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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734264/a-small-scale-portable-method-for-extracting-microplastics-from-marine-sediments
#1
Rachel L Coppock, Matthew Cole, Penelope K Lindeque, Ana M Queirós, Tamara S Galloway
Microplastics (plastic particles, 0.1 μm-5 mm in size) are widespread marine pollutants, accumulating in benthic sediments and shorelines the world over. To gain a clearer understanding of microplastic availability to marine life, and the risks they pose to the health of benthic communities, ecological processes and food security, it is important to obtain accurate measures of microplastic abundance in marine sediments. To date, methods for extracting microplastics from marine sediments have been disadvantaged by complexity, expense, low extraction efficiencies and incompatibility with very fine sediments...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734261/abundant-plankton-sized-microplastic-particles-in-shelf-waters-of-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico
#2
Rosana Di Mauro, Matthew J Kupchik, Mark C Benfield
Accumulation of marine debris is a global problem that affects the oceans on multiple scales. The majority of floating marine debris is composed of microplastics: plastic particles up to 5 mm in diameter. With similar sizes and appearances to natural food items, these small fragments pose potential risks to many marine organisms including zooplankton and zooplanktivores. Semi-enclosed seas are reported to have high concentrations of microplastics, however, the distribution and concentration of microplastics in one such system, the Gulf of Mexico, remains unknown...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716475/fouling-assemblage-of-benthic-plastic-debris-collected-from-mersin-bay-ne-levantine-coast-of-turkey
#3
Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik, Serkan Karaca
The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km(2); 86,3kg/km(2)) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics...
July 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716299/the-adverse-effects-of-virgin-microplastics-on-the-fertilization-and-larval-development-of-sea-urchins
#4
Concepción Martínez-Gómez, Víctor M León, Susana Calles, Marina Gomáriz-Olcina, A Dick Vethaak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715401/extraction-of-organochlorine-pesticides-from-plastic-pellets-and-plastic-type-analysis
#5
Marilyne Pflieger, Petra Makorič, Manca Kovač Viršek, Špela Koren
Plastic resin pellets, categorized as microplastics (≤5 mm in diameter), are small granules that can be unintentionally released to the environment during manufacturing and transport. Because of their environmental persistence, they are widely distributed in the oceans and on beaches all over the world. They can act as a vector of potentially toxic organic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) and might consequently negatively affect marine organisms. Their possible impacts along the food chain are not yet well understood...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710727/the-occurrence-of-microplastic-contamination-in-littoral-sediments-of-the-persian-gulf-iran
#6
Abolfazl Naji, Zinat Esmaili, Sherri A Mason, A Dick Vethaak
Microplastics (MPs; <5 mm) in aquatic environments are an emerging contaminant of concern due to their possible ecological and biological consequences. This study addresses that MP quantification and morphology to assess the abundance, distribution, and polymer types in littoral surface sediments of the Persian Gulf were performed. A two-step method, with precautions taken to avoid possible airborne contamination, was applied to extract MPs from sediments collected at five sites during low tide. MPs were found in 80% of the samples...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710445/microplastics-in-eviscerated-flesh-and-excised-organs-of-dried-fish
#7
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Yu Bin Ho, Vincent Larat, Babak Salamatinia
There is a paucity of information about the occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in edible fish tissues. Here, we investigated the potential presence of MPs in the excised organs (viscera and gills) and eviscerated flesh (whole fish excluding the viscera and gills) of four commonly consumed dried fish species (n = 30 per species). The MP chemical composition was then determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Out of 61 isolated particles, 59...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710404/assuring-quality-in-microplastic-monitoring-about-the-value-of-clean-air-devices-as-essentials-for-verified-data
#8
Charlotte Wesch, Anna Maria Elert, Manuel Wörner, Ulrike Braun, Roland Klein, Martin Paulus
Avoiding aerial microfibre contamination of environmental samples is essential for reliable analyses when it comes to the detection of ubiquitous microplastics. Almost all laboratories have contamination problems which are largely unavoidable without investments in clean-air devices. Therefore, our study supplies an approach to assess background microfibre contamination of samples in the laboratory under particle-free air conditions. We tested aerial contamination of samples indoor, in a mobile laboratory, within a laboratory fume hood and on a clean bench with particles filtration during the examining process of a fish...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709522/microplastic-contamination-of-intertidal-sediments-of-scapa-flow-orkney-a-first-assessment
#9
J Blumenröder, P Sechet, J E Kakkonen, M G J Hartl
The concentration of microplastic particles and fibres was determined in the intertidal sediments at selected sites in Scapa Flow, Orkney, using a super-saturated NaCl flotation technique to extract the plastic and FT-IR spectroscopy to determine the polymer types. Mean concentrations were 730 and 2300kg(-1) sediment (DW), respectively. Detailed spatial and quantitative analysis revealed that their distribution was a function of proximity to populated areas and associated wastewater effluent, industrial installations, degree of shore exposure and complex tidal flow patterns...
July 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707239/microplastic-pollution-in-deposited-urban-dust-tehran-metropolis-iran
#10
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
Environmental pollutants such as microplastics have become a major concern over the last few decades. We investigated the presence, characteristics, and potential health risks of microplastic dust ingestion. The plastic load of 88 to 605 microplastics per 30 g dry dust with a dominance of black and yellow granule microplastics ranging in size from 250 to 500 μm was determined in 10 street dust samples using a binocular microscope. Fluorescence microscopy was found to be ineffective for detecting and counting plastic debris...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705632/the-uptake-of-macroplastic-microplastic-by-demersal-pelagic-fish-in-the-northeast-atlantic-around-scotland
#11
Fionn Murphy, Marie Russell, Ciaran Ewins, Brian Quinn
This study reports plastic ingestion in various fish found from coastal and offshore sites in Scottish marine waters. Coastal samples consisted of three demersal flatfish species (n=128) collected from the East and West coasts of Scotland. Offshore samples consisted of 5 pelagic species and 4 demersal species (n=84) collected from the Northeast Atlantic. From the coastal fish sampled, 47.7% of the gastrointestinal tracts contained macroplastic and microplastic. Of the 84 pelagic and demersal offshore fish, only 2 (2...
