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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800767/cell-adhesion-heterogeneity-reinforces-tumour-cell-dissemination-novel-insights-from-a-mathematical-model
#1
David Reher, Barbara Klink, Andreas Deutsch, Anja Voss-Böhme
BACKGROUND: Cancer cell invasion, dissemination, and metastasis have been linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of individual tumour cells. During EMT, adhesion molecules like E-cadherin are downregulated and the decrease of cell-cell adhesion allows tumour cells to dissociate from the primary tumour mass. This complex process depends on intracellular cues that are subject to genetic and epigenetic variability, as well as extrinsic cues from the local environment resulting in a spatial heterogeneity in the adhesive phenotype of individual tumour cells...
August 11, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774834/role-of-forkhead-box-class-o-proteins-in-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Chang Geun Kim, Hyemin Lee, Nehal Gupta, Sharavan Ramachandran, Itishree Kaushik, Sangeeta Srivastava, Sung-Hoon Kim, Sanjay K Srivastava
It is now widely accepted that several gene alterations including transcription factors are critically involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Forkhead Box Class O proteins (FoxOs) including FoxO1/FKHR, FoxO3/FKHRL1, FoxO4/AFX and FoxO6 transcription factors are known to play key roles in proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, cell metabolism, aging and cancer biology through their phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Though FoxOs are proved to be mainly regulated by upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, the role of FoxOs in cancer progression and metastasis still remains unclear so far...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774578/regulation-of-wnt-signaling-by-protocadherins
#3
REVIEW
Kar Men Mah, Joshua A Weiner
The ∼70 protocadherins comprise the largest group within the cadherin superfamily. Their diversity, the complexity of the mechanisms through which their genes are regulated, and their many critical functions in nervous system development have engendered a growing interest in elucidating the intracellular signaling pathways through which they act. Recently, multiple protocadherins across several subfamilies have been implicated as modulators of Wnt signaling pathways, and through this as potential tumor suppressors...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756270/neuronal-territory-formation-by-the-atypical-cadherins-and-clustered-protocadherins
#4
REVIEW
Julie L Lefebvre
Spatial patterns of neuronal connectivity are critical for neural circuit function and information processing. For many neuron types, the development of stereotyped dendritic and axonal territories involves reiterative contacts between neurites and successive re-calibration of branch outgrowth and directionality. Here I review emerging roles for members of the atypical cadherins (Fmi/Celsrs) and the clustered Protocadherins (Pcdhs) in neurite patterning. These cell-surface molecules have shared functions: they engage in homophilic recognition and mediate dynamic and contact-dependent interactions to establish reproducible and space-filling arborization patterns...
July 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754443/nanoscale-mechanobiology-of-cell-adhesions
#5
REVIEW
Shumin Xia, Pakorn Kanchanawong
Proper physiological functions of cells and tissues depend upon their abilities to sense, transduce, integrate, and generate mechanical and biochemical signals. Although such mechanobiological phenomena are widely observed, the molecular mechanisms driving these outcomes are still not fully understood. Cell adhesions formed by integrins and cadherins receptors are key structures that process diverse sources of signals to elicit complex mechanobiological responses. Since the nanoscale is the length scale at which molecules interact to relay force and information, the understanding of cell adhesions at the nanoscale level is important for grasping the inner logics of cellular decision making...
July 25, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741480/cadherins-glycans-in-cancer-sweet-players-in-a-bitter-process
#6
REVIEW
Sandra Carvalho, Celso A Reis, Salomé S Pinho
Cadherins are key components in tissue morphogenesis and architecture, contributing to the establishment of cohesive cell adhesion. Reduced cellular adhesiveness as a result of cadherin dysfunction is a defining feature of cancer. During tumor development and progression, major changes in the glycan repertoire of cancer cells take place, affecting the stability, trafficking, and cell-adhesion properties of cadherins. Importantly, the different glycoforms of cadherins are promising biomarkers, with potential clinical application to improve the management of patients, and constitute targets for the development of new therapies...
