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calcium absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938396/transgenic-expression-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-restricted-to-the-ileum-cecum-and-colon-of-vitamin-d-receptor-knockout-mice-rescues-vitamin-d-receptor-dependent-rickets
#1
Puneet Dhawan, Vaishali Veldurthy, Ghassan Yehia, Connie Hsaio, Angela Porta, Ki-In Kim, Nishant Patel, Liesbet Lieben, Lieve Verlinden, Geert Carmeliet, Sylvia Christakos
Although the intestine plays the major role in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) action on calcium homeostasis, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. The established model of 1,25(OH)2D3 regulated intestinal calcium absorption postulates a critical role for the duodenum. However it is the distal intestine where 70 -80% of the ingested calcium is absorbed. In order to test directly the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the distal intestine, 3 independent knockout (KO) /transgenic (TG) lines expressing VDR exclusively in the ileum, cecum and colon were generated by breeding VDR KO mice with TG mice expressing human (h)VDR under the control of the 9...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931466/1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-up-regulates-the-expression-of-2-types-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-alternative-splicing-variants-in-caco-2-cells-and-may-be-an-important-regulator-of-their-expression-in-gut-homeostasis
#2
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Kanae Nakaoka, Masae Goseki-Sone
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation, and development. The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a differentiation marker for intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by vitamin D. Intestinal-type ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients...
August 4, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926829/continuous-subcutaneous-recombinant-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-infusion-in-the-management-of-childhood-hypoparathyroidism-associated-with-malabsorption
#3
Vrinda Saraff, Anya Rothenbuhler, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption can be particularly challenging to manage due to limited and erratic intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin D analogues, resulting in episodes of hypo- or hypercalcaemia. We evaluated the role of continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) infusion (CSPI) in children with hypoparathyroidism associated with intestinal malabsorption resistant to conventional therapy. METHOD: Four patients (8-13 years of age), with symptomatic hypocalcaemia resistant to conventional therapy, were started on CSPI (follow-up 3-8 years) in two paediatric endocrinology units in Europe...
September 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921422/high-incidence-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-bariatric-patients-comparing-different-procedures
#4
Jih-Hua Wei, Wei-Jei Lee, Keong Chong, Yi-Chih Lee, Shu-Chun Chen, Po-Hsun Huang, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapy for morbid obesity but may reduce calcium absorption and significantly decrease the bone mineral density. This study examined the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in obese subjects during follow-up after different bariatric surgeries. We investigated predictors of SHPT. METHODS: We enrolled 1470 obese subjects undergoing bariatric/metabolic surgery with at least 1-year follow-up, including 322 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 695 undergoing single anastomosis (mini-) gastric bypass (SAGB), 93 undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and 360 undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG)...
September 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919716/palatability-and-physical-properties-of-potassium-binding-resin-rdx7675-comparison-with-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate
#5
Vanessa Zann, John McDermott, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, especially those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, are at high risk of developing. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a current treatment, binds potassium within the gastrointestinal tract to reduce potassium absorption. However, poor palatability limits its long-term use. RDX7675, a novel potassium binder in development for the treatment of hyperkalemia, is a calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin designed to have enhanced palatability...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917262/determination-of-several-element-levels-in-hardaliye-beverages-using-flame-atomic-absorption-spectrometry-after-ultrasound-probe-extraction
#6
Dilek Bakircioglu, Nukte Topraksever, Yasemin Bakircioglu Kurtulus
In the present study, concentrations of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) in hardaliye samples produced in Turkey were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound probe extraction (UPE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and wet extraction procedures. At present, there is limited work in the literature on UPE for the determination of trace elements in beverage samples. Our single-correlation analysis showed that the elements studied with the UPE method in hardaliye were strongly correlated with the MAE procedure...
September 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914205/vitamin-d-and-depression-the-evidence-from-an-indirect-clue-to-treatment-strategy
#7
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok Yong Chin, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that decreases the quality of life and increases the mortality of patients. It incurs significant healthcare costs if left untreated. Even though intervention with antidepressants can reduce depressive symptoms, side effects are often an issue and relapse is very common. Vitamin D, commonly known as the sunshine vitamin, is an essential fat-soluble vitamin for the absorption of calcium to prevent rickets (children) and osteomalacia (adults). Evidence on a possible relationship between vitamin D deficiency and depression is growing...
