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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899187/genetic-predisposition-to-gastric-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Iva Petrovchich, James M Ford
Gastric cancer ranks as the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and confers a 5-year survival of 20%. While most gastric cancers are sporadic, ~1%-3% can be attributed to inherited cancer predisposition syndromes. Germline E-cadherin/CDH1 mutations have been identified in families with an autosomal dominant inherited predisposition to diffuse gastric cancer. The cumulative risk of gastric cancer for CDH1 mutation carriers by age 80 years is reportedly 70% for men and 56% for women. Female mutation carriers also have an estimated 42% risk for developing lobular breast cancer by age 80 years...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894412/the-most-common-genes-involved-in-epigenetics-modifications-among-iranian-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#2
N Iranshahi, P Zafari, K H Yari, E Alizadeh
Breast cancer, with a lifelong risk of one in nine, is the most common cancer among women. In Iran, breast cancer is one of the growing and important women's health problems. Several environmental, genetic and epigenetics factors have been suggested to have a role in breast cancer development. Epigenetics alterations are heritable changes in gene expression that occur without causing any change in DNA sequence. DNA methylation as a main epigenetics modification in human cancer is found as a promising biomarker in early detection of breast cancer...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868288/p21-cox-2-and-e-cadherin-are-potential-prognostic-factors-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Yao Lin, Lu-Yan Shen, Hao Fu, Bin Dong, He-Li Yang, Wan-Pu Yan, Xiao-Zheng Kang, Liang Dai, Hai-Tao Zhou, Yong-Bo Yang, Zhen Liang, Ke-Neng Chen
Much research effort has been devoted to identifying prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by immunohistochemistry; however, no conclusive findings have been reached thus far. We hypothesized that certain molecules identified in previous studies might serve as useful prognostic markers for ESCC. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to validate the most relevant markers showing potential for ESCC prognosis in our prospective esophageal cancer database. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following key words: 'esophageal cancer,' 'prognosis,' and 'immunohistochemistry...
November 21, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826202/the-association-clinicopathological-significance-and-diagnostic-value-of-cdh1-promoter-methylation-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-of-23-studies
#4
Zhisen Shen, Chongchang Zhou, Jinyun Li, Hongxia Deng, Qun Li, Jian Wang
Epithelial cadherin (encoded by the CDH1 gene) is a tumor suppressor glycoprotein that plays a role in the invasion and metastasis of human cancers. As previous studies regarding the association between CDH1 promoter methylation and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have yielded inconsistent conclusions, a meta-analysis was performed. A systematic literature review was undertaken from four databases: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Finally, a total of 23 studies (including 1,727 cases of HNSCC and 555 normal controls) were included in the present study...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814736/e-cadherin-roles-in-animal-biology-a-perspective-on-thyroid-hormone-influence
#5
REVIEW
María Fernanda Izaguirre, Victor Hugo Casco
The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in these processes. Particularly, adherens junctions (AJs) mediated by E-cadherin and catenins determine cell-cell contact survival and epithelia function...
November 4, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803929/advances-in-understanding-how-heavy-metal-pollution-triggers-gastric-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Wenzhen Yuan, Ning Yang, Xiangkai Li
With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784972/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-and-solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-key-immunohistochemical-profiles-for-differential-diagnosis
#7
Yusuke Ohara, Tatsuya Oda, Shinji Hashimoto, Yoshimasa Akashi, Ryoichi Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi Enomoto, Kaishi Satomi, Yukio Morishita, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
AIM: To reveal better diagnostic markers for differentiating neuroendocrine tumor (NET) from solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN), focusing primarily on immunohistochemical analysis. METHODS: We reviewed 30 pancreatic surgical specimens of NET (24 cases) and SPN (6 cases). We carried out comprehensive immunohistochemical profiling using 9 markers: Synaptophysin, chromogranin A, pan-cytokeratin, E-cadherin, progesterone receptor, vimentin, α-1-antitrypsin, CD10, and β-catenin...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763894/histological-features-of-pituitary-adenomas-and-sellar-region-masses
#8
Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750106/breast-cancer-osteomimicry-and-its-role-in-bone-specific-metastasis-an%C3%A2-integrative-systematic-review-of-preclinical-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Olugbenga Awolaran, Susan A Brooks, Verna Lavender
Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016...
