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calcium absorption

Sang In Lee, In Ho Kim
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is critical for nutrient absorption and is an important barrier against harmful pathogens and antigens. Difructose anhydrides (DFA)-IVs are nondigestible disaccharides that enhance calcium and iron absorption by affecting the intestinal epithelial tissue. However, their effects on intestinal functions are not fully understood. In this study, we performed a feeding trial and found that dietary DFA-IVs improved growth performance, relative breast muscle and liver weight, and digestibility and blood calcium and iron concentrations in broilers...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tyler Sowers, Dinesh Adhikari, Jian Wang, Yu Yang, Donald L Sparks
Organo-mineral associations of organic carbon (OC) with iron (Fe) oxides play a major role in environmental OC sequestration, a process crucial to mitigating climate change. Calcium has been found to have high co-association with OC in soils containing high Fe content, increase OC sorption extent to poorly-crystalline Fe oxides, and has long been suspected to form bridging complexes with Fe and OC. Due to the growing realization that Ca may be an important component of C cycling, we launched a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) investigation, paired with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, in order to spatially resolve Fe, Ca, and OC relationships and probe the effect of Ca on sorbed OC speciation...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Haruo Imagawa, Xiaoyong Wu, Hiroshi Itahara, Shu Yin, Kazunobu Kojima, Shigefusa F Chichibu, Tsugio Sato
Ca-Bridged siloxenes (Ca-siloxenes) composed of two-dimensional siloxene planes with Ca bridging were prepared and their photocatalytic properties for nitrogen oxide (NO) removal were investigated. Ca-Siloxenes were synthesized via a solid-state metathesis reaction using TaCl5 to extract Ca from CaSi2 with different Cl2/Ca molar ratios of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 (CS0.25, CS1.25 and CS2.5, respectively) in an attempt to control the extent of Ca extraction. Ca-Siloxenes have a wide optical absorption band from the visible to ultraviolet region with absorption edges of 1...
May 10, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
C S Firmenich, K Elfers, M R Wilkens, G Breves, A S Muscher-Banse
In young goats, a reduction in dietary nitrogen (N) had an impact on mineral homeostasis although ruminants are able to recycle N effectively due to rumino-hepatic circulation. A solitary calcium (Ca) reduction stimulated calcitriol synthesis and Ca concentrations remained unchanged, whereas a dietary N reduction led to a decrease in calcitriol which could not be prevented by a simultaneous reduction of N and Ca. In a previous study, it was shown that a reduced dietary N intake caused a decrease in intestinal Ca absorption due to a reduction of intestinal Ca transporting proteins...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Xiao-Li Li, Liang Wang, Xiao-Lei Bi, Bing-Bing Chen, Yan Zhang
Calcium homeostasis plays vital roles in the management of bone health. Traditional herbal formula Gushukang (GSK) was clinically applied to treat primary osteoporosis. This study aimed to explore the osteoprotective effects of GSK and its roles in maintaining calcium homeostasis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The OVX mice were orally treated with low (0.38 g/kg), middle (0.76 g/kg) and high (1.52 g/kg) dose of GSK for 8 weeks. GSK treatment dramatically increased serum calcium level and decreased urinary calcium excretion as well as enhanced calcium content in bone of OVX mice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Héctor A Bahamonde, Luis Gil, Victoria Fernández
Plant surfaces have a considerable degree of chemical and physical variability also in relation to different environmental conditions, organs and state of development. The potential changes on plant surface properties in association with environmental variations have been little explored so far. Using two model tree species (i.e., Quercus petraea , sessile oak and Fagus sylvatica , beech) growing in 'Montejo de la Sierra Forest,' we examined various traits of the abaxial and adaxial surface of leaves of both species collected at a height of approximately 15 m (top canopy), versus 3...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ju Hwan Kim, Uy Dong Sohn, Hyung-Gun Kim, Hak Rim Kim
