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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#1
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547293/nonsurgical-facial-rejuvenation-outcomes-and-safety-of-neuromodulator-and-soft-tissue-filler-procedures-performed-in-a-resident-cosmetic-clinic
#2
Ali A Qureshi, Rajiv P Parikh, Ketan Sharma, Terence M Myckatyn, Marissa M Tenenbaum
BACKGROUND: The ability to perform nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures is a core competency requirement for plastic surgery residents. However, limited data exist on training models to achieve competency in nonsurgical facial rejuvenation and on outcomes of these procedures performed by residents. The purpose here is to evaluate patient-reported outcomes and safety of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures performed by plastic surgery residents. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 50 patients undergoing neuromodulator and/or soft-tissue filler injections in a resident cosmetic clinic between April and August 2016...
May 25, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546269/towards-an-expert-consensus-to-delineate-a-clinical-syndrome-of-chronic-breathlessness
#3
Miriam J Johnson, Janelle Yorke, John Hansen-Flaschen, Robert Lansing, Magnus Ekström, Thomas Similowski, David C Currow
Breathlessness that persists despite treatment for the underlying conditions is debilitating. Identifying this discrete entity as a clinical syndrome should raise awareness amongst patients, clinicians, service providers, researchers and research funders.Using the Delphi method, questions and statements were generated via expert group consultations and one-to-one interviews (n=17). These were subsequently circulated in three survey rounds (n=34, n=25, n=31) to an extended international group from various settings (clinical and laboratory; hospital, hospice and community) and working within the basic sciences and clinical specialties...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#4
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543993/genetic-background-of-hirschsprung-disease-a-bridge-between-basic-science-and-clinical-application
#5
Afsane Bahrami, Marjan Joodi, Mehrdad Ahmadi, Mina Maftouh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder, defined by partial or complete loss of the neuronal ganglion cells in the intestinal tract, which is caused by the failure of neural crest cells to migrate completely during intestinal development during fetal life. HSCR has a multifactorial etiology, and genetic factors play a key role in its pathogenesis; these include mutations within several gene loci. These have been identified by screening candidate genes, or by conducting genome wide association (GWAS) studies...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543948/the-physics-of-mri-safety
#6
REVIEW
Lawrence P Panych, Bruno Madore
The main risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been extensively reported and studied; for example, everyday objects may turn into projectiles, energy deposition can cause burns, varying fields can induce nerve stimulation, and loud noises can lead to auditory loss. The present review article is geared toward providing intuition about the physical mechanisms that give rise to these risks. On the one hand, excellent literature already exists on the practical aspect of risk management, with clinical workflow and recommendations...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543647/reflections-on-democratic-deliberation-in-bioethics
#7
Amy Gutmann, James W Wagner
Over the course of six years and more than two dozen meetings, members of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues learned so many things: about emerging science; technological challenges; citizen engagement; the public's, experts', and our own understandings and misperceptions; and even the nature of our own most cherished values. Our commission's commitment to democratic deliberation began deliberatively, when we decided (in the summer of 2010) upon basic principles to guide our first report...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543424/how-to-rethink-the-fourteen-day-rule
#8
Sarah Chan
Recently, attention has been drawn to the basic principles governing the use of human embryos in research: specifically, the so-called fourteen-day rule. This rule stipulates that human embryos should not be allowed to grow in vitro past fourteen days of development. For years, the fourteen-day limit was largely theoretical, since culture techniques were not sufficient to maintain embryos up to this point. Yet in the past year, research has suggested that growing embryos beyond fourteen days might be feasible and scientifically valuable...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542012/trends-of-training-courses-conducted-in-the-human-resources-development-center-of-the-national-institute-for-quantum-and-radiological-science-and-technology-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#9
Yuko Shimizu, Haruzo Iida, Mitsuru Nenoi
Environmental contamination with radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 2011 raised a serious health concern among residents in Japan, and the demand for radiation experts who can handle the radiation-associated problems has increased. The Human Resources Development Center (HRDC) of the National Institute of for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology in Japan has offered a variety of training programs covering a wide range of technologies associated with radiation since 1959...
