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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633946/microplastics-in-gut-contents-of-coastal-freshwater-fish-from-r%C3%A3-o-de-la-plata-estuary
#1
Rocío S Pazos, Tomás Maiztegui, Darío C Colautti, Ariel H Paracampo, Nora Gómez
The presence of microplastics (MPs) in gut contents of coastal freshwater fish of the Rio de la Plata estuary was studied. Samples were taken in six sites where 87 fish belonging to 11 species and four feeding habits were captured. Presence of MPs was verified in the 100% of fish. The fibres represented the 96% of MPs found. The number of MPs in gut contents was significantly higher close to sewage discharge. There was not found relationship between number of MPs and fish length, weight or feeding habit. The spatial differences in mean number of MPs in fish observed in this study, suggest that environmental availability of MPs could be of great importance to explain the differences found among sampling sites analysed...
June 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624357/an-estimation-of-the-average-residence-times-and-onshore-offshore-diffusivities-of-beached-microplastics-based-on-the-population-decay-of-tagged-meso-and-macrolitter
#2
Hirofumi Hinata, Keita Mori, Kazuki Ohno, Yasuyuki Miyao, Tomoya Kataoka
Residence times of microplastics were estimated based on the dependence of meso- and macrolitter residence times on their upward terminal velocities (UTVs) in the ocean obtained by one- and two-year mark-recapture experiments conducted on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan. A significant linear relationship between the residence time and UTV was found in the velocity range of about 0.3-0.9ms(-1), while there was no significant difference between the residence times obtained in the velocity range of about 0...
June 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613852/ups-and-downs-in-the-ocean-effects-of-biofouling-on-the-vertical-transport-of-microplastics
#3
Merel Kooi, Egbert H Van Nes, Marten Scheffer, Albert A Koelmans
Recent studies suggest size-selective removal of small plastic particles from the ocean surface, an observation that remains unexplained. We studied one of the hypotheses regarding this size-selective removal: the formation of a biofilm on the microplastics (biofouling). We developed the first theoretical model that is capable of simulating the effect of biofouling on the fate of microplastic. The model is based on settling, biofilm growth and ocean depth profiles for light, water density, temperature, salinity and viscosity...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606614/plastic-ingestion-in-oceanic-stage-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-off-the-north-atlantic-subtropical-gyre
#4
Christopher K Pham, Yasmina Rodríguez, Axelle Dauphin, Rita Carriço, João P G L Frias, Frederic Vandeperre, Vanessa Otero, Marco R Santos, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten, Karen A Bjorndal
Juvenile oceanic-stage sea turtles are particularly vulnerable to the increasing quantity of plastic coming into the oceans. In this study, we analysed the gastrointestinal tracts of 24 juvenile oceanic-stage loggerheads (Caretta caretta) collected off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, in the Azores region, a key feeding ground for juvenile loggerheads. Twenty individuals were found to have ingested marine debris (83%), composed exclusively of plastic items (primarily polyethylene and polypropylene) identified by μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy...
June 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595982/trophic-transference-of-microplastics-under-a-low-exposure-scenario-insights-on-the-likelihood-of-particle-cascading-along-marine-food-webs
#5
M F M Santana, F T Moreira, A Turra
Microplastics are emergent pollutants in marine environments, whose risks along food-web still need to be understood. Within this knowledge gap, MPs transference and persistence along trophic levels are key processes. We assessed the potential occurrence of these processes considering a less extreme scenario of exposure than used previously, with microplastics present only in the hemolymph of prey (the mussel Perna perna) and absent in the gut cavity. Predators were the crab Callinectes ornatus and the puffer fish Spheoeroides greeleyi...
