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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453838/from-cba-to-precautionary-appraisal-practical-responses-to-intractable-problems
#1
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452224/methodological-and-reporting-quality-in-laboratory-studies-of-human-eating-behavior
#2
Eric Robinson, Kirsten E Bevelander, Matt Field, Andrew Jones
The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human eating behavior. We examined laboratory studies of human eating behavior (N = 140 studies) published during 2016. Basic methodology (e.g., sample size, use of participant blinding) and reporting practices (e.g., information on participant characteristics) were assessed for each study...
February 13, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450515/gender-and-byline-placement-of-co-first-authors-in-clinical-and-basic-science-journals-with-high-impact-factors
#3
Erin Aakhus, Nandita Mitra, Ebbing Lautenbach, Steven Joffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450305/the-grimace-scale-reliably-assesses-chronic-pain-in-a-rodent-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain
#4
Titilola Akintola, Charles Raver, Paige Studlack, Olivia Uddin, Radi Masri, Asaf Keller
The limited success in translating basic science findings into effective pain management therapies reflects, in part, the difficulty in reliably assessing pain in experimental animals. This shortcoming is particularly acute in the field of chronic, ongoing pain. Quantitative analysis of facial expressions-the grimace score-was introduced as a promising tool, however, it is thought to reliably assess only pain of short or medium duration (minutes to hours). Here, we test the hypothesis that grimace scores are a reliable metric of ongoing neuropathic pain, by testing the prediction that chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION) will evoke significant increases in grimace scale scores...
August 2017: Neurobiology of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450146/novel-proteins-from-proteomic-analysis-of-the-trunk-disease-fungus-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-botryosphaeriaceae
#5
Carla C Uranga, Majid Ghassemian, Rufina Hernández-Martínez
Many basic science questions remain regarding protein functions in the pathogen: host interaction, especially in the trunk disease fungi family, the Botryosphaeriaceae, which are a global problem for economically important plants, especially fruiting trees. Proteomics is a highly useful technology for studying protein expression and for discovering novel proteins in unsequenced and poorly annotated organisms. Current fungal proteomics approaches involve 2D SDS-PAGE and extensive, complex, protein extraction methodologies...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449955/prospects-for-precision-medicine-in-glomerulonephritis-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Yulu Cherry Liu, Justin Chun
Background: Glomerulonephritis (GN) consists of a group of kidney diseases that are categorized based on shared histopathological features. The current classifications for GN make it difficult to distinguish the individual variability in presentation, disease progression, and response to treatment. GN is a significant cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and improved therapies are desperately needed because current immunosuppressive therapies sometimes lack efficacy and can lead to significant toxicities...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446621/oxidative-dehydrogenation-on-nanocarbon-insights-into-the-reaction-mechanism-and-kinetics-via-in-situ-experimental-methods
#7
Wei Qi, Pengqiang Yan, Dang Sheng Su
Sustainable and environmentally benign catalytic processes are vital for the future to supply the world population with clean energy and industrial products. The replacement of conventional metal or metal oxide catalysts with earth abundant and renewable nonmetallic materials has attracted considerable research interests in the field of catalysis and material science. The stable and efficient catalytic performance of nanocarbon materials was discovered at the end of last century, and these materials are considered as potential alternatives for conventional metal-based catalysts...
February 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443726/publishing-the-best-basic-and-applied-pain-science-open-science-and-pain
#8
Francis J Keefe, Jane Ballantyne, Fiona Blyth, Robert C Coghill, Anthony Dickenson, Clermont E Dionne, Christopher Eccleston, Nanna Brix Finnerup, Rohini Kuner, David A Seminowicz, Kathleen Sluka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441401/exercise-induced-fatigue-in-young-people-advances-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Dimitrios A Patikas, Craig A Williams, Sébastien Ratel
PURPOSE: In recent decades, the interest for exercise-induced fatigue in youth has substantially increased, and the effects of growth on the peripheral (muscular) and central (neural) mechanisms underpinning differences in neuromuscular fatigue between healthy children and adults have been described more extensively. The purpose of this review is to retrieve, report, and analyse the findings of studies comparing neuromuscular fatigue between children and adults. Objective measures of the evaluation of the physiological mechanisms are discussed...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441182/pediatric-cardiac-anamnesis-prevention-of-additional-diagnostic-tests
#10
REVIEW
Izet Masic, Zijo Begic, Nabil Naser, Edin Begic
Pediatrics is defined as the science of a healthy and sick child from birth to end of adolescence. Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the leading causes of mortality in adults, with frequent onset in childhood. The cardiologic examination starts with anamnesis in a pleasant atmosphere, refined space, enough time and patience, detailed measurements, and preferably a noncrying child. Anamnesis, regardless of the development of diagnostic procedures, still constitutes the basis of every clinical examination...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441045/network-analyses-in-plant-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
David Botero, Camilo Alvarado, Adriana Bernal, Giovanna Danies, Silvia Restrepo
