leong, Siew Ching Ngai
E-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein which connects epithelial cells together at adherens junctions. In normal cells, E-cadherin exerts its tumour suppressing role mainly by sequestering β-catenin from its binding to LEF (Lymphoid enhancer factor)/TCF (T cell factor) which serves the function of transcribing genes of the proliferative Wnt signaling pathway. Despite the ongoing debate on whether the loss of E-cadherin is the cause or effect of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), E-cadherin functional loss has frequently been associated with poor prognosis and survival in patients of various cancers...
January 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278270/historical-review-of-the-discovery-of-cadherin-in-memory-of-tokindo-okada
#5
REVIEW
Masatoshi Takeichi
The cadherin family of cell-cell adhesion molecules plays a pivotal role in animal tissue formation. Discovery of this molecular family can be traced back to some unexpected observations of strange cell behavior that were made around 1970 in the Kyoto University laboratory of Tokindo Okada, and then in the Department of Embryology at the Carnegie Institution of Washington (currently the Carnegie Institution for Science). This article looks back on these discoveries, and recalls how these observations led to the identification of important cell-cell adhesion molecules known as cadherins...
December 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258163/regulation-of-emt-in-colorectal-cancer-a-culprit-in-metastasis
#6
REVIEW
Trung Vu, Pran K Datta
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which cells lose their epithelial characteristics, for instance cell polarity and cell-cell contact, and gain mesenchymal properties, such as increased motility. In colorectal cancer (CRC), EMT is associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we discuss recent studies exploring novel regulation mechanisms of EMT in CRC, including the identification of new CRC EMT regulators. Upregulation of inducers can promote EMT, leading to increased invasiveness and metastasis in CRC...
December 16, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250646/timps-expression-in-lentigo-maligna%C3%A3-lentigo-maligna-melanoma-versus-aged-skin-a-review-of-the-literature-and-personal-experience
#7
Alice Brînzea, Roxana Ioana Nedelcu, Gabriela Turcu, Mihaela Antohe, Sabina Andrada Zurac, Daniela Adriana Ion
Mechanisms involved in melanoma invasiveness and metastasis are essential to understanding the behavior of this aggressive melanocytic skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered fundamental for overcoming the in situ stage of melanoma and its proliferation beyond the basal membrane. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are key molecules involved in EMT about whose expression in lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) little has been studied so far...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231860/predicting-the-functional-impact-of-cdh1-missense-mutations-in-hereditary-diffuse-gastric-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Soraia Melo, Joana Figueiredo, Maria Sofia Fernandes, Margarida Gonçalves, Eurico Morais-de-Sá, João Miguel Sanches, Raquel Seruca
The role of E-cadherin in Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) is unequivocal. Germline alterations in its encoding gene (CDH1) are causative of HDGC and occur in about 40% of patients. Importantly, while in most cases CDH1 alterations result in the complete loss of E-cadherin associated with a well-established clinical impact, in about 20% of cases the mutations are of the missense type. The latter are of particular concern in terms of genetic counselling and clinical management, as the effect of the sequence variants in E-cadherin function is not predictable...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164988/development-of-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-review
#9
Juliette O A M van Baal, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Rienk Nieuwland, Koen K Van de Vijver, Auguste Sturk, Willemien J van Driel, Gemma G Kenter, Christianne A R Lok
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasizes intra-abdominally with often numerous, superficial, small-sized lesions. This so-called peritoneal carcinomatosis is difficult to treat, and peritoneal recurrences are frequently observed, leading to a poor prognosis. Underlying mechanisms of interactions between EOC and peritoneal cells are incompletely understood. This review summarizes and discusses the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from a cell-biological perspective, focusing on characteristics of EOC and peritoneal cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160067/molecular-tension-probes-for-imaging-forces-at-the-cell-surface
#10
Yang Liu, Kornelia Galior, Victor Pui-Yan Ma, Khalid Salaita
Mechanical forces are essential for a variety of biological processes ranging from transcription and translation to cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Through the activation of mechanosensitive signaling pathways, cells sense and respond to physical stimuli from the surrounding environment, a process widely known as mechanotransduction. At the cell membrane, many signaling receptors, such as integrins, cadherins and T- or B-cell receptors, bind to their ligands on the surface of adjacent cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM) to mediate mechanotransduction...
November 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102711/pleomorphic-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-diagnosed-by-breast-core-biopsy-clinicopathologic-features-and-correlation-with-subsequent-excision
#11
Tianhua Guo, Yihong Wang, Nella Shapiro, Susan Fineberg
INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a variant of LCIS with high-grade morphologic features. The number of case series studying PLCIS is limited, and clinical management of patients with PLCIS is controversial. We report a breast core biopsy (BCBx) series of PLCIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 37 cases of PLCIS with or without microinvasion diagnosed by BCBx. PLCIS was defined as dyscohesive cells showing acinar expansion and loss of immunohistochemical membranous expression of e-cadherin or beta-catenin with nuclear pleomorphism with at least 2- to 3-fold variation in nuclear size, membrane irregularities, and variably prominent nucleoli...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090670/the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-pathway-in-two-cases-with-gastric-metastasis-originating-from-breast-carcinoma-one-with-a-metachronous-primary-gastric-cancer
#12
Simona Gurzu, Laura Banias, Tivadar Bara, Istvan Feher, Tivadar Jr Bara, Ioan Jung
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the stomach are extremely rare and the metastatic pathway is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To present two unusual gastric metastases and a review of the literature regarding the pathway of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the metastatic cells. METHOD: The clinicopathological aspects of the two cases were presented in the light of the most recent patents. Data about patents were obtained from the online databases PubMed, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Google patents...
