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cadherin review

Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Olugbenga Awolaran, Susan A Brooks, Verna Lavender
Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016...
October 14, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Natalie Homer, Michael K Yoon
PURPOSE: To further define the histopathologic features of breast carcinoma conducive to orbital metastasis. METHODS: Ten new female patients with orbital or eyelid breast cancer metastases encountered between 2011 and 2016 had their medical records reviewed for determining their clinical characteristics. Microscopic glass slides from biopsies and immunohistochemical test results were also analyzed. Biomarkers studied included cytokeratin 7, nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, and E-cadherin...
October 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Sandeep Puranik, Erick Forno, Andrew Bush, Juan C Celedón
Severe exacerbations negatively impact the quality of life and education of children with asthma, while also causing substantial healthcare costs. Preventing severe asthma exacerbations requires identifying patients at high risk, in order to develop personalized care protocols to prevent such exacerbations. In this review, we assess and discuss recently published data on risk factors and predictive tools for severe asthma exacerbations in childhood. Although few genome-wide association studies have focused on severe asthma exacerbations, one such study recently identified cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3, implicated on integrity of the airway epithelium), as a susceptibility gene for recurrent severe asthma exacerbations in young children...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Colin Jr Stewart, Maxine L Crook
AIMS: To review the clinicopathological features of 14 cases of CIN 3-like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix and to investigate possible mechanisms of tumour invasion in the CIN 3-like and 'conventional' (infiltrative) tumour components. METHODS AND RESULTS: The median patient age was 43.4 years. Of the twelve cases with known stage, eight were stage IB and four were stage II. Initial biopsies were often misinterpreted as CIN 3 alone or CIN 3 with only superficial stromal invasion and eight patients underwent multiple biopsy procedures prior to definitive diagnosis: upon review, an earlier diagnosis was possible in six of these cases...
September 28, 2016: Histopathology
Deniz Tuncel, Juan Carlos Roa, Juan Carlos Araya, Enrique Bellolio, Miguel Villaseca, Oscar Tapia, Kee-Taek Jang, Brian Quigley, Burcu Saka, Olca Basturk, Juan Sarmiento, Hector F Losada, Samip Patel, Michelle D Reid, Bahar Memis, Volkan Adsay
Signet-ring cell carcinoma is an extremely rare type of gallbladder carcinoma. In the gastrointestinal system, carcinomas with single-cell or cord-like infiltration, previously called "diffuse-infiltrative" type or "signet-ring cell", are now designated as "poorly cohesive cell" (PCC) type (regardless of with/without signet-ring cells) in the WHO-2010 classification. 628 primary invasive gallbladder carcinomas were reviewed for the PCC pattern. 24 cases in which classical poorly cohesive cell pattern constituted >50% of the tumor were included in the study...
September 22, 2016: Human Pathology
Chantel M Cadwell, Wenji Su, Andrew P Kowalczyk
Cadherins are the primary adhesion molecules in adherens junctions and desmosomes and play essential roles in embryonic development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding cadherin structure and function, we lack a clear vision of how cells confer plasticity upon adhesive junctions to allow for cellular rearrangements during development, wound healing, and metastasis. Endocytic membrane trafficking has emerged as a fundamental mechanism by which cells confer a dynamic state to adhesive junctions...
September 14, 2016: Traffic
Kiyohito Mizutani, Yoshimi Takai
Nectins are Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily cell adhesion molecules constituting a family with four members, all of which have three Ig-like loops at their extracellular regions. Nectins play roles in the formation of a variety of cell-cell adhesion apparatuses. There are at least three types of nectin-mediated cell adhesions: afadin- and cadherin-dependent, afadin-dependent and cadherin-independent, and afadin- and cadherin-independent. In addition, nectins trans-interact with nectin-like molecules (Necls) with three Ig-like loops and other Ig-like molecules with one to three Ig-like loops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Jeong Hwan Park, Cheol Lee, Ja Hee Suh, Gilhyang Kim, Boram Song, Kyung Chul Moon
Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) is considered to be a potentially malignant tumor and requires a differential diagnosis from renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we assessed the clinicopathologic features of renal EAML and evaluated the prognostic significance. Among 78 angiomyolipoma (AML) patients, a total of 5 EAMLs were identified, accounting for 6.4% of the total AML cases. The mean age was 41.4 years, and the average tumor size was 12.7 cm in diameter. Association of tuberous sclerosis complex was identified in two cases...