The exponential increase in the use of mobile communication has triggered public concerns about the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phones on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we explored the relationship between calcium channels and apoptosis or autophagy in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice after RF-EMF exposure with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 4 weeks. Firstly, the expression level of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), a key regulator of the entry of calcium ions into the cell, was confirmed by immunoblots...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Yun Tang, Jiaming Li, Zhongqi Hao, Shisong Tang, Zhihao Zhu, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng, Jun Duan, Yongfeng Lu
The self-absorption effect seriously affects the accuracy of determination in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In this work, we proposed to reduce multielemental self-absorption within a wide spectral range (200-900 nm) by using microwave-assisted excitation in LIBS (MAE-LIBS). Self-absorption reduction of sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and calcium (Ca) in potassium feldspar using MAE-LIBS was investigated. The mechanisms of self-absorption reduction in MAE-LIBS were also investigated...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Feng Liu, Xia DU, Pei-Rong Liu, Yu-Hong Sun, Yan-Min Zhang
Guanxinshutong capsule (GXSTC) is an effective and safe traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for many years. However, the targets of this herbal formula and the underlying molecular mechanisms of action involved in the treatment of CVDs are still unclear. In the present study, we used a systems pharmacology approach to identify the active ingredients of GXSTC and their corresponding targets in the calcium signaling pathway with respect to the treatment of CVDs...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Sharon M Moe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Calcium is an essential ion for the maintenance of normal bone health and physiologic functions. The extracellular and intracellular levels of calcium are maintained through hormonal regulation called homeostasis. Balance, the net intake minus excretion of calcium, is maintained by hormonal regulation of intestinal absorption and fecal/urinary excretion. Homeostasis and balance are disconnected in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this review is to understand how calcium homeostasis and balance are impaired in CKD...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Daniela Amaral Silva, Raimar Löbenberg, Neal Davies
PURPOSE: The U.S. Pharmacopeia defines excipients as substances other than the active pharmaceutic ingredient (API) that are added in a drug delivery system in order to aid in the manufacturing process and enhance stability, bioavailability, safety, effectiveness and delivery of the drug. The 1968 phenytoin intoxication outbreak in Brisbane, Australia, is a classic example of an API-excipient interaction. When administered with CaSO4 the absorption of phenytoin was reduced due to an interaction between the API and the excipient...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gül Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Şükrü Hatun
In recent years, the increase in interest and use of vitamin D has been attributed mainly to the effects of vitamin D on the extra-skeletal effects and confusion about normal reference values for serum 25OHD. However, The Institute of Medicine (IOM), which determines daily intake of nutrients, vitamins and minerals in the United States, emphasizes that there is no additional benefit of having a 25OHD level above 20 ng/ml in terms of PTH suppression, calcium absorption and "fall risk". Taking into consideration that there has not been a significant increase in vitamin D deficiency and related conditions in Turkey over the past 5 years, it is not hard to suppose that this increase is due to declarations of doctors who have shown vitamin D as a "panacea’’ in media platforms...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Vagharedin Akhavan Zanjani, Kasra Tabari, Seyedeh Mahsa Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Ahmad Najafi Abrandabadi
Introduction: The development of new pulp capping agents has paved the way towards the preservation of pulp vitality, which is an important goal in restorative dentistry. This study sought to assess the calcium ion release, pH and setting of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus, an experimental formulation of nano-hybrid MTA containing nano-SiO2, nano-Al2O3 and nano-TiO2 and MTA Angelus plus nano-oxides. Methods: In this experimental study, five specimens from each material were placed in polypropylene tubes and immersed in a flask containing deionized distilled water...