November 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080116/the-role-of-ubiquitination-and-deubiquitination-in-the-regulation-of-cell-junctions
#13
REVIEW
Junting Cai, Miranda K Culley, Yutong Zhao, Jing Zhao
Maintenance of cell junctions plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular functions including cell proliferation, permeability, and cell death. Disruption of cell junctions is implicated in a variety of human disorders, such as inflammatory diseases and cancers. Understanding molecular regulation of cell junctions is important for development of therapeutic strategies for intervention of human diseases. Ubiquitination is an important type of post-translational modification that primarily regulates endogenous protein stability, receptor internalization, enzyme activity, and protein-protein interactions...
October 27, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055789/in-vitro-studies-on-the-role-of-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-in-the-context-of-retinoic-acid-mediated-apl-differentiation-syndrome
#14
Shinsuke Kojima, Chie Nishioka, SungGi Chi, Akihito Yokoyama, Takayuki Ikezoe
Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is a newly developed anti-coagulant approved for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in Japan. rTM exerts anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions via its lectin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains, respectively. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment of 21 consecutive patients with coagulopathy, complicated by acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with or without combination with rTM...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037765/mechanisms-causing-loss-of-keratinocyte-cohesion-in-pemphigus
#15
REVIEW
Volker Spindler, Rüdiger Eming, Enno Schmidt, Masayuki Amagai, Sergei Grando, Marcel F Jonkman, Andrew P Kowalczyk, Eliane J Müller, Aimee S Payne, Carlo Pincelli, Animesh A Sinha, Eli Sprecher, Detlef Zillikens, Michael Hertl, Jens Waschke
The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus is caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins, but the precise mechanisms are in part a matter of controversial discussions. This review focuses on the currently existing models of the disease and highlights the relevance of desmoglein-specific versus nondesmoglein autoantibodies, the contribution of nonautoantibody factors, and the mechanisms leading to cell dissociation and blister formation in response to autoantibody binding. As the review brings together the majority of laboratories currently working on pemphigus pathogenesis, it aims to serve as a solid basis for further investigations for the entire field...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026528/protein-clustering-for-cell-polarity-par-3-as-a-paradigm
#16
REVIEW
Tony J C Harris
The scaffold protein Par-3 ( Drosophila Bazooka) is a central organizer of cell polarity across animals. This review focuses on how the clustering of Par-3 contributes to cell polarity. It begins with the Par-3 homo-oligomerization mechanism and its regulation by Par-1 phosphorylation. The role of polarized cytoskeletal networks in distributing Par-3 clusters to one end of the cell is then discussed, as is the subsequent maintenance of polarized Par-3 clusters through hindered mobility and inhibition from the opposite pole...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982834/how-biomarkers-reflect-the-prognosis-and-treatment-of-necrotising-soft-tissue-infections-and-the-effects-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-the-protocol-of-the-prospective-cohort-protreat-study-conducted-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-copenhagen-denmark
#17
Peter Polzik, Pär I Johansson, Ole Hyldegaard
INTRODUCTION: Not enough is known regarding the prognosis and treatment of necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). Mortality has been shown to be 25%-35%, with survivors coping with amputations and prolonged rehabilitation. This study will evaluate soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as a possible prognostic marker of NSTI severity and mortality, as well as whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can modulate markers of endothelial damage during NSTI. We hypothesise that in patients with NSTI, suPAR can provide prognostic risk assessment on hospital admission and that HBOT can reduce the endothelial damage that these patients are exposed to...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978894/dynamic-regulation-of-vascular-permeability-by-vascular-endothelial-cadherin-mediated-endothelial-cell-cell-junctions
#18
Seung-Sik Rho, Koji Ando, Shigetomo Fukuhara
Endothelial cells lining blood vessels regulate vascular barrier function, which controls the passage of plasma proteins and circulating cells across the endothelium. In most normal adult tissues, endothelial cells preserve basal vascular permeability at a low level, while they increase permeability in response to inflammation. Therefore, vascular permeability is tightly controlled by a number of extracellular stimuli and mediators to maintain tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, impaired regulation of endothelial permeability causes various diseases, including chronic inflammation, asthma, edema, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, anaphylaxis, tumor angiogenesis, and diabetic retinopathy...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977963/reduced-e-cadherin-expression-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Yongpeng Xie, Pin Li, Yu Gao, Liangyou Gu, Luyao Chen, Yang Fan, Fan Zhang, Xu Zhang
The prognostic significance of E-cadherin expression in bladder cancer (BC) has been elevated for years, but published results remain controversial and inconsistent. We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between E-cadherin expression and BC prognosis. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify eligible studies published until March 2017. On the basis of our inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 2,089 patients from 19 studies were eligible for final analysis...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965222/clinicopathological-study-of-a-dimorphic-variant-of-breast-carcinoma
#20
Nozomi Ueno, Hajime Kuroda, Masafumi Kurosumi, Yuji Kozuka, Jun Ito, Hiroyuki Kato, Keiichi Kubota, Yasuo Imai
BACKGROUND: Dimorphic cells have abundant clear cytoplasm similar to myoepithelial cells, and the nuclei are identical to those in adjacent malignant columnar epithelial cells. A dimorphic variant of a breast carcinoma involves a neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells including dimorphic cells. METHODS: The subjects were patients with primary breast carcinoma, who underwent surgical resection at the Hospital of Dokkyo Medical University between 2000 and 2016, and were reviewed and diagnosed with a dimorphic variant of breast carcinoma...
September 30, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
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