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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318789/transport-of-microplastics-by-two-collembolan-species
#1
Stefanie Maaß, Daniel Daphi, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C Rillig
Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302357/micro-and-mesoplastics-in-northeast-levantine-coast-of-turkey-the-preliminary-results-from-surface-samples
#2
Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik
The determination of the microplastic distribution will be beneficial as a measure of the potential effects on the environment. The Mediterranean Sea had a high risk of pollution as it was enclosed by highly populated and industrialized countries. Here, we determined the level of micro- and mesoplastic pollution in Iskenderun and Mersin Bays, located in the Northeastern Levantine coast of Turkey. The average level of both micro- and mesoplastic was determined to be 0.376 item/m(2) at seven stations. The highest level was determined in Mersin Bay at the mouth of the Seyhan river (Station no...
March 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300146/a-rapid-screening-approach-to-detect-and-quantify-microplastics-based-on-fluorescent-tagging-with-nile-red
#3
Thomas Maes, Rebecca Jessop, Nikolaus Wellner, Karsten Haupt, Andrew G Mayes
A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298079/occurrence-and-characteristics-of-microplastic-pollution-in-xiangxi-bay-of-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#4
Kai Zhang, Xiong Xiong, Hongjuan Hu, Chenxi Wu, Yonghong Bi, Yonghong Wu, Bingsheng Zhou, Paul K S Lam, Jiantong Liu
Microplastic pollution in inland waters is receiving growing attentions. Reservoirs are suspected to be particularly vulnerable to microplastic pollution. However, very limited information is currently available on pollution characteristics of microplastics in reservoir ecosystems. This work studied the distribution and characteristics of microplastics in the backwater area of Xiangxi River, a typical tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Microplastics were detected in both surface water and sediment with concentrations ranging from 0...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284818/distribution-and-importance-of-microplastics-in-the-marine-environment-a-review-of-the-sources-fate-effects-and-potential-solutions
#5
REVIEW
H S Auta, C U Emenike, S H Fauziah
The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics...
March 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274762/are-whale-sharks-exposed-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-plastic-pollution-in-the-gulf-of-california-mexico-first-ecotoxicological-investigation-using-skin-biopsies
#6
Maria Cristina Fossi, Matteo Baini, Cristina Panti, Matteo Galli, Begoña Jiménez, Juan Muñoz-Arnanz, Letizia Marsili, Maria Grazia Finoia, Dení Ramírez-Macías
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is an endangered species that may be exposed to micro- and macro-plastic ingestion as a result of their filter-feeding activity, particularly on the sea surface. In this pilot project we perform the first ecotoxicological investigation on whale sharks sampled in the Gulf of California exploring the potential interaction of this species with plastic debris (macro-, micro-plastics and related sorbed contaminants). Due to the difficulty in obtaining stranded specimens of this endangered species, an indirect approach, by skin biopsies was used for the evaluation of the whale shark ecotoxicological status...
March 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267994/degradation-of-common-polymer-ropes-in-a-sublittoral-marine-environment
#7
Natalie A Welden, Phillip R Cowie
Contamination by microplastic particles and fibres has been observed in sediment and animals sampled from the Firth of Clyde, West Scotland. In addition to microplastics released during clothes washing, a probable source is polymer ropes in abandoned, lost and discarded fishing and recreational sailing gear. The fragmentation of polypropylene, polyethylene, and nylon exposed to benthic conditions at 10m depth over 12months was monitored using changes in weight and tensile properties. Water temperature and light levels were continuously monitored...
March 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249388/combined-effects-of-uv-exposure-duration-and-mechanical-abrasion-on-microplastic-fragmentation-by-polymer-type
#8
Young Kyoung Song, Sang Hee Hong, Mi Jang, Gi Myung Han, Seung Won Jung, Won Joon Shim
It is important to understand the fragmentation processes and mechanisms of plastic litter to predict microplastic production in the marine environment. In this study, accelerated weathering experiments were performed in the laboratory, with ultraviolet (UV) exposure for up to 12 months followed by mechanical abrasion (MA) with sand for 2 months. Fragmentation of low-density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and expanded polystyrene (EPS) was evaluated under conditions that simulated a beach environment...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242460/assessing-the-biodegradability-of-microparticles-disposed-down-the-drain
#9
Kathleen McDonough, Nina Itrich, Kenneth Casteel, Jennifer Menzies, Tom Williams, Kady Krivos, Jason Price
Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236709/microplastic-in-the-surface-waters-of-the-ross-sea-antarctica-occurrence-distribution-and-characterization-by-ftir
#10
Alessandra Cincinelli, Costanza Scopetani, David Chelazzi, Emilia Lombardini, Tania Martellini, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Maria Cristina Fossi, Simonetta Corsolini
This is the first survey to investigate the occurrence and extent of microplastic (MPs) contamination in sub surface waters collected near-shore and off-shore the coastal area of the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Moreover, a non-invasive method to analyze MPs, consisting in filtration after water sampling and analysis of the dried filter through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 2D Imaging, using an FPA detector, was proposed. The non-invasiveness of analytical set-up reduces potential bias and allows subsequent analysis of the filter sample for determination of other classes of contaminants...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222979/from-macro-to-microplastics-analysis-of-eu-regulation-along-the-life-cycle-of-plastic-bags
#11
REVIEW
Ida M Steensgaard, Kristian Syberg, Sinja Rist, Nanna B Hartmann, Alessio Boldrin, Steffen Foss Hansen
Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222864/effects-of-micro-and-nanoplastics-on-aquatic-ecosystems-current-research-trends-and-perspectives
#12
Yooeun Chae, Youn-Joo An
Contamination by bulk plastics and plastic debris is currently the one of the most serious environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, small-scale plastic debris such as microplastics and nanoplastics has become leading contributors to the pollution of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Studies are investigating the impacts of micro-and nanoplastics on aquatic organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This review covers 83 studies that investigated the distribution of microplastics and the ecotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems...
