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W Wei, G Wei, Z Dan, Y Xiaoping, Z Yakun
Several receptor proteins of Cry toxin have been previously identified, including cadherin-like, aminopeptidase N, and alkaline phosphatase. In the present work, a novel binding protein, V-ATPase subunit A (HpVAA), was identified in Holotricia parallela larvae and characterized. We performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology to obtain the cDNA of the full-length hpvaa. Sequencing analysis showed that the open reading frame of hpvaa (GenBank accession No...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jing Wang, Haonan Zhang, Huidong Wang, Shan Zhao, Yayun Zuo, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu
Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out...
September 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sek Yee Tan, Murugesan Rangasamy, Haichuan Wang, Ana María Vélez, James Hasler, David McCaskill, Tao Xu, Hong Chen, Jessica Jurzenski, Matthew Kelker, Xiaoping Xu, Kenneth Narva, Blair D Siegfried
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is an important maize pest throughout most of the U.S. Corn Belt. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins including modified Cry3Aa and Cry34/35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic maize to protect against WCR feeding damage. To date, there is limited information regarding the WCR midgut target sites for these proteins. In this study, we examined whether a cadherin-like gene from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (DvvCad; GenBank accession # EF531715) associated with WCR larval midgut tissue is necessary for Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 toxicity...
August 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ahmed H Badran, Victor M Guzov, Qing Huai, Melissa M Kemp, Prashanth Vishwanath, Wendy Kain, Autumn M Nance, Artem Evdokimov, Farhad Moshiri, Keith H Turner, Ping Wang, Thomas Malvar, David R Liu
The Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins (Bt toxins) are widely used insecticidal proteins in engineered crops that provide agricultural, economic, and environmental benefits. The development of insect resistance to Bt toxins endangers their long-term effectiveness. Here we have developed a phage-assisted continuous evolution selection that rapidly evolves high-affinity protein-protein interactions, and applied this system to evolve variants of the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that bind a cadherin-like receptor from the insect pest Trichoplusia ni (TnCAD) that is not natively bound by wild-type Cry1Ac...
May 5, 2016: Nature
Josue Ocelotl, Jorge Sánchez, Raquel Arroyo, Blanca I García-Gómez, Isabel Gómez, Gopalan C Unnithan, Bruce E Tabashnik, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers...
2015: PloS One
Michi Izumi Willcoxon, Jaclyn R Dennis, Sabina I Lau, Weiping Xie, You You, Song Leng, Ryan C Fong, Takashi Yamamoto
A high-throughput, in-vitro assay for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins designated as Cry was developed and evaluated for screening a large number of Cry protein variants produced by DNA shuffling. This automation-amenable assay exploits an insect cell line expressing a single receptor of Bt Cry proteins. The Cry toxin used to develop this assay is a variant of the Cry1Ab protein called IP1-88, which was produced previously by DNA shuffling. Cell mortality caused by the activated Bt Cry toxin was determined by chemical cell viability assay in 96/384-well microtiter plates utilizing CellTiter 96(®) obtained from Promega...
January 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
David C Dorn, August Dorn
The best known cases of cell autotomy are the formation of erythrocytes and thrombocytes (platelets) from progenitor cells that reside in special niches. Recently, autotomy of stem cells and its enigmatic interaction with the niche has been reported from male germline stem cells (GSCs) in several insect species. First described in lepidopterans, the silkmoth, followed by the gipsy moth and consecutively in hemipterans, foremost the milkweed bug. In both, moths and the milkweed bug, GSCs form finger-like projections toward the niche, the apical cells (homologs of the hub cells in Drosophila)...
July 26, 2015: World Journal of Stem Cells
Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Haichuan Wang, Seong-Il Eyun, Etsuko N Moriyama, Brad S Coates, Nicholas J Miller, Blair D Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis strain to Cry1F toxin...
2015: BMC Genomics
Anna F Gilles, Johannes B Schinko, Michalis Averof
Gene-editing techniques are revolutionizing the way we conduct genetics in many organisms. The CRISPR/Cas nuclease has emerged as a highly versatile, efficient and affordable tool for targeting chosen sites in the genome. Beyond its applications in established model organisms, CRISPR technology provides a platform for genetic intervention in a wide range of species, limited only by our ability to deliver it to cells and to select mutations efficiently. Here, we test the CRISPR technology in an emerging insect model and pest, the beetle Tribolium castaneum...
August 15, 2015: Development
Li-Na Xu, Yue-Qin Wang, Zhen-Ying Wang, Ben-Jin Hu, Ying-Hui Ling, Kang-Lai He
BACKGROUND: Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is the major insect pest of maize in China and countries of East and Southeast Asia, the Pacific and Australasia. ACB can develop strong resistance to the transgenic Bt maize expressing Cry1Ab, the most widely commercialized Bt maize worldwide. However, the molecular basis for the resistance mechanisms of ACB to Cry1Ab remained unclear. Two biological replicates of the transcriptome of Bt susceptible (ACB-BtS) and Cry1Ab resistant (ACB-AbR) strains of ACB were sequenced using Solexa/Illumina RNA-Seq technology to identify Cry1Ab resistance-relevant genes...
2015: BMC Genomics
Wenbo Chen, Chenxi Liu, Yutao Xiao, Dandan Zhang, Yongdong Zhang, Xianchun Li, Bruce E Tabashnik, Kongming Wu
Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains...