July 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705629/foraging-preferences-influence-microplastic-ingestion-by-six-marine-fish-species-from-the-texas-gulf-coast
#12
Colleen A Peters, Peyton A Thomas, Kaitlyn B Rieper, Susan P Bratton
This study evaluated the influence of foraging preferences on microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast. A total of 1381 fish were analyzed and 42.4% contained ingested microplastic, inclusive of fiber (86.4%), microbead (12.9% %), and fragment (<1.0%) forms. Despite a substantial overlap in diet, ordination of ingested prey items clustered samples into distinctive species groupings, reflective of the foraging gradient among species. Orthopristis chrysoptera displayed the lowest overall frequency of microplastic ingestion and the most distinctive ordination grouping, indicating their selective invertebrate foraging preferences...
July 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704660/pathway-analysis-of-systemic-transcriptome-responses-to-injected-polystyrene-particles-in-zebrafish-larvae
#13
Wouter J Veneman, Herman P Spaink, Nadja R Brun, Thijs Bosker, Martina G Vijver
Microplastics are a contaminant of emergent concern in the environment, however, to date there is a limited understanding on their movement within organisms and the response of organisms. In the current study zebrafish embryos at different development stages were exposed to 700nm fluorescent polystyrene (PS) particles and the response pathway after exposure was investigated using imaging and transcriptomics. Our results show limited spreading of particles within the larvae after injection during the blastula stage...
July 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691800/three-lessons-for-the-microplastics-voyage
#14
David Sedlak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689849/screening-for-microplastics-in-sediment-water-marine-invertebrates-and-fish-method-development-and-microplastic-accumulation
#15
Therese M Karlsson, A Dick Vethaak, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Freek Ariese, Martin van Velzen, Martin Hassellöv, Heather A Leslie
Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on density separation was developed. For analysis of microplastics in biota we found that an adapted enzymatic digestion protocol using proteinase K performed best, with a 97% recovery of spiked plastic particles and no observed degradation effects on the plastics in subsequent Raman analysis...
July 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686942/solutions-to-microplastic-pollution-removal-of-microplastics-from-wastewater-effluent-with-advanced-wastewater-treatment-technologies
#16
Julia Talvitie, Anna Mikola, Arto Koistinen, Outi Setälä
Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent...
July 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684108/microplastics-effects-in-scrobicularia-plana
#17
Francisca Ribeiro, Ana R Garcia, Beatriz P Pereira, Maria Fonseca, Nélia C Mestre, Tainá G Fonseca, Laura M Ilharco, Maria João Bebianno
One of the most common plastics in the marine environment is polystyrene (PS) that can be broken down to micro sized particles. Marine organisms are vulnerable to the exposure to microplastics. This study assesses the effects of PS microplastics in tissues of the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to 1mgL(-1) (20μm) for 14days, followed by 7days of depuration. A qualitative analysis by infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode period detected the presence of microplastics in clam tissues upon exposure, which were not eliminated after depuration...
July 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682597/the-effect-of-microplastic-on-the-uptake-of-chemicals-by-the-lugworm-arenicola-marina-l-under-environmentally-relevant-exposure-conditions
#18
Ellen Besseling, Edwin M Foekema, Martine J Van Den Heuvel-Greve, Albert A Koelmans
It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore we studied the effect of polyethylene (PE) microplastic in sediment on PCB uptake by Arenicola marina as a model species, quantifying uptake fluxes from all natural exposure pathways. PCB concentrations in sediment, biota lipids (Clip) and porewater measured with passive samplers were used to derive lipid-normalized bioaccumulation metrics Clip, Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the Biota plastic accumulation factor (BPAF)...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679482/colour-spectrum-and-resin-type-determine-the-concentration-and-composition-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-plastic-pellets
#19
Mara Fisner, Alessandra Majer, Satie Taniguchi, Márcia Bícego, Alexander Turra, Daniel Gorman
This study assessed the concentration and composition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets, collected from sandy beaches and considered different resin and colour tones. Results showed that polyethylene pellets, while displaying a greater range of total PAH concentrations did not differ significantly from polypropylene pellets. More importantly, both resin types demonstrated predictable increases in total PAH across a spectrum of darkening colour tones. Multivariate comparisons of 36 PAH groups, further showed considerable variability across resin type and colour, with lighter coloured pellets comprising lower molecular weight, while darker pellets contained higher weight PAHs...
July 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669092/release-of-polyester-and-cotton-fibers-from-textiles-in-machine-washings
#20
Markus Sillanpää, Pirjo Sainio
Microplastics are widely spread in the environment, which along with still increasing production have aroused concern of their impacts on environmental health. The objective of this study is to quantify the number and mass of two most common textile fibers discharged from sequential machine washings to sewers. The number and mass of microfibers released from polyester and cotton textiles in the first wash varied in the range 2.1 × 10(5) to 1.3 × 10(7) and 0.12 to 0.33% w/w, respectively. Amounts of released microfibers showed a decreasing trend in sequential washes...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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