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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160067/molecular-tension-probes-for-imaging-forces-at-the-cell-surface
#1
Yang Liu, Kornelia Galior, Victor Pui-Yan Ma, Khalid Salaita
Mechanical forces are essential for a variety of biological processes ranging from transcription and translation to cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Through the activation of mechanosensitive signaling pathways, cells sense and respond to physical stimuli from the surrounding environment, a process widely known as mechanotransduction. At the cell membrane, many signaling receptors, such as integrins, cadherins and T- or B-cell receptors, bind to their ligands on the surface of adjacent cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM) to mediate mechanotransduction...
November 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102711/pleomorphic-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-diagnosed-by-breast-core-biopsy-clinicopathologic-features-and-correlation-with-subsequent-excision
#2
Tianhua Guo, Yihong Wang, Nella Shapiro, Susan Fineberg
INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a variant of LCIS with high-grade morphologic features. The number of case series studying PLCIS is limited, and clinical management of patients with PLCIS is controversial. We report a breast core biopsy (BCBx) series of PLCIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 37 cases of PLCIS with or without microinvasion diagnosed by BCBx. PLCIS was defined as dyscohesive cells showing acinar expansion and loss of immunohistochemical membranous expression of e-cadherin or beta-catenin with nuclear pleomorphism with at least 2- to 3-fold variation in nuclear size, membrane irregularities, and variably prominent nucleoli...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090670/the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-pathway-in-two-cases-with-gastric-metastasis-originating-from-breast-carcinoma-one-with-a-metachronous-primary-gastric-cancer
#3
Simona Gurzu, Laura Banias, Tivadar Bara, Istvan Feher, Tivadar Jr Bara, Ioan Jung
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the stomach are extremely rare and the metastatic pathway is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To present two unusual gastric metastases and a review of the literature regarding the pathway of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the metastatic cells. METHOD: The clinicopathological aspects of the two cases were presented in the light of the most recent patents. Data about patents were obtained from the online databases PubMed, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Google patents...
November 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080116/the-role-of-ubiquitination-and-deubiquitination-in-the-regulation-of-cell-junctions
#4
REVIEW
Junting Cai, Miranda K Culley, Yutong Zhao, Jing Zhao
Maintenance of cell junctions plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular functions including cell proliferation, permeability, and cell death. Disruption of cell junctions is implicated in a variety of human disorders, such as inflammatory diseases and cancers. Understanding molecular regulation of cell junctions is important for development of therapeutic strategies for intervention of human diseases. Ubiquitination is an important type of post-translational modification that primarily regulates endogenous protein stability, receptor internalization, enzyme activity, and protein-protein interactions...
October 27, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055789/in-vitro-studies-on-the-role-of-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-in-the-context-of-retinoic-acid-mediated-apl-differentiation-syndrome
#5
Shinsuke Kojima, Chie Nishioka, SungGi Chi, Akihito Yokoyama, Takayuki Ikezoe
Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is a newly developed anti-coagulant approved for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in Japan. rTM exerts anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions via its lectin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains, respectively. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment of 21 consecutive patients with coagulopathy, complicated by acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with or without combination with rTM...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037765/mechanisms-causing-loss-of-keratinocyte-cohesion-in-pemphigus
#6
REVIEW
Volker Spindler, Rüdiger Eming, Enno Schmidt, Masayuki Amagai, Sergei Grando, Marcel F Jonkman, Andrew P Kowalczyk, Eliane J Müller, Aimee S Payne, Carlo Pincelli, Animesh A Sinha, Eli Sprecher, Detlef Zillikens, Michael Hertl, Jens Waschke