2015: PloS One
Li-Na Xu, Yue-Qin Wang, Zhen-Ying Wang, Ben-Jin Hu, Ying-Hui Ling, Kang-Lai He
BACKGROUND: Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is the major insect pest of maize in China and countries of East and Southeast Asia, the Pacific and Australasia. ACB can develop strong resistance to the transgenic Bt maize expressing Cry1Ab, the most widely commercialized Bt maize worldwide. However, the molecular basis for the resistance mechanisms of ACB to Cry1Ab remained unclear. Two biological replicates of the transcriptome of Bt susceptible (ACB-BtS) and Cry1Ab resistant (ACB-AbR) strains of ACB were sequenced using Solexa/Illumina RNA-Seq technology to identify Cry1Ab resistance-relevant genes...
December 2015: BMC Genomics
Lin Qiu, Leilei Hou, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Bo Li, Pan Deng, Weihua Ma, Xiaoping Wang, Jeffrey A Fabrick, Lizhen Chen, Chaoliang Lei
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China...
May 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Fernando Zúñiga-Navarrete, Isabel Gómez, Guadalupe Peña, Itzel Amaro, Ernesto Ortíz, Baltazar Becerril, Jorge E Ibarra, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins exert their toxic effect by specific recognition of larval midgut proteins leading to oligomerization of the toxin, membrane insertion and pore formation. The exposed domain II loop regions of Cry toxins have been shown to be involved in receptor binding. Insect cadherins have shown to be functionally involved in toxin binding facilitating toxin oligomerization. Here, we isolated a VHH (VHHA5) antibody by phage display that binds Cry3Aa loop 1 and competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to Tenebrio molitor brush border membranes...
April 2015: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zuwen Chen, Fei He, Yutao Xiao, Chenxi Liu, Jianghuai Li, Yongbo Yang, Hui Ai, Jianxin Peng, Huazhu Hong, Kaiyu Liu
Although many insect cell lines derived from various tissues are available, it is unclear whether endogenous receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins are expressed in these cell lines. In the present study, we demonstrated that the ovaries-derived Spodoptera litura Sl-HP cell line was susceptible to activated Cry1Ac although larvae of S. litura are not susceptible to the toxin. Assays of the transcriptome revealed that thirteen ATP-binding cassette transporter genes (ABC) were expressed at different levels in this cell line...
April 2015: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhaojiang Guo, Shi Kang, Xun Zhu, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Wen Xie, Youjun Zhang
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins that have been used to control important agricultural pests. Evolution of resistance in target pests threatens the effectiveness of these toxins when used either in sprayed biopesticides or in Bt transgenic crops. Although alterations of the midgut cadherin-like receptor can lead to Bt Cry toxin resistance in many insects, whether the cadherin gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance of Plutella xylostella (L.) remains unclear. Here, we present experimental evidence that resistance to Cry1Ac or Bt var...
March 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Peng Xu, Mayira Islam, Yutao Xiao, Fei He, Yi Li, Jianxin Peng, Huazhu Hong, Chenxi Liu, Kaiyu Liu
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin receptors play important roles in the killing of pests, and investigation on characterization of the receptors is essential for utilization of Bt and management of insect resistance. Here, recombinant and mosaic receptors of Bt Cry1Ac toxin from Helicoverpa armigera were expressed in Spodoptera litura Sl-HP cells and their influences on cytotoxicity of activated Cry1Ac toxin were investigated. When H. armigera aminopeptidase N1 (APN1), alkaline phosphatase 2 (ALP2) and cadherin fused with or without GFP tag were, respectively, expressed in Sl-HP cells, live cell-immunofluorescence staining detection revealed that the quantity of the toxin binding to cadherin or cadherin-GFP was much more than that binding to ALP2 and APN1 or their fusion proteins with GFP, and only the cadherin- or cadherin-GFP-expressing cells showed aberrant cell morphology after the treatment of the toxin at low concentrations...
May 2016: Cytotechnology
Laurence Després, Renaud Stalinski, Guillaume Tetreau, Margot Paris, Aurélie Bonin, Vincent Navratil, Stéphane Reynaud, Jean-Philippe David
BACKGROUND: Despite the intensive use of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) toxins for mosquito control, little is known about the long term effect of exposure to this cocktail of toxins on target mosquito populations. In contrast to the many cases of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins observed in other insects, there is no evidence so far for Bti resistance evolution in field mosquito populations. High fitness costs measured in a Bti selected mosquito laboratory strain suggest that evolving resistance to Bti is costly...
2014: BMC Genomics
Isabel Gómez, Biviana Flores, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
To exert their toxic effect, Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin undergoes a sequential binding mechanism with different larval gut proteins including glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchored proteins like aminopeptidase-N (APN) or alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) and a transmembrane cadherin to form pre-pore structures that insert into the membrane. Cadherin binding induces oligomerization of the toxin by facilitating removal of the N-terminal region, while APN/ALP binding helps in oligomer membrane insertion. Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack N-terminal region of the toxin and shown to counter resistance linked to cadherin mutations...
June 2015: Peptides
Youngjin Park, Gang Hua, Milton D Taylor, Michael J Adang
The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus, is a serious cosmopolitan pest of commercial poultry facilities because of its involvement in structural damage to poultry houses, reduction in feed conversion efficiency, and transfer of avian and human pathogens. Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are used to control coleopteran larvae. Cadherins localized in the midgut epithelium function as receptors for Cry toxins in lepidopteran, coleopteran, and dipteran insects. Previously, we demonstrated that the truncated cadherin (DvCad1) from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which consists of the C-terminal cadherin repeats (CR) 8-10 and expressed in Escherichia coli, enhanced Cry3Aa and Cry3Bb toxicity against several coleopteran species...
November 2014: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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