June 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594093/size-and-shape-dependent-effects-of-microplastic-particles-on-adult-daggerblade-grass-shrimp-palaemonetes-pugio
#6
Austin D Gray, John E Weinstein
The incidence of microplastics in marine environments has been increasing over the past several decades. The objective of this study was to characterize the size and shape dependent effects of microplastic particles (spheres, fibers and fragments) on the adult daggerblade grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Grass shrimp were exposed to 11 sizes of plastic; spheres (30, 35, 59, 75, 83, 116, and 165 µm), fragments (34 and 93 µm), and fibers (34 and 93 µm) at a concentration of 20,00 particles/400 mL (= 50,000 particles/L) for three hours...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586673/marine-microplastics
#7
Tamara Galloway, Ceri Lewis
Galloway and Lewis discuss marine microplastics and their devastating effects on ocean ecosystems.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575711/microplastics-in-the-sediments-of-a-uk-urban-lake
#8
Rebecca Vaughan, Simon D Turner, Neil L Rose
While studies on microplastics in the marine environment show their wide-distribution, persistence and contamination of biota, the freshwater environment remains comparatively neglected. Where studies on freshwaters have been undertaken these have been on riverine systems or very large lakes. We present data on the distribution of microplastic particles in the sediments of Edgbaston Pool, a shallow eutrophic lake in central Birmingham, UK. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first assessment of microplastic concentrations in the sediments of either a small or an urban lake and the first for any lake in the UK...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571629/ubiquity-of-microplastics-in-coastal-seafloor-sediments
#9
S D Ling, M Sinclair, C J Levi, S E Reeves, G J Edgar
Microplastic pollutants occur in marine environments globally, however estimates of seafloor concentrations are rare. Here we apply a novel method to quantify size-graded (0.038-4.0mm diam.) concentrations of plastics in marine sediments from 42 coastal and estuarine sites spanning pollution gradients across south-eastern Australia. Acid digestion/density separation revealed 9552 individual microplastics from 2.84l of sediment across all samples; equating to a regional average of 3.4 microplastics·ml(-1) sediment...
May 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559056/fate-of-microplastics-and-mesoplastics-carried-by-surface-currents-and-wind-waves-a-numerical-model-approach-in-the-sea-of-japan
#10
Shinsuke Iwasaki, Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin'ichiro Kako, Keiichi Uchida, Tadashi Tokai
A numerical model was established to reproduce the oceanic transport processes of microplastics and mesoplastics in the Sea of Japan. A particle tracking model, where surface ocean currents were given by a combination of a reanalysis ocean current product and Stokes drift computed separately by a wave model, simulated particle movement. The model results corresponded with the field survey. Modeled results indicated the micro- and mesoplastics are moved northeastward by the Tsushima Current. Subsequently, Stokes drift selectively moves mesoplastics during winter toward the Japanese coast, resulting in increased contributions of mesoplastics south of 39°N...
May 27, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558286/interactions-between-polystyrene-microplastics-and-marine-phytoplankton-lead-to-species-specific-hetero-aggregation
#11
Marc Long, Ika Paul-Pont, Hélène Hégaret, Brivaela Moriceau, Christophe Lambert, Arnaud Huvet, Philippe Soudant
To understand the fate and impacts of microplastics (MP) in the marine ecosystems, it is essential to investigate their interactions with phytoplankton as these may affect MP bioavailability to marine organisms as well as their fate in the water column. However, the behaviour of MP with marine phytoplanktonic cells remains little studied and thus unpredictable. The present study assessed the potential for phytoplankton cells to form hetero-aggregates with small micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) particles depending on microalgal species and physiological status...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550340/heat-and-bleach-a-cost-efficient-method-for-extracting-microplastics-from-return-activated-sludge
#12
Surya Sujathan, Ann-Kathrin Kniggendorf, Arun Kumar, Bernhard Roth, Karl-Heinz Rosenwinkel, Regina Nogueira
The extraction of plastic microparticles, so-called microplastics, from sludge is a challenging task due to the complex, highly organic material often interspersed with other benign microparticles. The current procedures for microplastic extraction from sludge are time consuming and require expensive reagents for density separation as well as large volumes of oxidizing agents for organic removal, often resulting in tiny sample sizes and thus a disproportional risk of sample bias. In this work, we present an improved extraction method tested on return activated sludge (RAS)...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545000/occurrence-and-effects-of-plastic-additives-on-marine-environments-and-organisms-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Ludovic Hermabessiere, Alexandre Dehaut, Ika Paul-Pont, Camille Lacroix, Ronan Jezequel, Philippe Soudant, Guillaume Duflos
Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543985/advancing-the-quality-of-environmental-microplastic-research
#14
Kristin A Connors, Scott D Dyer, Scott E Belanger
Investigations into the environmental fate and effects of microplastics have been gaining momentum. Small, insoluble polymeric particles are implicated by scientists in a wide variety of studies that are used to suggest a potential for widespread impacts in freshwater and marine pelagic and sediment environments. An exponential growth in scientific publications and an increase in regulatory attention have occurred. However, despite these efforts, the environmental hazard of these particles is still unknown...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537711/polyester-textiles-as-a-source-of-microplastics-from-households-a-mechanistic-study-to-understand-microfiber-release-during-washing
#15
Edgar Hernandez, Bernd Nowack, Denise M Mitrano
Microplastic fibers make up a large proportion of microplastics found in the environment, especially in urban areas. There is good reason to consider synthetic textiles a major source of microplastic fibers, and it will not diminish since the use of synthetic fabrics, especially polyester, continues to increase. In this study we provide quantitative data regarding the size and mass of microplastic fibers released from synthetic (polyester) textiles during simulated home washing under controlled laboratory conditions...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534067/microplastics-in-sediment-cores-from-asia-and-africa-as-indicators-of-temporal-trends-in-plastic-pollution
#16
Yukari Matsuguma, Hideshige Takada, Hidetoshi Kumata, Hirohide Kanke, Shigeaki Sakurai, Tokuma Suzuki, Maki Itoh, Yohei Okazaki, Ruchaya Boonyatumanond, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Steven Weerts, Brent Newman
Microplastics (<5 mm) were extracted from sediment cores collected in Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Africa by density separation after hydrogen peroxide treatment to remove biofilms were and identified using FTIR. Carbonyl and vinyl indices were used to avoid counting biopolymers as plastics. Microplastics composed of variety of polymers, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethyleneterphthalates (PET), polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer (PEP), and polyacrylates (PAK), were identified in the sediment...
May 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531345/plastic-and-human-health-a-micro-issue
#17
Stephanie L Wright, Frank J Kelly
Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to accumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants was critically examined...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529038/plastic-debris-in-the-mediterranean-sea-types-occurrence-and-distribution-along-adriatic-shorelines
#18
Cristina Munari, Marco Scoponi, Michele Mistri
Small plastic debris in sediments from five beaches were investigated to evaluate their occurrence and abundance in the Northern Adriatic coast for the first time. Plastic debris extracted from sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A total of 1345 items of debris (13.491g) were recorded, with a mean density of 12.1 items kg(-1) d.w. and 0.12gkg(-1) d.w. Fragments were the most frequent type of small plastics debris detected. In terms of abundance, microplastics (<5mm) accounted for 61% of debris, showing their wide distribution on Adriatic coasts, even far-away from densely populated areas...
May 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527744/abundance-and-composition-of-near-surface-microplastics-and-plastic-debris-in-the-stockholm-archipelago-baltic-sea
#19
Berit Gewert, Martin Ogonowski, Andreas Barth, Matthew MacLeod
We collected plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago using a manta trawl, and additionally along a transect in the Baltic Sea from the island of Gotland to Stockholm in a citizen science study. The samples were concentrated by filtration and organic material was digested using hydrogen peroxide. Suspected plastic material was isolated by visual sorting and 59 of these were selected to be characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the most abundant plastics identified among the samples (53% and 24% respectively)...
May 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514840/plastics-in-the-north-atlantic-garbage-patch-a-boat-microbe-for-hitchhikers-and-plastic-degraders
#20
Didier Debroas, Anne Mone, Alexandra Ter Halle
Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight that impact wildlife. Their fragmentation leads to a continuum of debris sizes (meso to microplastics) entrapped in gyres and colonized by microorganisms. In the present work, the structure of eukaryotes, bacteria and Archaea was studied by a metabarcoding approach, and statistical analysis associated with network building was used to define a core microbiome at the plastic surface. Most of the bacteria significantly associated with the plastic waste originated from non-marine ecosystems, and numerous species can be considered as hitchhikers, whereas others act as keystone species (e...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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