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Hannes K Imhof, Robert Sigl, Emilia Brauer, Sabine Feyl, Philipp Giesemann, Saskia Klink, Kathrin Leupolz, Martin G J Löder, Lena A Löschel, Jan Missun, Sarah Muszynski, Anja F R M Ramsperger, Isabella Schrank, Susan Speck, Sebastian Steibl, Benjamin Trotter, Isabel Winter, Christian Laforsch
Plastic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment and the world's shores represent a major sink. However, knowledge about plastic abundance in remote areas is scarce. Therefore, plastic abundance was investigated on a small island of the Maldives. Plastic debris (>1mm) was sampled once in natural long-term accumulation zones at the north shore and at the high tide drift line of the south shore on seven consecutive days to quantify daily plastic accumulation. Reliable identification of plastic debris was ensured by FTIR spectroscopy...
January 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Victoria A Sleight, Adil Bakir, Richard C Thompson, Theodore B Henry
Microplastics (MPs) are prevalent in marine ecosystems. Because toxicants (termed here "co-contaminants") can sorb to MPs, there is potential for MPs to alter co-contaminant bioavailability. Our objective was to demonstrate sorption of two co-contaminants with different physicochemistries [phenanthrene (Phe), log10Kow=4.57; and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), log10Kow=3.67] to MPs; and assess whether co-contaminant bioavailability was increased after MP settlement. Bioavailability was indicated by gene expression in larval zebrafish...
January 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
France Collard, Bernard Gilbert, Gauthier Eppe, Laetitia Roos, Philippe Compère, Krishna Das, Eric Parmentier
Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their economic and ecological importance. This study aims to describe the morphology of the filtration apparatus of three wild-caught Clupeiformes (Sardina pilchardus, Clupea harengus and Engraulis encrasicolus) and to relate the results to ingested APs. Consequently, the species with the more efficient filtration apparatus will be more likely to ingest APs...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ricardo Mizraji, Camila Ahrendt, Diego Perez-Venegas, Juan Vargas, Jose Pulgar, Marcela Aldana, F Patricio Ojeda, Cristian Duarte, Cristobal Galbán-Malagón
Microplastics pollution is a growing global concern that affects all aquatic ecosystems. Microplastics in the environment can be in the form of fibers and/or particles, being the former the most abundant in the marine environment, representing up to 95% of total plastics. The aim of this work was to compare the content of microplastics among intertidal fish with different feeding type. Our results show that omnivorous fish presented a higher amount of microplastic fibers than registered in herbivores and carnivores...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Alicia K Terepocki, Alex T Brush, Lydia U Kleine, Gary W Shugart, Peter Hodum
We found microplastic in 89.5% of 143 Northern Fulmars from 2008 to 2013 and 64% of 25 Sooty Shearwaters in 2011-2012 that were found dead or stranded on Oregon and Washington beaches. Average plastic loads were 19.5 pieces and 0.461g for fulmars and 13.3 pieces and 0.335g for shearwaters. Pre-manufactured plastic pellets accounted for 8.5% of fulmar and 33% of shearwater plastic pieces. In both species, plastic in proventriculi averaged 2-3mm larger in greatest dimension than in ventriculi. Intestinal plastic in fulmars averaged 1mm less in greatest dimension than ventricular plastic...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Noam van der Hal, Asaf Ariel, Dror L Angel
Seasonal sea surface microplastic distribution was recorded at 17 sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Microplastics (0.3-5mm) were found in all samples, with a mean abundance of 7.68±2.38particles/m(3) or 1,518,340particles/km(2). Some areas had higher abundances of microplastics than others, although differences were neither consistent nor statistically significant. In some cases microplastic particles were found floating in large patches. One of these patches contained an extraordinary number of plastic particles; 324particles/m(3) or 64,812,600particles/km(2)...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Manca Kovač Viršek, Andreja Palatinus, Špela Koren, Monika Peterlin, Petra Horvat, Andrej Kržan
Microplastic pollution in the marine environment is a scientific topic that has received increasing attention over the last decade. The majority of scientific publications address microplastic pollution of the sea surface. The protocol below describes the methodology for sampling, sample preparation, separation and chemical identification of microplastic particles. A manta net fixed on an »A frame« attached to the side of the vessel was used for sampling. Microplastic particles caught in the cod end of the net were separated from samples by visual identification and use of stereomicroscopes...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
S Sruthy, E V Ramasamy
We present the first study of microplastics in the sediments of Vembanad Lake, a Ramsar site in India. Microplastics are emerging pollutants of increasing environmental concern with a particle size of <5 mm, which originate from successive degradation of larger plastic debris or are manufactured as small granules and used in many applications. The impact of microplastics pollution on the environment and biota is not well known. Vast data exist in the literature on marine microplastics while reports on freshwater ecosystems are scarce...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Mikaël Kedzierski, Véronique Le Tilly, Guy César, Olivier Sire, Stéphane Bruzaud
Evaluating the microplastics pollution on the shores requires overcoming the technological and economical challenge of efficient plastic extraction from sand. The recovery of dense microplastics requires the use of NaI solutions, a costly process. The aim of this study is to decrease this cost by recycling the NaI solutions and to determine the impact of NaI storage. For studying the NaI recyclability, the solution density and the salt mass have been monitored during ten life cycles. Density, pH and salt mass have been measured for 40days to assess the storage effect...