December 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749621/periocular-breast-carcinoma-metastases-predominant-origin-from-the-lobular-variant
#10
Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Natalie Homer, Michael K Yoon
PURPOSE: To further define the histopathologic features of breast carcinoma conducive to orbital metastasis. METHODS: Ten new female patients with orbital or eyelid breast cancer metastases encountered between 2011 and 2016 had their medical records reviewed for determining their clinical characteristics. Microscopic glass slides from biopsies and immunohistochemical test results were also analyzed. Biomarkers studied included cytokeratin 7, nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, and E-cadherin...
October 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710010/predicting-severe-asthma-exacerbations-in-children
#11
Sandeep Puranik, Erick Forno, Andrew Bush, Juan C Celedón
Severe exacerbations negatively impact the quality of life and education of children with asthma, while also causing substantial healthcare costs. Preventing severe asthma exacerbations requires identifying patients at high risk, in order to develop personalized care protocols to prevent such exacerbations. In this review, we assess and discuss recently published data on risk factors and predictive tools for severe asthma exacerbations in childhood. Although few genome-wide association studies have focused on severe asthma exacerbations, one such study recently identified cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3, implicated on integrity of the airway epithelium), as a susceptibility gene for recurrent severe asthma exacerbations in young children...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681166/cin-3-like-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-cervix-a-review-of-14-cases-with-comparison-of-e-cadherin-and-cyclin-d1-expression-in-the-cin-3-like-and-infiltrative-tumour-elements
#12
Colin Jr Stewart, Maxine L Crook
AIMS: To review the clinicopathological features of 14 cases of CIN 3-like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix and to investigate possible mechanisms of tumour invasion in the CIN 3-like and 'conventional' (infiltrative) tumour components. METHODS AND RESULTS: The median patient age was 43.4 years. Of the twelve cases with known stage, eight were stage IB and four were stage II. Initial biopsies were often misinterpreted as CIN 3 alone or CIN 3 with only superficial stromal invasion and eight patients underwent multiple biopsy procedures prior to definitive diagnosis: upon review, an earlier diagnosis was possible in six of these cases...
September 28, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666767/poorly-cohesive-cell-diffuse-infiltrative-signet-ring-cell-carcinomas-of-the-gallbladder-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-24-cases-identified-in-628-gallbladder-carcinomas
#13
Deniz Tuncel, Juan Carlos Roa, Juan Carlos Araya, Enrique Bellolio, Miguel Villaseca, Oscar Tapia, Kee-Taek Jang, Brian Quigley, Burcu Saka, Olca Basturk, Juan Sarmiento, Hector F Losada, Samip Patel, Michelle D Reid, Bahar Memis, Volkan Adsay
Signet-ring cell carcinoma is an extremely rare type of gallbladder carcinoma. In the gastrointestinal system, carcinomas with single-cell or cord-like infiltration, previously called "diffuse-infiltrative" type or "signet-ring cell", are now designated as "poorly cohesive cell" (PCC) type (regardless of with/without signet-ring cells) in the WHO-2010 classification. 628 primary invasive gallbladder carcinomas were reviewed for the PCC pattern. 24 cases in which classical poorly cohesive cell pattern constituted >50% of the tumor were included in the study...
September 22, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624909/cadherin-tales-regulation-of-cadherin-function-by-endocytic-membrane-trafficking
#14
REVIEW
Chantel M Cadwell, Wenji Su, Andrew P Kowalczyk
Cadherins are the primary adhesion molecules in adherens junctions and desmosomes and play essential roles in embryonic development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding cadherin structure and function, we lack a clear vision of how cells confer plasticity upon adhesive junctions to allow for cellular rearrangements during development, wound healing and metastasis. Endocytic membrane trafficking has emerged as a fundamental mechanism by which cells confer a dynamic state to adhesive junctions...