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722313/cellular-glycosylation-senses-metabolic-changes-and-modulates-cell-plasticity-during-emt
#7
REVIEW
P Carvalho-Cruz, F Alisson-Silva, A R Todeschini, W B Dias
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program reactivated by tumor cells that leads to the switch from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. During EMT, cells are transcriptionally regulated to decrease E-cadherin expression while expressing mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin. Growing body of evidences suggest that cells engaged in EMT undergo a metabolic reprograming process, redirecting glucose flux toward Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP) which fuels aberrant glycosylation patterns that are extensively observed in cancer cells...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690234/-pcdh19-gene-mutations-lead-to-epilepsy-with-mental-retardation-limited-to-females-in-2-cases-and-literature-review
#8
Li Yang, Ahmed Arafat, Jing Peng, Chen Chen, Yuping Ma, Fei Yin
Epilepsy with mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a syndrome characterized by early onset heat-sensitive epilepsy of infancy or early childhood and generally limited to females, which previously reported that the cadherin gene superfamily subtype protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene is its pathogenic gene. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 2 cases of EFMR patients with PCDH19 mutation diagnosed by Department of Pediatric Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2015. Literature on PubMed, OMIM and HGMD relevant to this syndrome was reviewed, and the clinical characteristics were summarized accordingly...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684609/single-and-collective-cell-migration-the-mechanics-of-adhesions
#9
Chiara De Pascalis, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Chemical and physical properties of the environment control cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis in the long term. However, to be able to move and migrate through a complex three-dimensional environment, cells must quickly adapt in the short term to the physical properties of their surroundings. Interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) occur through focal adhesions or hemidesmosomes via the engagement of integrins with fibrillar ECM proteins. Cells also interact with their neighbors, and this involves various types of intercellular adhesive structures such as tight junctions, cadherin-based adherens junctions, and desmosomes...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677069/high-fdg-uptake-on-pet-is-associated-with-negative-cell-to-cell-adhesion-molecule-e-cadherin-expression-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Kotaro Higashi, Yoshimichi Ueda, Miyako Shimasaki, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Yuka Nakamura, Manabu Oguchi, Tsutomu Takegami, Naoto Watanabe
OBJECTIVES: E-cadherin is a main cell-to-cell adhesion molecule. A negative expression of E-cadherin correlates with distant metastasis in lung cancer. Recently, it was reported that there is an association between FDG uptake on PET and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer. Downregulation of E-cadherin is one of the best markers of EMT. The purpose of this study was to compare E-cadherin expression with FDG uptake on PET, cell differentiation, aggressiveness and post-operative recurrence in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and to investigate whether FDG uptake on PET is associated with E-cadherin expression...
July 4, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670499/wnt-signaling-pathway-protein-lef1-in-cancer-as-a-biomarker-for-prognosis-and-a-target-for-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Larion Santiago, Garrett Daniels, Dongwen Wang, Fang-Ming Deng, Peng Lee
Transcription factors are regulatory proteins that either activate or repress the transcription of genes via binding to DNA regulatory sequences and regulating recruitment of transcriptional complexes. Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), a member of the T-cell Factor (TCF)/LEF1 family of high-mobility group transcription factors, is a downstream mediator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, but can also modulate gene transcription independently. LEF1 is essential in stem cell maintenance and organ development, especially in its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating the transcription of hallmark EMT effectors including N-Cadherin, Vimentin, and Snail...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631008/regulation-of-neural-circuit-formation-by-protocadherins
#12
REVIEW
Stacey L Peek, Kar Men Mah, Joshua A Weiner
The protocadherins (Pcdhs), which make up the most diverse group within the cadherin superfamily, were first discovered in the early 1990s. Data implicating the Pcdhs, including ~60 proteins encoded by the tandem Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg gene clusters and another ~10 non-clustered Pcdhs, in the regulation of neural development have continually accumulated, with a significant expansion of the field over the past decade. Here, we review the many roles played by clustered and non-clustered Pcdhs in multiple steps important for the formation and function of neural circuits, including dendrite arborization, axon outgrowth and targeting, synaptogenesis, and synapse elimination...
June 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603076/functional-roles-of-p120ctn-family-of-proteins-in-central-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Li Yuan, Jyothi Arikkath
The cadherin-catenin complex in central neurons is associated with a variety of cytosolic partners, collectively called catenins. The p120ctn members are a family of catenins that are distinct from the more ubiquitously expressed α- and β-catenins. It is becoming increasingly clear that the functional roles of the p120ctn family of catenins in central neurons extend well beyond their functional roles in non-neuronal cells in partnering with cadherin to regulate adhesion. In this review, we will provide an overview of the p120ctn family in neurons and their varied functional roles in central neurons...