July 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541092/amniotic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-exhibit-preferential-osteogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation-and-enhanced-matrix-production-compared-with-adipose-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#10
Natasha Topoluk, Richard Hawkins, John Tokish, Jeremy Mercuri
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic efficacy of various mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) types for orthopaedic applications is currently being investigated. While the concept of MSC therapy is well grounded in the basic science of healing and regeneration, little is known about individual MSC populations in terms of their propensity to promote the repair and/or regeneration of specific musculoskeletal tissues. Two promising MSC sources, adipose and amnion, have each demonstrated differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in the setting of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540304/achilles-tendinopathy-from-the-basic-science-to-the-clinic
#11
EDITORIAL
Hong-Yun Li, Youichi Yasui, Seung Hwan Han, Wataru Miyamoto, Ying-Hui Hua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539692/results-of-physiotherapy-treatments-in-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#12
Irene Torres-Sánchez, Roberto Cruz-Ramírez, Irene Cabrera-Martos, Ana Díaz-Pelegrina, Marie Carmen Valenza
Purpose: The objective of this study was to review clinical trials of the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with standard care, focused mainly on the functional status of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods: Search strategies were developed for each of the databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). The study eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) The objective was to assess the effect and efficacy of physiotherapy compared with standard care (which included only medical and pharmacological treatment); (2) adults subjects had AECOPD; (3) one of the outcome measures was functional status, defined as an individual's ability to perform the normal daily activities required to meet basic needs, fulfill usual roles, and maintain health and well-being; (4) it was a clinical trial; (5) it was written in English; (6) it was published between January 2009 and February 2016; and (7) the full-text article was available...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538726/large-conservation-gains-possible-for-global-biodiversity-facets
#13
Laura J Pollock, Wilfried Thuiller, Walter Jetz
Different facets of biodiversity other than species numbers are increasingly appreciated as critical for maintaining the function of ecosystems and their services to humans. While new international policy and assessment processes such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) recognize the importance of an increasingly global, quantitative and comprehensive approach to biodiversity protection, most insights are still focused on a single facet of biodiversity-species...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538636/the-role-of-nigms-p50-sponsored-team-science-in-our-understanding-of-multiple-organ-failure
#14
Frederick A Moore, Ernest E Moore, Timothy R Billiar, Yoram Vodovotz, Anirban Banerjee, Lyle L Moldawer
The history of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Research Centers in Peri-operative Sciences (RCIPS) is the history of clinical, translational and basic science research into the etiology and treatment of posttraumatic multiple organ failure (MOF). Born out of the activism of trauma and burn surgeons after the Viet Nam war, the P50 trauma research centers have been a nidus of research advances in the field, and the training of future academic physician-scientists in the fields of trauma, burns, sepsis and critical illness...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536888/meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-on-facilitators-and-barriers-of-return-to-work-after-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Betje Schwarz, Dolores Claros-Salinas, Marco Streibelt
Purpose Despite existing rehabilitation services, return to work (RTW) rates among stroke survivors are quite low. An increased number of qualitative studies have been conducted to identify facilitators and barriers to RTW after stroke and to derive recommendations for future interventions. The aim of our study was to carry out a meta-synthesis of those studies and thus strengthen evidence in the field. Methods To identify relevant studies (qualitative studies focusing on RTW after stroke, published in English or German between 2000 and 2015), we conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535116/is-mannitol-the-treatment-of-choice-for-patients-with-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#16
Michael E Mullins, Robert S Hoffman
CONTEXT: Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533945/the-role-of-speed-in-adhd-related-working-memory-deficits-a-time-based-resource-sharing-and-diffusion-model-account
#17
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Several recent commentaries suggest that, for psychological science to move beyond "homuncular" explanations for cognitive control, it is critically important to examine the role of basic and computationally well-defined processes (e.g. cognitive processing speed). Correlational evidence has previously linked slow speed to working memory (WM) deficits in ADHD, but the directionality of this relationship has not been investigated experimentally and the mechanisms through which speed may influence WM are unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533183/dedicated-research-time-during-surgery-residency-leads-to-a-significant-decline-in-self-assessed-clinical-aptitude-and-surgical-skills
#18
Monica M Grova, Anthony D Yang, Misty D Humphries, Joseph M Galante, Edgardo S Salcedo
OBJECTIVE: The surgical community commonly perceives a decline in surgical and patient care skills among residents who take dedicated time away from clinical activity to engage in research. We hypothesize that residents perceive a decline in their skills because of dedicated research time. SETTING: UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, an institutional tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: General surgery residents and graduates from UC Davis general surgery residency training program, who had completed at least 1 year of research during their training...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532138/a-case-based-shared-teaching-approach-in-undergraduate-medical-curriculum-a-way-for-integration-in-basic-and-clinical-sciences
#19
Soheil Peiman, Azim Mirzazadeh, Maryam Alizadeh, Sara Mortaz Hejri, Mohammad-Taghi Najafi, Abbas Tafakhori, Farnoosh Larti, Besharat Rahimi, Babak Geraiely, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Mohammad Ansari, Seyed Farshad Allameh
To present a multiple-instructor, active-learning strategy in the undergraduate medical curriculum. This educational research is a descriptive one. Shared teaching sessions, were designed for undergraduate medical students in six organ-system based courses. Sessions that involved in-class discussions of integrated clinical cases were designed implemented and moderated by at least 3 faculties (clinicians and basic scientists). The participants in this study include the basic sciences medical students of The Tehran University of Medical Sciences...
April 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530839/meeting-report-of-the-fifth-international-cancer-epigenetics-conference-in-beijing-china-october-2016
#20
Dan Gao, James G Herman, Hengmi Cui, Jin Jen, Francois Fuks, Malcolm V Brock, Toshikazu Ushijima, Carlo Croce, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Mingzhou Guo
Fifth International Cancer Epigenetics Conference, Beijing, China, 21-23 October 2016 This meeting reported many new findings in the field of cancer epigenetics, including basic science, translational and clinical studies. In this report, we summarize some of the main advancements and prospects in cancer epigenetics presented at this meeting.
May 22, 2017: Epigenomics
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