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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735427/biomechanical-evaluation-of-distal-biceps-tendon-repair-using-tension-slide-technique-and-knotless-fixation-technique
#1
David D Savin, Hristo Piponov, Jonathan N Watson, Ari R Youderian, Farid Amirouche, Giovanni F Solitro, Mark R Hutchinson, Benjamin A Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Acute distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries that often affect young active males, typically resulting from an eccentric load on their dominant extremity. The purpose of this study was to compare pullout strength and tendon gapping in the tension slide technique (TST) versus a knotless fixation technique (KFT). METHODS: Two sets of experiments were performed using cadaveric elbow specimens. In the first experiment, eight elbows from different cadavers were tested to compare TST with a standard locking whipstitch with KFT, four elbows in each group, using a standard locking whipstitch...
July 22, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735360/navigating-the-future-of-cardiovascular-drug-development-leveraging-novel-approaches-to-drive-innovation-and-drug-discovery-summary-of-findings-from-the-novel-cardiovascular-therapeutics-conference
#2
REVIEW
Thomas J Povsic, Rob Scott, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Robert Blaustein, Jay M Edelberg, Martin P Lefkowitz, Scott D Solomon, Jonathan C Fox, Kevin E Healy, Aarif Y Khakoo, Douglas W Losordo, Fady I Malik, Brett P Monia, Rusty L Montgomery, Jeffrey Riesmeyer, Gregory G Schwartz, Steven L Zelenkofske, Joseph C Wu, Scott M Wasserman, Matthew T Roe
PURPOSE: The need for novel approaches to cardiovascular drug development served as the impetus to convene an open meeting of experts from the pharmaceutical industry and academia to assess the challenges and develop solutions for drug discovery in cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The Novel Cardiovascular Therapeutics Summit first reviewed recent examples of ongoing or recently completed programs translating basic science observations to targeted drug development, highlighting successes (protein convertase sutilisin/kexin type 9 [PCSK9] and neprilysin inhibition) and targets still under evaluation (cholesteryl ester transfer protein [CETP] inhibition), with the hope of gleaning key lessons to successful drug development in the current era...
July 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733961/a-review-of-biomarkers-for-neurodegenerative-disease-will-they-swing-us-across-the-valley
#3
REVIEW
Thomas G Beach
Measures of the severity of cognitive impairment or parkinsonism are the usual endpoints in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but are critically hampered by their lack of disease sensitivity and specificity. Due to the high failure rate of clinical trials, the rate of regulatory approval for efficacious new drugs has stagnated in the past few decades, with the gap between basic science discovery and clinical application metaphorically termed the "Valley of Death". While the causes for this are probably multiple and complex, the usage of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints, particularly when they are molecularly-specific for the disease, has achieved some success in cancer trials, and it is likely that neurodegenerative disease trials would benefit from the same approach...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733711/a-brief-history-of-neurological-botulinum-toxin-therapy-in-germany
#4
REVIEW
Dirk Dressler, Peter Roggenkaemper
Botulinum toxin (BT) has long been infamous in food safety and biological warfare. In the early 1970s, Alan B Scott of San Francisco invented its therapeutic use originally in extraocular eye muscles to treat strabismus using a therapeutic BT type A preparation provided by Edward J Schantz and Eric A Johnson. Subsequently a large number of medical indications based on motor and glandular hyperactivity and-most recently-chronic migraine are now treated by BT therapy. BT's highly specific and elaborate mechanism of action represents a completely novel therapeutic principle which will have consequences far beyond existing indications...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731221/evaluating-the-renal-safety-of-investigational-new-drugs-where-should-we-be-going
#5
N Stockbridge, M Blank, E A Hausner, A Thompson
We the authors work in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review division responsible for the therapeutic agents for primary renal disease. We also field consultative inquiries regarding off-target adverse renal effects of drugs intended to treat other diseases. We do neither basic science research on renal diseases nor clinical studies of new drugs, but we are professional spectators of both. We offer here our thoughts on the challenge of identifying renal safety signals in the preclinical space and in the earliest phases of clinical development...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729414/methods-of-academic-course-planning-for-cancer-biology-ph-d-students-to-enhance-knowledge-of-clinical-oncology
#6
Malcolm D Mattes, Elizabeth Swart, Steven M Markwell, Sijin Wen, Linda C Vona-Davis
Little is known about how clinical oncology concepts are taught to Ph.D. students or the most effective methods of doing so. In this study, electronic surveys were sent to faculty and students at Ph.D. training programs, assessing their institution's methods of clinical oncology education and their perspective on optimal approaches to clinical oncology education. Only 40.0% of students reported any clinical oncology component to their institution's training, and only 26.5% had a clinician on their graduate advisory committee...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729366/recommendation-on-design-execution-and-reporting-of-animal-atherosclerosis-studies-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#7
REVIEW
Alan Daugherty, Alan R Tall, Mat J A P Daemen, Erling Falk, Edward A Fisher, Guillermo García-Cardeña, Aldons J Lusis, A Phillip Owens, Michael E Rosenfeld, Renu Virmani
Animal studies are a foundation for defining mechanisms of atherosclerosis and potential targets of drugs to prevent lesion development or reverse the disease. In the current literature, it is common to see contradictions of outcomes in animal studies from different research groups, leading to the paucity of extrapolations of experimental findings into understanding the human disease. The purpose of this statement is to provide guidelines for development and execution of experimental design and interpretation in animal studies...