December 28, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
X-Y Xu, W T Lee, A K Y Chan, H S Lo, P K S Shin, S G Cheung
The effects of microplastic concentrations (10itemsl(-1) and 1000itemsl(-1)) on the physiological responses of Atactodea striata (clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate) were investigated. The fates of ingested microplastics and the efficiency of depuration in removing ingested microplastics were also studied. A. striata ingested microplastics and the clearance rate was reduced at high concentration of microplastics. Since the respiration rate and absorption efficiency remained unchanged in exposed A...
December 27, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jundong Wang, Jinping Peng, Zhi Tan, Yifan Gao, Zhiwei Zhan, Qiuqiang Chen, Liqi Cai
While large quantities of studies on microplastics in the marine environment have been widely carried out, few were available in the freshwater environment. The occurrence and characteristics, including composition, abundance, surface texture and interaction with heavy metals, of microplastics in the surface sediments from Beijiang River littoral zone were investigated. The concentrations of microplastics ranged from 178 ± 69 to 544 ± 107 items/kg sediment. SEM images illustrated that pits, fractures, flakes and adhering particles were the common patterns of degradation...
December 18, 2016: Chemosphere
Hye-Min Kang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Young Hwan Lee, Yan-Hong Cui, Duck-Hyun Kim, Min-Chul Lee, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Dae-Sik Hwang, Su-Jae Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family is known to mediate various biological processes in response to diverse environmental pollutants. Although MAPKs are well characterized and studied in vertebrates, in invertebrates the cross-reactivities of MAPKs antibodies were not clearly known in response to environmental pollutants due to limited information of antibody epitopes with material resources for invertebrates. In this paper, we performed phylogenetic analysis of MAPKs genes in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepods Paracyclopina nana and Tigriopus japonicus...
December 21, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
La Daana K Kanhai, Rick Officer, Olga Lyashevska, Richard C Thompson, Ian O'Connor
Microplastics in the world's oceans are a global concern due to the potential threat they pose to marine organisms. This study investigated microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in the Atlantic Ocean on a transect from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Town, South Africa. Microplastics were sampled from sub-surface waters using the underway system of the RV Polarstern. Potential microplastics were isolated from samples and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify polymer types. Of the particles analysed, 63% were rayon and 37% were synthetic polymers...
December 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Cécile Mirande, Corinne Mandin, Mohamed Guerrouache, Valérie Langlois, Bruno Tassin
Studies about microplastics in various environments highlighted the ubiquity of anthropogenic fibers. As a follow-up of a recent study that emphasized the presence of man-made fibers in atmospheric fallout, this study is the first one to investigate fibers in indoor and outdoor air. Three different indoor sites were considered: two private apartments and one office. In parallel, the outdoor air was sampled in one site. The deposition rate of the fibers and their concentration in settled dust collected from vacuum cleaner bags were also estimated...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
Matthew J Hoffman, Eric Hittinger
Plastic pollution in the world's oceans has received much attention, but there has been increasing concern about the high concentrations of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Using census data and methodologies used to study ocean debris we derive a first estimate of 9887 metric tonnes per year of plastic debris entering the Great Lakes. These estimates are translated into population-dependent particle inputs which are advected using currents from a hydrodynamic model to map the spatial distribution of plastic debris in the Great Lakes...
December 14, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Michael LeBlanc, Aya Nawano, Wendelin J Wright, Xiaojun Gu, J T Uhl, Karin A Dahmen
Extracting avalanche distributions from experimental microplasticity data can be hampered by limited time resolution. We compute the effects of low time resolution on avalanche size distributions and give quantitative criteria for diagnosing and circumventing problems associated with low time resolution. We show that traditional analysis of data obtained at low acquisition rates can lead to avalanche size distributions with incorrect power-law exponents or no power-law scaling at all. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it can lead to apparent data collapses with incorrect power-law and cutoff exponents...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
Xiaoxia Sun, Qingjie Li, Mingliang Zhu, Junhua Liang, Shan Zheng, Yongfang Zhao
The ingestion of microplastics by five natural zooplankton groups in the northern South China Sea was studied for the first time and two types of sampling nets (505μm and 160μm in mesh size) were compared. The microplastics were detected in zooplankton sampled from 16 stations, with the fibrous microplastics accounting for the largest proportion (70%). The main component of the found microplastics was polyester. The average length of the microplastics was 125μm and 167μm for Nets I and II, respectively...
December 10, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Pascal Forquin
Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material...
January 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Y Y Tsang, C W Mak, C Liebich, S W Lam, E T-P Sze, K M Chan
The presence of plastic waste with a diameter of less than 5mm ("microplastics") in marine environments has prompted increasing concern in recent years, both locally and globally. We conducted seasonal surveys of microplastic pollution in the surface waters and sediments from Deep Bay, Tolo Harbor, Tsing Yi, and Victoria Harbor in Hong Kong between June 2015 and March 2016. The average concentrations of microplastics in local coastal waters and sediments respectively ranged from 51 to 27,909particles per 100m(3) and 49 to 279particles per kilogram...
December 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Khalida Jabeen, Lei Su, Jiana Li, Dongqi Yang, Chunfu Tong, Jingli Mu, Huahong Shi
Plastic pollution is a growing global concern. In the present study, we investigated plastic pollution in 21 species of sea fish and 6 species of freshwater fish from China. All of the species were found to ingest micro- or mesoplastics. The average abundance of microplastics varied from 1.1 to 7.2 items by individual and 0.2-17.2 items by gram. The average abundance of mesoplastics varied from 0.2 to 3.0 items by individual and 0.1-3.9 items by gram. Microplastics were abundant in 26 species, accounting for 55...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
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