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BASIC science

Yong-Jiang Xu, Zhaojun Zheng, Chen Cao, Jinwei Li, Yuanfa Liu
It has been noted that inflammatory were intimately associated with the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid play crucial roles in chronic inflammation. Accordingly, there is an intricate relationship between eicosanoids and HCC, being supported by the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science studies. Herein, we intend to provide bioanalytical insights into the role of eicosanoids in HCC progression, from cell proliferation, angiogenesis migration, to apoptosis...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Sergio Varela Kellesarian
The development of cognitive knowledge, motor skills, and artistic sense in order to restore lost tooth structure is fundamental for dental professionals. The course of dental anatomy is taught in the initial years of dental school, and is a component of the basic core sciences program in the faculties of dentistry. The learning objectives of the dental anatomy course include identifying anatomical and morphological characteristics of human primary and permanent teeth; identifying and reproducing tooth surface details in order to recognize and diagnose anatomical changes; and developing student’s psychomotor skills for restoring teeth with proper form and function...
June 21, 2018: Dentistry journal
Bryan M Saltzman, Jonathan C Riboh
CONTEXT: Articular cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis are among the most common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians. Nonetheless, treatment options for articular degeneration are limited once the osteoarthritic cascade has started. Intense research is focused on the use of biologics, cartilage regeneration, and transplantation to help maintain and improve cartilage health. An underappreciated component of joint health is the subchondral bone. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive, nonsystematic review of the published literature was completed via a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the keywords "subchondral" AND "bone" from database inception through December 1, 2016...
June 1, 2018: Sports Health
Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Troels K Bergmann, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Inconsistencies in the reproducibility of research findings are of pertinent concern throughout the scientific community. Initially addressed in preclinical biomedicine studies [1, 2], the discussion has expanded to fields outside the natural sciences, questioning the reliability of data and subsequent published findings, proposing a "Crisis in Confidence" or "Reproducibility Crisis" within several (if not all) research areas [2-6]. The disclosure of an apparent and low degree of reproducibility has fuelled investigations of causal factors, ranging from behavioural preferences in decision-making/"human nature" and conviction bias to experimental constituents [5, 7, 8]...
June 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
T Hotfiel, R Seil, W Bily, W Bloch, A Gokeler, R M Krifter, F Mayer, P Ueblacker, L Weisskopf, M Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Muscle injuries are some of the most common injuries in sports; they have a high recurrence rate and can result in the loss of ability to participate in training or competition. In clinical practice, a wide variety of treatment strategies are commonly applied. However, a limited amount of evidence-based data exists, and most therapeutic approaches are solely based on "best practice". Thus, there is a need for consensus to provide strategies and recommendations for the treatment of muscle injuries...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Lisa V Doan, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVE: In the context of the current opioid epidemic, there has been a renewed interest in the use of ketamine as an analgesic agent. METHODS: We have reviewed ketamine analgesia. RESULTS: Ketamine is well-known as an antagonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. In addition, it can regulate the function of opioid receptors and sodium channels. Ketamine also increases signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Darlene A Pena, Denise M V Pacheco, Paulo S L Oliveira, Maria J M Alves, Deborah Schechtman
The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/ threonine kinases has been shown to play active roles as either suppressors or promoters of carcinogenesis in different types of tumors. Using antibodies that preferentially recognize the active conformation of classical PKCs (cPKCs), we have previously shown that in breast cancer samples the expression levels of cPKCs were similar in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ ) as compared to triple-negative tumors; however, the levels of active cPKCs were different. Determining the activation status of PKCs and other kinases in tumors may thus aid therapeutic decisions...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Michael Williams
Many results reported in the biomedical research literature cannot be independently reproduced, undermining the basic foundations of science. This overview is intended for researchers who are committed to improving the quality and integrity of biomedical science by raising awareness of both the sources of irreproducibility, and activities specifically targeted to address the issue. The irreproducibility of biomedical research is due to a variety of factors, known and unknown, that markedly influence experimental outcomes...
May 16, 2018: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Diana Mitsova
There is a growing understanding that cross-sector risks faced by critical infrastructure assets in natural disasters require a collaborative foresight from multiple disciplines. However, current contributions to infrastructure interdependency analysis remain centered in discipline-specific methodologies often constrained by underlying theories and assumptions. This perspective article contributes to ongoing discussions about the uses, challenges, and opportunities provided by interdisciplinary research in critical infrastructure interdependency analysis...