July 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729353/recommendation-on-design-execution-and-reporting-of-animal-atherosclerosis-studies-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#8
REVIEW
Alan Daugherty, Alan R Tall, Mat J A P Daemen, Erling Falk, Edward A Fisher, Guillermo García-Cardeña, Aldons J Lusis, A Phillip Owens, Michael E Rosenfeld, Renu Virmani
Animal studies are a foundation for defining mechanisms of atherosclerosis and potential targets of drugs to prevent lesion development or reverse the disease. In the current literature, it is common to see contradictions of outcomes in animal studies from different research groups, leading to the paucity of extrapolations of experimental findings into understanding the human disease. The purpose of this statement is to provide guidelines for development and execution of experimental design and interpretation in animal studies...
July 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725790/biobanking-budgets-and-the-role-of-pathology-biobanks-in-precision-medicine
#9
Chris Andry, Elizabeth Duffy, Christopher A Moskaluk, Shannon McCall, Michael H A Roehrl, Daniel Remick
Biobanks have become an important component of the routine practice of pathology. At the 2016 meeting of the Association of Pathology Chairs, a series of presentations covered several important aspects of biobanking. An often overlooked aspect of biobanking is the fiscal considerations. A biobank budget must address the costs of consenting, procuring, processing, and preserving high-quality biospecimens. Multiple revenue streams will frequently be necessary to create a sustainable biobank; partnering with other key stakeholders has been shown to be successful at academic institutions which may serve as a model...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725785/pathology-course-director-perspectives-of-a-recent-lcme-experience-preparation-in-an-integrated-curriculum-with-the-revised-standards
#10
Barbara E C Knollmann-Ritschel, Eric Suarez, William Gilliland, Richard Conran, Arnyce Pock
Preparation for a Liaison Committee of Medical Education (LCME) accreditation site visit is a daunting task for any medical school, particularly for medical schools that have adopted integrated curricula. The LCME accreditation is the standard that all US and Canadian allopathic medical schools must meet in order for the school to award the degree of medical doctor. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) recently underwent a full-scale LCME accreditation visit that was conducted under the newly revised LCME standards and elements...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724606/sex-and-gender-differences-in-hypertensive-kidney-injury
#11
Jennifer C Sullivan, Ellen Gillis
Hypertension is a complex, multifaceted disorder, affecting approximately 1 on 3 adults in the United States. Although hypertension occurs in both men and women, there are distinct sex differences in the way in which they develop hypertension, with women having a lower incidence of hypertension until the sixth decade of life. Despite observed sex differences in hypertension, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of hypertension in females, primarily due to their underrepresentation in both clinical and experimental animal studies...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723107/chemical-approaches-to-investigate-labile-peptide-and-protein-phosphorylation
#12
Anett Hauser, Martin Penkert, Christian P R Hackenberger
Protein phosphorylation is by far the most abundant and most studied post-translational modification (PTM). For a long time, phosphate monoesters of serine (pSer), threonine (pThr), and tyrosine (pTyr) have been considered as the only relevant forms of phosphorylation in organisms. Recently, several research groups have dedicated their efforts to the investigation of other, less characterized phosphoamino acids as naturally occurring PTMs. Such apparent peculiar phosphorylations include the phosphoramidates of histidine (pHis), arginine (pArg), and lysine (pLys), the phosphorothioate of cysteine (pCys), and the anhydrides of pyrophosphorylated serine (ppSer) and threonine (ppThr)...
July 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721313/2016-writing-contest-graduate-winner-cardiovascular-disease-training-for-community-health-workers-serving-native-hawaiians-and-other-pacific-peoples
#13
Chace DI Moleta, Mele A Look, Mililani K Trask-Batti, Tricia Mabellos, Marjorie L Mau
To help community health workers (CHW) meet increased demand for their services, it is essential to have data supported strategies for approaches to their training and capacity development. The objective of this paper is to report on the development, implementation, and evaluation of "Heart 101," a cardiovascular disease (CVD) training program, conducted among CHW in Hawai'i who serve Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Peoples (NHPP). Principles from Community-Based Participatory Research provided a framework to develop and implement the 5-hour training curriculum...