February 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215582/microplastics-in-sea-coastal-zone-lessons-learned-from-the-baltic-amber
#13
REVIEW
Irina Chubarenko, Natalia Stepanova
Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214011/widespread-microplastic-ingestion-by-fish-assemblages-in-tropical-estuaries-subjected-to-anthropogenic-pressures
#14
A L Vendel, F Bessa, V E N Alves, A L A Amorim, J Patrício, A R T Palma
Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined...
February 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202278/plastic-litter-in-aquatic-environments-of-maremma-regional-park-tyrrhenian-sea-italy-contribution-by-the-ombrone-river-and-levels-in-marine-sediments
#15
Cristiana Guerranti, Susanna Cannas, Costanza Scopetani, Paolo Fastelli, Alessandra Cincinelli, Monia Renzi
During two surveys in 2015 and 2016, sediments samples were collected along the Ombrone river (Maremma Regional Park, province of Grosseto, Italy), in particular at its mouth and in the marine area in front of it, in order to quantify, identify and categorize plastic items (macro, meso and micro-plastics and colour, material etc.) and evaluate their potential sources. The Albegna and Osa rivers were identified as external areas of comparison. The results of the analysis showed different situations, especially as regards fluvial inputs, in addition to evidencing local provisions of plastic material derived from agricultural activities...
February 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199874/biodegradation-of-polyethylene-microplastics-by-the-marine-fungus-zalerion-maritimum
#16
Ana Paço, Kátia Duarte, João P da Costa, Patrícia S M Santos, R Pereira, M E Pereira, Ana C Freitas, Armando C Duarte, Teresa A P Rocha-Santos
Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196756/amberstripe-scad-decapterus-muroadsi-carangidae-fish-ingest-blue-microplastics-resembling-their-copepod-prey-along-the-coast-of-rapa-nui-easter-island-in-the-south-pacific-subtropical-gyre
#17
Nicolas Christian Ory, Paula Sobral, Joana Lia Ferreira, Martin Thiel
An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193590/fast-identification-of-microplastics-in-complex-environmental-samples-by-a-thermal-degradation-method
#18
Erik Dümichen, Paul Eisentraut, Claus Gerhard Bannick, Anne-Kathrin Barthel, Rainer Senz, Ulrike Braun
In order to determine the relevance of microplastic particles in various environmental media, comprehensive investigations are needed. However, no analytical method exists for fast identification and quantification. At present, optical spectroscopy methods like IR and RAMAN imaging are used. Due to their time consuming procedures and uncertain extrapolation, reliable monitoring is difficult. For analyzing polymers Py-GC-MS is a standard method. However, due to a limited sample amount of about 0.5 mg it is not suited for analysis of complex sample mixtures like environmental samples...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185727/quantitative-investigation-of-the-mechanisms-of-microplastics-and-nanoplastics-toward-zebrafish-larvae-locomotor-activity
#19
Qiqing Chen, Michael Gundlach, Shouye Yang, Jing Jiang, Mirna Velki, Daqiang Yin, Henner Hollert
This study investigated the direct and indirect toxic effects of microplastics and nanoplastics toward zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae locomotor activity. Results showed that microplastics alone exhibited no significant effects except for the upregulated zfrho visual gene expression; whereas nanoplastics inhibited the larval locomotion by 22% during the last darkness period, and significantly reduced larvae body length by 6%, inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity by 40%, and upregulated gfap, α1-tubulin, zfrho and zfblue gene expression significantly...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169032/microplastics-in-freshwater-and-terrestrial-environments-evaluating-the-current-understanding-to-identify-the-knowledge-gaps-and-future-research-priorities
#20
REVIEW
Alice A Horton, Alexander Walton, David J Spurgeon, Elma Lahive, Claus Svendsen
Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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