October 2016: Pathology International
Vivian Weiss, Julie Dueber, Jesse P Wright, Justin Cates, Frank Revetta, Alexander A Parikh, Nipun B Merchant, Chanjuan Shi
AIM: To investigate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 88 PanNENs were immunohistochemically labeled with antibodies to β-catenin, E-cadherin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), chromogranin and synaptophysin. One case had only metastatic tumors resected, whereas others (n = 87) received pancreatectomy with or without partial hepatectomy. Pathology slides, demographic, clinicopathologic, and follow up data were reviewed...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Shihori Tanabe, Kazuhiko Aoyagi, Hiroshi Yokozaki, Hiroki Sasaki
Recent research has shown that the alteration of combinations in gene expression contributes to cellular phenotypic changes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the combination of cadherin 1 and cadherin 2 expression can identify the diffuse-type and intestinal-type gastric cancers. Although the diffuse-type gastric cancer has been resistant to treatment, the precise mechanism and phenotypic involvement has not been revealed. It may be possible that stem cells transform into gastric cancer cells, possibly through the involvement of a molecule alteration and signaling mechanism...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Simona Gurzu, Camelia Silveanu, Annamaria Fetyko, Vlad Butiurca, Zsolt Kovacs, Ioan Jung
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as the transformation of an epithelial cell into a spindle cell with the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression and the gain of mesenchymal markers positivity. In the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), first data about EMT was published in 1995 and more than 400 papers had been written up to March 2016. Most of them are focused on the molecular pathways and experimentally-proved chemoresistance. In the present article, an update in the field of EMT in CRC based on the review of the literature and personal experience of the authors is presented...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jingxin Zhang, Lili Qiao, Ning Liang, Jian Xie, Hui Luo, Guodong Deng, Jiandong Zhang
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a microvascular channel made up of nonendothelial cells, has been accepted as a new model of neovascularization in aggressive tumors, owning to the specific capacity of malignant cells to form vessel-like networks which provide sufficient blood supply for tumor growth. Multiple molecular mechanisms, especially vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a, have been reported to participate in VM formation which is associated with tumor migration and invasion...
May 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło, Małgorzata Duda, Ewa Pocheć, Monika Bubka
Changes in the profile of protein glycosylation are a hallmark of ongoing neoplastic transformation. A unique set of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens expressed on the surface of malignant cells may serve as powerful diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Cell-surface proteins with altered glycosylation affect the growth, proliferation and survival of those cells, and contribute to their acquisition of the ability to migrate and invade. They may also facilitate tumor-induced immunosuppression and the formation of distant metastases...
August 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Francesca Roggiani, Delia Mezzanzanica, Katia Rea, Antonella Tomassetti
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest tumor among gynecological cancer in the industrialized countries. The EOC incidence and mortality have remained unchanged over the last 30 years, despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment. In order to develop novel and more effective therapeutic approaches, the molecular mechanisms involved in EOC progression have been thoroughly investigated in the last few decades. At the late stage, peritoneal metastases originate from the attachment of small clusters of cancer cells that shed from the primary site and carried by the ascites adhere to the abdominal peritoneum or omentum...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Natalia Reglero-Real, Bartomeu Colom, Jennifer Victoria Bodkin, Sussan Nourshargh
Endothelial cells line the lumen of all blood vessels and play a critical role in maintaining the barrier function of the vasculature. Sealing of the vessel wall between adjacent endothelial cells is facilitated by interactions involving junctionally expressed transmembrane proteins, including tight junctional molecules, such as members of the junctional adhesion molecule family, components of adherence junctions, such as VE-Cadherin, and other molecules, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule...
October 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Nick Baniak, Jenna-Lynn Senger, Shahid Ahmed, S C Kanthan, Rani Kanthan
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor 5-year survival and large global burden of disease. The disease is biologically and genetically heterogeneous with a poorly understood carcinogenesis at the molecular level. Despite the many prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic biomarkers investigated to date, gastric cancer continues to be detected at an advanced stage with resultant poor clinical outcomes. MAIN BODY: This is a global review of gastric biomarkers with an emphasis on HER2, E-cadherin, fibroblast growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor as well as sections on microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, matrix metalloproteinases, PD-L1, TP53, and microsatellite instability...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
María López, Cristina Cervera-Acedo, Paula Santibáñez, Raquel Salazar, Jesús-Javier Sola, Elena Domínguez-Garrido
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited form of diffuse type gastric cancer. Germline CDH1 mutations have been identified in approximately 15-50 % of affected kindred that meet the clinical criteria for HDGC. If any of the criteria is met the individual is referred to genetic counseling and CDH1 testing is offered. In this report we present the case of a Spanish family with HDGC harboring a novel CDH1 mutation. A 47 year-old female with a diagnostic of gastric adenocarcinoma and some of her relatives were tested...
2016: SpringerPlus
Vania Braga
The characteristic tall and elongated shape of epithelial cells requires specialized adhesive structures and a distinct organization of cytoskeletal filaments. Cytoskeletal networks coordinate a precise organization of adhesive and signalling complexes along cell-cell contacts and enable exquisite strong cohesion among epithelial cells. E-cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion receptor, is an essential adhesive system in epithelia and its dynamic regulation and pathways that stabilize cell-cell adhesion have been extensively studied...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
M Faller, C Lamm, V K Affolter, K Valerius, S Schwartz, P F Moore
OBJECTIVES: To describe a small subset of canine solitary cutaneous histiocytoma in which lymph node metastasis has been documented. METHODS: Cases of dogs with solitary cutaneous histiocytoma lesions and regional lymph node metastasis diagnosed via histopathology were found through a retrospective search of the databases of IDEXX Laboratories and the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Clinical Diagnostic Laboratories. Information on signalment, history and clinical follow-up was obtained from the submittal form and/or via a questionnaire to the submitting veterinarian...
October 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
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