The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus is caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins, but the precise mechanisms are in part a matter of controversial discussions. This review focuses on the currently existing models of the disease and highlights the relevance of desmoglein-specific versus nondesmoglein autoantibodies, the contribution of nonautoantibody factors, and the mechanisms leading to cell dissociation and blister formation in response to autoantibody binding. As the review brings together the majority of laboratories currently working on pemphigus pathogenesis, it aims to serve as a solid basis for further investigations for the entire field...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026528/protein-clustering-for-cell-polarity-par-3-as-a-paradigm
#7
REVIEW
Tony J C Harris
The scaffold protein Par-3 ( Drosophila Bazooka) is a central organizer of cell polarity across animals. This review focuses on how the clustering of Par-3 contributes to cell polarity. It begins with the Par-3 homo-oligomerization mechanism and its regulation by Par-1 phosphorylation. The role of polarized cytoskeletal networks in distributing Par-3 clusters to one end of the cell is then discussed, as is the subsequent maintenance of polarized Par-3 clusters through hindered mobility and inhibition from the opposite pole...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982834/how-biomarkers-reflect-the-prognosis-and-treatment-of-necrotising-soft-tissue-infections-and-the-effects-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-the-protocol-of-the-prospective-cohort-protreat-study-conducted-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-copenhagen-denmark
#8
Peter Polzik, Pär I Johansson, Ole Hyldegaard
INTRODUCTION: Not enough is known regarding the prognosis and treatment of necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). Mortality has been shown to be 25%-35%, with survivors coping with amputations and prolonged rehabilitation. This study will evaluate soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as a possible prognostic marker of NSTI severity and mortality, as well as whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can modulate markers of endothelial damage during NSTI. We hypothesise that in patients with NSTI, suPAR can provide prognostic risk assessment on hospital admission and that HBOT can reduce the endothelial damage that these patients are exposed to...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978894/dynamic-regulation-of-vascular-permeability-by-vascular-endothelial-cadherin-mediated-endothelial-cell-cell-junctions
#9
Seung-Sik Rho, Koji Ando, Shigetomo Fukuhara
Endothelial cells lining blood vessels regulate vascular barrier function, which controls the passage of plasma proteins and circulating cells across the endothelium. In most normal adult tissues, endothelial cells preserve basal vascular permeability at a low level, while they increase permeability in response to inflammation. Therefore, vascular permeability is tightly controlled by a number of extracellular stimuli and mediators to maintain tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, impaired regulation of endothelial permeability causes various diseases, including chronic inflammation, asthma, edema, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, anaphylaxis, tumor angiogenesis, and diabetic retinopathy...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977963/reduced-e-cadherin-expression-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Yongpeng Xie, Pin Li, Yu Gao, Liangyou Gu, Luyao Chen, Yang Fan, Fan Zhang, Xu Zhang
The prognostic significance of E-cadherin expression in bladder cancer (BC) has been elevated for years, but published results remain controversial and inconsistent. We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between E-cadherin expression and BC prognosis. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify eligible studies published until March 2017. On the basis of our inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 2,089 patients from 19 studies were eligible for final analysis...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965222/clinicopathological-study-of-a-dimorphic-variant-of-breast-carcinoma
#11
Nozomi Ueno, Hajime Kuroda, Masafumi Kurosumi, Yuji Kozuka, Jun Ito, Hiroyuki Kato, Keiichi Kubota, Yasuo Imai
BACKGROUND: Dimorphic cells have abundant clear cytoplasm similar to myoepithelial cells, and the nuclei are identical to those in adjacent malignant columnar epithelial cells. A dimorphic variant of a breast carcinoma involves a neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells including dimorphic cells. METHODS: The subjects were patients with primary breast carcinoma, who underwent surgical resection at the Hospital of Dokkyo Medical University between 2000 and 2016, and were reviewed and diagnosed with a dimorphic variant of breast carcinoma...