September 14, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621480/nectin-spot-a-novel-type-of-nectin-mediated-cell-adhesion-apparatus
#15
REVIEW
Kiyohito Mizutani, Yoshimi Takai
Nectins are Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily cell adhesion molecules constituting a family with four members, all of which have three Ig-like loops at their extracellular regions. Nectins play roles in the formation of a variety of cell-cell adhesion apparatuses. There are at least three types of nectin-mediated cell adhesions: afadin- and cadherin-dependent, afadin-dependent and cadherin-independent, and afadin- and cadherin-independent. In addition, nectins trans-interact with nectin-like molecules (Necls) with three Ig-like loops and other Ig-like molecules with one to three Ig-like loops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595761/renal-epithelioid-angiomyolipoma-histopathologic-review-immunohistochemical-evaluation-and-prognostic-significance
#16
Jeong Hwan Park, Cheol Lee, Ja Hee Suh, Gilhyang Kim, Boram Song, Kyung Chul Moon
Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) is considered to be a potentially malignant tumor and requires a differential diagnosis from renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we assessed the clinicopathologic features of renal EAML and evaluated the prognostic significance. Among 78 angiomyolipoma (AML) patients, a total of 5 EAMLs were identified, accounting for 6.4% of the total AML cases. The mean age was 41.4 years, and the average tumor size was 12.7 cm in diameter. Association of tuberous sclerosis complex was identified in two cases...
October 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574554/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#17
Vivian Weiss, Julie Dueber, Jesse P Wright, Justin Cates, Frank Revetta, Alexander A Parikh, Nipun B Merchant, Chanjuan Shi
AIM: To investigate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 88 PanNENs were immunohistochemically labeled with antibodies to β-catenin, E-cadherin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), chromogranin and synaptophysin. One case had only metastatic tumors resected, whereas others (n = 87) received pancreatectomy with or without partial hepatectomy. Pathology slides, demographic, clinicopathologic, and follow up data were reviewed...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574551/regulation-of-ctnnb1-signaling-in-gastric-cancer-and-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Shihori Tanabe, Kazuhiko Aoyagi, Hiroshi Yokozaki, Hiroki Sasaki
Recent research has shown that the alteration of combinations in gene expression contributes to cellular phenotypic changes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the combination of cadherin 1 and cadherin 2 expression can identify the diffuse-type and intestinal-type gastric cancers. Although the diffuse-type gastric cancer has been resistant to treatment, the precise mechanism and phenotypic involvement has not been revealed. It may be possible that stem cells transform into gastric cancer cells, possibly through the involvement of a molecule alteration and signaling mechanism...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570416/systematic-review-of-the-old-and-new-concepts-in-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-colorectal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Simona Gurzu, Camelia Silveanu, Annamaria Fetyko, Vlad Butiurca, Zsolt Kovacs, Ioan Jung
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as the transformation of an epithelial cell into a spindle cell with the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression and the gain of mesenchymal markers positivity. In the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), first data about EMT was published in 1995 and more than 400 papers had been written up to March 2016. Most of them are focused on the molecular pathways and experimentally-proved chemoresistance. In the present article, an update in the field of EMT in CRC based on the review of the literature and personal experience of the authors is presented...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569069/vasculogenic-mimicry-and-tumor-metastasis
#20
Jingxin Zhang, Lili Qiao, Ning Liang, Jian Xie, Hui Luo, Guodong Deng, Jiandong Zhang
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a microvascular channel made up of nonendothelial cells, has been accepted as a new model of neovascularization in aggressive tumors, owning to the specific capacity of malignant cells to form vessel-like networks which provide sufficient blood supply for tumor growth. Multiple molecular mechanisms, especially vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a, have been reported to participate in VM formation which is associated with tumor migration and invasion...
May 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
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