September 13, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905202/drug-interactions-in-users-of-tablet-vs-oral-liquid-levothyroxine-formulations-a-real-world-evidence-study-in-primary-care
#8
Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Elisa Bianchini, Gerardo Medea, Iacopo Cricelli, Paolo Sbraccia, Davide Lauro, Claudio Cricelli, Francesco Lapi
PURPOSE: Several medications may interact with levothyroxine (LT4) intestinal absorption or metabolism, thus reducing its bioavailability. We investigated the variability of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and prescribed daily dosages (PDDs) of LT4 before and during potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in users of tablets vs. oral liquid LT4 formulations. METHODS: By using the Italian general practice Health Search Database (HSD), we retrospectively selected adult patients with at least one LT4 prescription from 2012 to 2015 and at least 1 year of clinical history recorded...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904291/concentration-dependent-roles-of-dmt1-and-zip14-in-cadmium-absorption-in-caco-2-cells
#9
Hitomi Fujishiro, Satoko Hamao, Rina Tanaka, Taiho Kambe, Seiichiro Himeno
Intestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd) is considered to be mediated mainly by the ferrous iron transporter DMT1, or the calcium transporter CaT1. The roles of zinc transporters such as ZIP8 and ZIP14 remain unclear, and the roles of these four transporters in the intestinal uptake of Cd under physiological conditions have not been compared. Here, we used a trans-well cell culture system to investigate the effects of the down-regulation of these four transporters on the uptake of Cd from the apical side of enterocytes...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892871/formulation-by-design-approach-for-development-of-ultrafine-self-nanoemulsifying-systems-of-rosuvastatin-calcium-containing-long-chain-lipophiles-for-hyperlipidemia-management
#10
Sarwar Beg, O P Katare, Bhupinder Singh
The present work entails systematic development of liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (L-SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin calcium containing long-chain lipophiles using QbD-driven Formulation by Design (FbD) approach. Elements of quality target product profile (QTPP) were defined and critical material attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Excipient screening was performed for selecting a suitable long-chain lipophile along with a surfactant and a cosolvent. Maximal drug solubility was observed in Peceol (i.e., lipid), Tween 80 (i...
August 31, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889195/effect-of-si-rich-substances-on-phosphorous-adsorption-by-sandy-soils
#11
Vladimir V Matichenkov, Elena A Bocharnikova, Ekaterina P Pakhnenko, Dmitry M Khomiakov
The poor adsorption capacity of sandy soils is one of the primary reasons of a high level of phosphorus (P) leaching. Silicon (Si)-rich soil amendments have the potential to improve the low absorption capacity of sandy soils for P. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of different Si-rich materials to regulate P adsorption and retention by sandy soils. Amorphous fine silica (FSS), calcium silicate (CaSiO3), chemically pure CaCO3, and two types of Ca-silicate slags from metal industry (Pro-Sil) and chemical industry (TS) were used in laboratory experiments being conducted with pure quartz sand and cultivated and virgin Entisols and Spodosols collected in the South Florida...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884360/calcium-and-zinc-decrease-intracellular-iron-by-decreasing-transport-during-iron-repletion-in-an-in-vitro-model
#12
Andrews Mónica, Briones Lautaro, Pizarro Fernando, Arredondo Miguel
PURPOSE: Iron is an essential micronutrient that participates in a number of vital reactions and its absorption may be altered by various nutritional factors such as other micronutrients. Our hypothesis is that iron absorption is decreased because of the interactions with zinc and calcium. We evaluated the interaction between calcium and zinc on iron uptake and transport, intracellular Fe and Zn levels and mRNA expression of DMT1, ferroportin, Zip4 and ZnT1 in an in vitro model. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were cultivated with 1 mM Ca; 10 or 30 µM Zn and/or 10, 20 or 30 µM Fe for 24 h...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882565/evidence-of-disordered-calcium-metabolism-in-adolescent-girls-with-type-1-diabetes-an-observational-study-using-a-dual-stable-calcium-isotope-technique
#13
David R Weber, Kimberly O O'Brien, George J Schwartz
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with skeletal abnormalities including low bone density and increased fracture risk. The pathophysiology underlying T1D related skeletal fragility remains unknown. The objective of this study was to use a dual-stable calcium isotope method to investigate the effects of T1D on calcium absorption and estimated calcium retention in adolescent females. Twenty adolescent females with T1D were admitted for a 24-h calcium absorption study using oral ((44)Ca) and intravenous ((42)Ca) stable isotopes for determination of percent gastrointestinal calcium absorption and estimated calcium retention...