June 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
William A Suk, Michelle L Heacock, Brittany A Trottier, Sara M Amolegbe, Maureen D Avakian, Heather F Henry, Danielle J Carlin, Larry G Reed
BACKGROUND: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Basic Research and Training Program (SRP) funds a wide range of transdisciplinary research projects spanning the biomedical and environmental sciences and engineering, supporting and promoting the application of that research to solving real-world problems. OBJECTIVES: We used a case study approach to identify the economic and societal benefits of SRP-funded research, focusing on the use of potentially hazardous substance remediation and site monitoring tools...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Valentina Cuccio, Vittorio Gallese
The nature of concepts has always been a hotly debated topic in both philosophy and psychology and, more recently, also in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts have been proposed of what concepts are. These accounts reflect deeply different conceptions of how the human mind works. In the last decades, two diametrically opposed theories of human cognition have been discussed and empirically investigated: the Computational Theory of Mind, on the one hand (Fodor 1983 The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology ; Pylyshyn 1984 Computation and cognition: toward a foundation for cognitive science ), and Embodied Cognition (Barsalou 2008 Annu...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Andrew S C Rice, Rosemary Morland, Wenlong Huang, Gillian L Currie, Emily S Sena, Malcolm R Macleod
Clear reporting of research is crucial to the scientific process. Poorly designed and reported studies are damaging not only to the efforts of individual researchers, but also to science as a whole. Standardised reporting methods, such as those already established for reporting randomised clinical trials, have led to improved study design and facilitated the processes of clinical systematic review and meta-analysis. Such standards were lacking in the pre-clinical field until the development of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
David Bleich, David H Wagner
Context: Immunotherapy trials to prevent type 1 diabetes have been unsuccessful for more than fifteen years. Understanding pitfalls and knowledge gaps in the immunology of type 1 diabetes should lead us in new directions that will yield better trial outcomes. A proposal is made for precision medicine trial design in future type 1 diabetes studies. Evidence Acquisition: High quality peer-reviewed basic science and clinical research trials for type 1 diabetes were used in this Perspectives article...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Diarmuid Lester, Bronagh McGrane, Sarahjane Belton, Michael J Duncan, Fiona C Chambers, Wesley O'Brien
(1) Background: Research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional baseline data on Irish adolescent youth, specifically the prevalence of movement skills and patterns, in order to generate an overall perspective of movement within the first three years (Junior Certificate level) of post-primary education. (2) Methods: Data were collected on adolescents (N = 181; mean age: 14...
October 2, 2017: Sports
Mario Daniels, John Krige
This article describes the place of the basic/applied science distinction in negotiations over the limits of secrecy between the U.S. "scientific" community and the American government. It combines an analysis of Vannevar Bush's key report to the President in 1945 with Congressional hearings in the late 1950s that were concerned about the increasingly vast scope of government controls over the circulation of knowledge. The concept of "basic research" was used as a political weapon to push back against the extended, uncoordinated, and frustrating constraints on the circulation of new research findings by the expanding apparatus of the National Security State...
2018: Technology and Culture
Glaucia M S Pinheiro, Carlos H I Ramos
Chaperones belonging to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family are ubiquitous and exhibit elevated expression under stresses conditions to protect proteins against aggregation, thereby contributing to the stress tolerance of the organism. Tropical plants are constantly exposed to high temperatures, and the mechanisms by which these plants tolerate heat stress are of foremost importance to basic science as well as applied agrobiotechnology. Therefore, this study aims to characterize sHSPs from different organelles from sugarcane, an important crop that is associated with sugar and bioenergy production...
June 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Deeptej Singh, Juliya Fisher, Devorah Shagalov, Aakaash Varma, Daniel M Siegel
The plant and mushroom kingdoms have species used for intoxication, inebriation, or recreation. Some of these species are toxic. Given that many of these plants or substances are illegal and have histories of abuse, much of the research regarding therapeutic application is based on basic science, animal studies, and traditional use. This review examines Cannabis, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Podophyllum, Veratrum, mushrooms, and nightshades, along with resveratrol and cocaine as they relate to dermatology.
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
John K Iskander, Sara Beth Wolicki, Rebecca T Leeb, Paul Z Siegel
Scientific writing and publication are essential to advancing knowledge and practice in public health, but prospective authors face substantial challenges. Authors can overcome barriers, such as lack of understanding about scientific writing and the publishing process, with training and resources. The objective of this article is to provide guidance and practical recommendations to help both inexperienced and experienced authors working in public health settings to more efficiently publish the results of their work in the peer-reviewed literature...
June 14, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Anna K Laurinavichyute, Irina A Sekerina, Svetlana Alexeeva, Kristine Bagdasaryan, Reinhold Kliegl
This article introduces a new corpus of eye movements in silent reading-the Russian Sentence Corpus (RSC). Russian uses the Cyrillic script, which has not yet been investigated in cross-linguistic eye movement research. As in every language studied so far, we confirmed the expected effects of low-level parameters, such as word length, frequency, and predictability, on the eye movements of skilled Russian readers. These findings allow us to add Slavic languages using Cyrillic script (exemplified by Russian) to the growing number of languages with different orthographies, ranging from the Roman-based European languages to logographic Asian ones, whose basic eye movement benchmarks conform to the universal comparative science of reading (Share, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Yohali Burrola-Mendez, Mary Goldberg, Rachel Gartz, Jon Pearlman
INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair users worldwide are at high risk of developing secondary health conditions and premature death due to inappropriate wheelchair provision by untrained providers. The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP) has developed a Hybrid Course based on the World Health Organization's Wheelchair Service Training Package-Basic Level. The Hybrid Course leverages online modules designed for low-bandwidth internet access that reduces the in-person training exposure from five to three and a half days, making it less expensive and more convenient for both trainees and trainers...
2018: PloS One
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