September 30, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959689/intermediate-filaments-at-the-junction-of-mechanotransduction-migration-and-development
#12
REVIEW
Rucha Sanghvi-Shah, Gregory F Weber
Mechanically induced signal transduction has an essential role in development. Cells actively transduce and respond to mechanical signals and their internal architecture must manage the associated forces while also being dynamically responsive. With unique assembly-disassembly dynamics and physical properties, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments play an important role in regulating cell shape and mechanical integrity. While this function has been recognized and appreciated for more than 30 years, continually emerging data also demonstrate important roles of intermediate filaments in cell signal transduction...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942499/human-cancer-stem-cells-are-a-target-for-cancer-prevention-using-epigallocatechin-gallate
#13
REVIEW
Hirota Fujiki, Eisaburo Sueoka, Anchalee Rawangkan, Masami Suganuma
PURPOSE: Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. METHODS: The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893859/adherens-junctions-and-desmosomes-coordinate-mechanics-and-signaling-to-orchestrate-tissue-morphogenesis-and-function-an-evolutionary-perspective
#14
Matthias Rübsam, Joshua A Broussard, Sara A Wickström, Oxana Nekrasova, Kathleen J Green, Carien M Niessen
Cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes are crucial to couple intercellular adhesion to the actin or intermediate filament cytoskeletons, respectively. As such, these intercellular junctions are essential to provide not only integrity to epithelia and other tissues but also the mechanical machinery necessary to execute complex morphogenetic and homeostatic intercellular rearrangements. Moreover, these spatially defined junctions serve as signaling hubs that integrate mechanical and chemical pathways to coordinate tissue architecture with behavior...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851747/vascular-endothelial-ve-cadherin-endothelial-adherens-junctions-and-vascular-disease
#15
Maria Grazia Lampugnani, Elisabetta Dejana, Costanza Giampietro
Endothelial cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs) supervise fundamental vascular functions, such as the control of permeability and transmigration of circulating leukocytes, and the maintenance of existing vessels and formation of new ones. These processes are often dysregulated in pathologies. However, the evidence that links dysfunction of endothelial AJs to human pathologies is mostly correlative. In this review, we present an update of the molecular organization of AJ complexes in endothelial cells (ECs) that is mainly based on observations from experimental models...
September 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#16
Jaime L Clark, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T-cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T-cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T-cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818096/immunohistochemical-prognostic-markers-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review
#17
Chunni Wang, Jingnan Wang, Zhaoli Chen, Yibo Gao, Jie He
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy, with a high incidence and poor prognosis. In the past several decades, hundreds of proteins have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of ESCC, but none has been widely accepted to guide clinical care. This study aimed to identify proteins with great potential for predicting prognosis of ESCC. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on immunohistochemical (IHC) prognostic markers of ESCC according to the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines...
August 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800767/cell-adhesion-heterogeneity-reinforces-tumour-cell-dissemination-novel-insights-from-a-mathematical-model
#18
David Reher, Barbara Klink, Andreas Deutsch, Anja Voss-Böhme
BACKGROUND: Cancer cell invasion, dissemination, and metastasis have been linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of individual tumour cells. During EMT, adhesion molecules like E-cadherin are downregulated and the decrease of cell-cell adhesion allows tumour cells to dissociate from the primary tumour mass. This complex process depends on intracellular cues that are subject to genetic and epigenetic variability, as well as extrinsic cues from the local environment resulting in a spatial heterogeneity in the adhesive phenotype of individual tumour cells...
August 11, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774834/role-of-forkhead-box-class-o-proteins-in-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Chang Geun Kim, Hyemin Lee, Nehal Gupta, Sharavan Ramachandran, Itishree Kaushik, Sangeeta Srivastava, Sung-Hoon Kim, Sanjay K Srivastava
It is now widely accepted that several gene alterations including transcription factors are critically involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Forkhead Box Class O proteins (FoxOs) including FoxO1/FKHR, FoxO3/FKHRL1, FoxO4/AFX and FoxO6 transcription factors are known to play key roles in proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, cell metabolism, aging and cancer biology through their phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Though FoxOs are proved to be mainly regulated by upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, the role of FoxOs in cancer progression and metastasis still remains unclear so far...
August 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774578/regulation-of-wnt-signaling-by-protocadherins
#20
REVIEW
Kar Men Mah, Joshua A Weiner
The ∼70 protocadherins comprise the largest group within the cadherin superfamily. Their diversity, the complexity of the mechanisms through which their genes are regulated, and their many critical functions in nervous system development have engendered a growing interest in elucidating the intracellular signaling pathways through which they act. Recently, multiple protocadherins across several subfamilies have been implicated as modulators of Wnt signaling pathways, and through this as potential tumor suppressors...
September 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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