January 2018: Journal of Medicine and Life
Rema A Oliver, Vedran Lovric, Chris Christou, Sean S Aiken, John J Cooper, William R Walsh
Management of dead space (DS) is a fundamental aspect of surgery. Residual DS following surgery can fill with hematoma and provide an environment for bacterial growth, increasing the incidence of postoperative infection. Materials for managing DS include polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), which is nonresorbing and requires removal in a second surgical procedure. The use of calcium sulfate (CS) offers the advantage of being fully absorbed and does not require subsequent surgical removal. As CS has historically been used as a bone void filler, there are some concerns for the risk of heterotopic ossification (HO) when implanted adjacent to soft tissue...
2018: BioMed Research International
Leslea J Hlusko, Joshua P Carlson, George Chaplin, Scott A Elias, John F Hoffecker, Michaela Huffman, Nina G Jablonski, Tesla A Monson, Dennis H O'Rourke, Marin A Pilloud, G Richard Scott
Because of the ubiquitous adaptability of our material culture, some human populations have occupied extreme environments that intensified selection on existing genomic variation. By 32,000 years ago, people were living in Arctic Beringia, and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 28,000-18,000 y ago), they likely persisted in the Beringian refugium. Such high latitudes provide only very low levels of UV radiation, and can thereby lead to dangerously low levels of biosynthesized vitamin D. The physiological effects of vitamin D deficiency range from reduced dietary absorption of calcium to a compromised immune system and modified adipose tissue function...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hasan Imran Afridi, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Farah Naz Talpur
Acute leukemia (AL) is a common childhood malignancy. It is clinically and morphologically heterogeneous. The present work was intended to estimate the concentration of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in serum and whole blood samples of children having AL; 1- to 5- and 6- to 10-year-old children age group was chosen of both genders. Healthy children of the same age group were selected as controls for comparative study. For sample pretreatment, a microwave-assisted acid digestion (MAD) was carried out, to assess the concentration of Ca and Mg in biological samples of AL children...
April 23, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Karen Magalhães Arantes, Ester Luiza Gonçalves, Carlos Fernando Campos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Antônio Marcos Machado de Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Phyllanthus niruri is a plant that is used to prevent calcium oxalate crystallisation and to block the stone formation in urolithiasis. Contaminants in the environment can be readily taken up by medicinal plants due to their ability to absorb chemicals into their tissues. If contaminated plants are ingested, they have the potential to negatively affect human and environmental health. The aim of this study was to assess contamination in the soil and the medicinal plant P. niruri by cadmium (Cd) in ceramic industrial areas of Monte Carmelo, Brazil...
April 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shay Ohayon, Antonio Caravaca-Aguirre, Rafael Piestun, James J DiCarlo
A major open challenge in neuroscience is the ability to measure and perturb neural activity in vivo from well defined neural sub-populations at cellular resolution anywhere in the brain. However, limitations posed by scattering and absorption prohibit non-invasive multi-photon approaches for deep (>2mm) structures, while gradient refractive index (GRIN) endoscopes are relatively thick and can cause significant damage upon insertion. Here, we present a novel micro-endoscope design to image neural activity at arbitrary depths via an ultra-thin multi-mode optical fiber (MMF) probe that has 5-10X thinner diameter than commercially available micro-endoscopes...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Junyan Liu, Lin Li, Lizhen Zhou, Bing Li, Zhenbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the enzyme activities and ion concentrations in potential pathogen S.cerevisiae upon ultrasonic treatment. METHODS: The activities of ATPase and antioxidase were identified by ATPase, SOD, and CAT assay kits following the instructions. Extracellular Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were determined in an atomic absorption spectrometer with calcium and potassium hollow-cathode lamps as radiation sources. RESULTS: SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by relatively low ultrasonic power at early time points and reduced to lower levels...
April 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Majed M AbuKhader
AIM: To assess the suitability of iron content and the nutritional benefits of selected fortified food products marketed for 4-8 year old children in Oman. METHODS: Forty-five fortified foods, which are available in Omani markets, were classified into four groups based on food type and composition: ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereals (two groups), malted milk drinks and milk powder formulas. The nutrition panel displayed on the products' outer package was used as a source of content values for iron and other nutrients...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition and Health
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