June 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597750/muc1-induces-tamoxifen-resistance-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Parnaz Merikhian, Reyhane Ghadirian, Leila Farahmand, Sepideh Mansouri, Keivan Majidzadeh-A
Tamoxifen, as an essential therapeutic tool in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has been available for the past three decades and is currently being utilized as a chemo-preventive agent for patients at high risk for breast carcinoma. However, the induction of chemo-resistance during therapy has indicated a significant challenge with regards to this agent. Areas covered: This review enumerates the role of MUC1-C proto-oncogene in tamoxifen resistance and describes a number of signaling pathways by which MUC1-C would mediate the development of resistance...
July 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595284/infertility-diagnosis-has-a-significant-impact-on-the-transcriptome-of-developing-blastocysts
#15
Blair R McCallie, Jason C Parks, Darren K Griffin, William B Schoolcraft, Mandy G Katz-Jaffe
STUDY QUESTION: Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588719/e-cadherin-a-potential-biomarker-of-colorectal-cancer-prognosis
#16
Niki Christou, Aurélie Perraud, Sabrina Blondy, Marie-Odile Jauberteau, Serge Battu, Muriel Mathonnet
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and lethal disease. It is the third most common type of cancer in the world, behind lung and breast cancer, with almost 1.4 million new cases diagnosed in 2012. The risk of developing CRC is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Adenocarcinomas comprise the vast majority (98%) of CRCs. A patient's likelihood of survival is associated with the tumor stage at the time of diagnosis. With regular screening, CRC can be identified early, when treatment is the most effective...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574280/current-concepts-in-diagnosis-molecular-features-and-management-of-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-of-the-breast-with-a-discussion-of-morphologic-variants
#17
Paula S Ginter, Timothy M D'Alfonso
CONTEXT: - Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) refers to a neoplastic proliferation of cells that characteristically shows loss of E-cadherin expression and has long been regarded as a risk factor for invasive breast cancer. Long-term outcome studies and molecular data have also implicated LCIS as a nonobligate precursor to invasive carcinoma. In the past few decades, pleomorphic and florid LCIS have been recognized as morphologic variants of LCIS with more-aggressive histopathologic features, less-favorable biomarker profiles, and more-complex molecular features compared with classic LCIS...
June 2, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559764/factors-affecting-concordance-between-radiological-and-histological-findings-in-invasive-lobular-carcinoma-experience-from-a-national-cancer-centre
#18
Duaa Abu-Sinn, Donal O'Driscoll, Maurice Murphy
BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is characterized by an infiltrative discohesive growth pattern, making it difficult to accurately assess both clinically and by imaging studies. Despite favourable biological characteristics, challenges remain in the surgical treatment of ILC. We aimed to evaluate radiology/histology concordance and identify histological and biological parameters on core biopsies that may predict final tumour histology and guide surgical treatment decisions...
May 2017: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551672/ctnnb1-mutations-in-ovarian-microcystic-stromal-tumors-identification-of-a-novel-deletion-mutation-and-the-use-of-pyrosequencing-to-identify-reported-point-mutation
#19
Kiyong Na, Eun Kyung Kim, Wonjun Jang, Hyun-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: Microcystic stromal tumor (MCST) is a rare stromal tumor of the ovary. In this study, we describe clinicopathological characteristics and results of mutational analyses of the CTNNB1gene in two cases of ovarian MCST and we provide a thorough review of previously published cases alongside our current cases and clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian MCST. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' age was 33 and 31 years, respectively. One patient presented with fever and low abdominal pain, whereas a pelvic mass was incidentally detected in another patient...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551508/fat-like-cadherins-in-cell-migration-leading-from-both-the-front-and-the-back
#20
REVIEW
Sally Horne-Badovinac
When cells migrate through the body, their motility is continually influenced by interactions with other cells. The Fat-like cadherins are cell-cell signaling proteins that promote migration in multiple cell types. Recent studies suggest, however, that Fat-like cadherins influence motility differently in mammals versus Drosophila, with the cadherin acting at the leading edge of mammalian cells and the trailing edge of Drosophila cells. As opposed to this being a difference between organisms, it is more likely that the Fat-like cadherins are highly versatile proteins that can interact with the migration machinery in multiple ways...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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