September 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873586/isolation-of-a-novel-calcium-binding-peptide-from-wheat-germ-protein-hydrolysates-and-the-prediction-for-its-mechanism-of-combination
#14
Li Wang, Yuanyuan Ding, Xinxia Zhang, Yongfu Li, Ren Wang, Xiaohu Luo, Yanan Li, Juan Li, Zhengxing Chen
To isolate a novel peptide with specific calcium-binding capacity, wheat germ protein was hydrolyzed. The hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the purified peptide was determined and confirmed to be FVDVT (Phe-Val-Asp-Val-Thr). The calcium-binding capacity of FVDVT reached 89.94±0.75%, increased by 86.37% compared to the hydrolysates. The chelating mechanism between FVDVT and calcium was further investigated by Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonances spectroscopy...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872122/ammonia-synthesis-at-low-pressure
#15
Edward Cussler, Alon McCormick, Michael Reese, Mahdi Malmali
Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872107/soft-lithographic-procedure-for-producing-plastic-microfluidic-devices-with-view-ports-transparent-to-visible-and-infrared-light
#16
Mona Suryana, Jegan V Shanmugarajah, Sivakumar M Maniam, Gianluca Grenci
Infrared (IR) spectro-microscopy of living biological samples is hampered by the absorption of water in the mid-IR range and by the lack of suitable microfluidic devices. Here, a protocol for the fabrication of plastic microfluidic devices is demonstrated, where soft lithographic techniques are used to embed transparent Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) view-ports in connection with observation chamber(s). The method is based on a replica casting approach, where a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold is produced through standard lithographic procedures and then used as the template to produce a plastic device...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869680/structural-analysis-of-uranyl-complexation-by-the-ef-hand-motif-of-calmodulin-effect-of-phosphorylation
#17
Catherine Berthomieu, Sandrine Sauge-Merle, Florian Brulfert, Romain Pardoux, Pier Lorenzo Solari, David Lemaire, Samir Safi, Philippe Guilbaud, Eric Simoni, Mohamed Larbi Merroun
Better understanding of uranyl-protein interactions is a prerequisite to predict uranium chemical toxicity in cells. The EF-hand motif of calmodulin site I is about thousand times more affine for uranyl than for calcium, and threonine phosphorylation increases uranyl affinity by two orders of magnitude at pH 7. In this study, we confront X-rays absorption spectroscopy with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and structural models obtained by molecular dynamics simulations to analyze uranyl coordination in native and phosphorylated calmodulin site I...
September 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867375/calcified-plaque-modification-alters-local-drug-delivery-in-the-treatment-of-peripheral-atherosclerosis
#18
Abraham R Tzafriri, Fernando Garcia-Polite, Brett Zani, James Stanley, Benny Muraj, Jennifer Knutson, Robert Kohler, Peter Markham, Alexander Nikanorov, Elazer R Edelman
BACKGROUND: Calcific atherosclerosis is a major challenge to intraluminal drug delivery in peripheral artery disease (PAD). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of orbital atherectomy on intraluminal paclitaxel delivery to human peripheral arteries with substantial calcified plaque. METHODS: Diagnostic angiography and 3-D rotational imaging of five fresh human lower limbs revealed calcification in all main arteries. The proximal or distal segment of each artery was treated using an orbital atherectomy system (OAS) under simulated blood flow and fluoroscopy...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866808/chylomicrons-stimulate-incretin-secretion-in-mouse-and-human-cells
#19
Arianna Psichas, Pierre F Larraufie, Deborah A Goldspink, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Lipids are a potent stimulus for the secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Traditionally, this effect was thought to involve the sensing of lipid digestion products by free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) on the apical surface of enteroendocrine cells. However, recent evidence suggests that lipids may in fact be sensed basolaterally, and that fatty acid absorption and chylomicron synthesis may be a prerequisite for their stimulatory effect on gut peptide release...
September 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864390/protease-functionalized-mucus-penetrating-microparticles-in-vivo-evidence-for-their-potential
#20
Arshad Mahmood, Flavia Laffleur, Gintare Leonaviciute, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The focus of the current study was to explore whether immobilization of proteases to microparticles could result in their enhanced penetration into mucus. The proteases papain (PAP) and bromelain (BROM) were covalently attached to a polyacrylate (PAA; Carbopol 971P) via amide bond formation based on carbodiimide reaction. Microparticles containing these conjugates were generated via ionic gelation with calcium chloride and were characterized regarding size, surface charge, enzymatic activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) loading efficiency...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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