July 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720921/a-team-based-assignment-to-integrate-basic-science-and-pharmacotherapeutic-principles-for-anticancer-agents
#14
Sonali Kurup, Paiboon Jungsuwadee, Prashant Sakharkar
Objective. To implement and evaluate an active-learning, team-based assignment centered on anticancer agents for the integration of basic science and pharmacotherapeutic principles. Methods. Student teams were assigned a specific anticancer agent and were expected to answer a series of questions on the written section of the assignment, followed by a presentation to the class. Each assignment was assessed using a grading rubric that was mapped to the 2013 CAPE educational outcomes. Student perceptions of the assignment were assessed using a short survey...
June 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719783/making-sense-of-studies-that-claim-benefits-of-frenotomy-in-the-absence-of-classic-tongue-tie
#15
Pamela Douglas
By performing an in-depth analysis of one high profile example, this article aims to help breastfeeding support professionals understand the methodological flaws that characterize recent studies claiming to show the efficacy of frenotomy for the diagnoses of posterior tongue-tie and upper lip-tie. The example study does not address definitional confusion or control for the effects of the passage of time. It does not consider the effects of caring attention, validation, and lactation consultant support. It also does not consider the extensive research over the past three decades that has established that reflux in the first 6 months of life is benign, even though increased reflux frequency may correlate with unsettled infant behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718030/precision-stroke-animal-models-the-permanent-mcao-model-should-be-the-primary-model-not-transient-mcao
#16
Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
An argument for preclinical stroke research to make more use of the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, rather than transient MCAO, is presented. Despite STAIR recommending permanent MCAO as the primary model, preclinical stroke research has not been listened. In 2012, Hossmann reported that 64% of the treatment studies for MCAO used prompt transient MCAO models and only 36% of the studies used permanent MCAO or gradual transient MCAO (i.e., embolic stroke model). Then, in 2014 and 2015, 88% of published basic science studies on large vessel occlusion used the transient MCAO model...
July 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716328/new-frontiers-of-basic-science-research-in-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract%C3%A2-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Minoru Miyazato, Katsumi Kadekawa, Takeya Kitta, Naoki Wada, Nobutaka Shimizu, William C de Groat, Lori A Birder, Anthony J Kanai, Seiichi Saito, Naoki Yoshimura
The lower urinary tract's main functions are storage and elimination. The micturition reflex pathway is modulated by the spinobulbospinal reflex pathway as well as higher brain centers involved in the voluntary micturition control. Micturition is sensitive to numerous injuries, resulting in various types of dysfunction. Animal studies indicate that lower urinary tract dysfunction partly depends on plasticity of the neural pathways. Reflex plasticity is associated with changes in ion channels, receptors, and numerous mediators...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715955/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-human-face-perception
#18
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Kendrick Kay, Jesse Gomez
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715655/macrophage-exosomes-as-natural-nanocarriers-for-protein-delivery-to-inflamed-brain
#19
Dongfen Yuan, Yuling Zhao, William A Banks, Kristin M Bullock, Matthew Haney, Elena Batrakova, Alexander V Kabanov
Recent work has stimulated interest in the use of exosomes as nanocarriers for delivery of small drugs, RNAs, and proteins to the central nervous system (CNS). To overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB), exosomes were modified with brain homing peptides that target brain endothelium but likely to increase immune response. Here for the first time we demonstrate that there is no need for such modification to penetrate the BBB in mammals. The naïve macrophage (Mϕ) exosomes can utilize, 1) on the one hand, the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and, 2) on the other hand, the carbohydrate-binding C-type lectin receptors, to interact with brain microvessel endothelial cells comprising the BBB...
July 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714731/falsifiability-is-not-optional
#20
Etienne P LeBel, Derek Berger, Lorne Campbell, Timothy J Loving
Finkel, Eastwick, and Reis (2016; FER2016) argued the post-2011 methodological reform movement has focused narrowly on replicability, neglecting other essential goals of research. We agree multiple scientific goals are essential, but argue, however, a more fine-grained language, conceptualization, and approach to replication is needed to accomplish these goals. Replication is the general empirical mechanism for testing and falsifying theory. Sufficiently methodologically similar replications, also known as direct replications, test the basic existence of phenomena and ensure cumulative progress is possible a priori...
August 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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