Even in the age of big data in Biology, studying the connections between the biological processes and the molecular mechanisms behind them is a challenging task. Systems biology arose as a transversal discipline between biology, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, and physics to facilitate the elucidation of such connections. A scenario, where the application of systems biology constitutes a very powerful tool, is the study of interactions between hosts and pathogens using network approaches. Interactions between pathogenic bacteria and their hosts, both in agricultural and human health contexts are of great interest to researchers worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440155/adaptive-design-clinical-trials-a-review-of-the-literature-and-clinicaltrials-gov
#12
Laura E Bothwell, Jerry Avorn, Nazleen F Khan, Aaron S Kesselheim
OBJECTIVES: This review investigates characteristics of implemented adaptive design clinical trials and provides examples of regulatory experience with such trials. DESIGN: Review of adaptive design clinical trials in EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Registry of Controlled Clinical Trials, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov. Phase I and seamless Phase I/II trials were excluded. Variables extracted from trials included basic study characteristics, adaptive design features, size and use of independent data monitoring committees (DMCs) and blinded interim analyses...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438411/evaluation-of-a-mid-career-investigator-career-development-award-assessing-the-ability-of-oppnet-k18-awardees-to-obtain-nih-follow-on-research-funding
#13
Cassidy A Pomeroy-Carter, Sharon R Williams, Xueying Han, William N Elwood, Brian L Zuckerman
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) K18 award mechanism provides funded opportunities for established investigators to gain knowledge in fields outside of their primary disciplines, but outcomes associated with these awards have not been evaluated to date. NIH's Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet) is one of the few initiatives that has used this award mechanism. We explored how the unique features of K18 awards affect the ability of recipients to obtain follow-on NIH research funding...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438321/the-intersection-of-hpv-epidemiology-genomics-and-mechanistic-studies-of-hpv-mediated-carcinogenesis
#14
Lisa Mirabello, Megan A Clarke, Chase W Nelson, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Mark Schiffman, Robert D Burk
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434083/survey-of-awareness-about-hazardous-chemicals-of-residents-living-near-chemical-plants-in-south-korea
#15
Don-Hee Han, Min Soo Park
With economic growth, the use of chemicals has continually increased, resulting in an increase of chemical accidents. Chemical accidents pose a life threat and can lead to many health problems among the residents living in close proximity to chemical plants. This study aimed to investigate the awareness of the residents living near chemical plants about hazardous chemicals, as well as to survey the awareness of workers who do not directly handle chemicals at chemical plants (WNHCs). To this end, a questionnaire survey was conducted among a total of 600 residents and 160 WNHCs...
February 10, 2018: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433867/research-during-general-surgery-residency-a-web-based-review-of-opportunities-structure-and-outputs
#16
Audrey Brochu, Rajesh Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Academic research is an integral part of general surgery training. Despite the recent research curriculum requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, there is perceived lack of research structure for residents. The aim of this study was to identify research opportunities, structure, and academic outputs during general surgical United States (US) residency. METHODS: A Web-based review of all accredited general surgery US residency programs was undertaken...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433809/future-directions-in-tardive-dyskinesia-research
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan M Meyer
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) research is at a crossroads because of renewed interest in this syndrome following the successful development and regulatory approval of two novel vesicular monoamine transport 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors. Despite these clinical advances, significant lacunae exist in the knowledge base of TD pathophysiology, prognosis, and epidemiology. Moreover, conflicting definitions of TD as either a syndrome that encompasses a broad array of related phenomena or as a specific subset of tardive syndromes are an impediment to both clinical and basic science research, and to educational efforts targeting nonspecialist clinicians...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433591/paediatric-abstract-publication-rates-for-the-american-society-of-echocardiography-meeting
#18
Adam Morrison, John Kelly, Brian Rivera, Carl H Backes, Clifford L Cua
BACKGROUND: Abstract presentations of scientific information at meetings are important for broadcasting new information. Publication of these studies should be the final goal, but minimal data exist documenting publication rates, especially for paediatric sub-speciality meetings. The goal of this study was to document the manuscript publication rate for paediatric cardiac echocardiography abstracts and to determine whether there were differences between abstracts that were published versus not published...
February 13, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431540/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-drug-evaluation-of-enzalutamide-for-treating-prostate-cancer
#19
Jeong Hee Hong
Enzalutamide is the first approved second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with or without docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Over the past 5 years, a number of attempts were made to determine the efficacy of enzalutamide in the different clinical settings. Areas covered: A literature search was performed at the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science database to collect the most relevant and impactful studies, including basic science investigations, clinical trials, and reviews...
February 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431456/forensic-psychology-and-correctional-psychology-distinct-but-related-subfields-of-psychological-science-and-practice
#20
Tess M S Neal
This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice...
February 12, 2018: American Psychologist
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