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Amy V Kontrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Rana Aljaibachi, Amanda Callaghan
Microplastics (MPs) in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris ), with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae...
2018: PeerJ
L Katharina Schmidt, Mathias Bochow, Hannes K Imhof, Sascha E Oswald
Following the widespread assumption that a majority of ubiquitous marine microplastic particles originate from land-based sources, recent studies identify rivers as important pathways for microplastic particles (MPP) to the oceans. Yet a detailed understanding of the underlying processes and dominant sources is difficult to obtain with the existing accurate but extremely time-consuming methods available for the identification of MPP. Thus in the presented study, a novel approach applying short-wave infrared imaging spectroscopy for the quick and semi-automated identification of MPP is applied in combination with a multitemporal survey concept...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sajjad Abbasi, Naghmeh Soltani, Behnam Keshavarzi, Farid Moore, Andrew Turner, Mina Hassanaghaei
Commercially-important species of fish and a crustacean from four sites in the Musa estuary and a site in the Persian Gulf have been analysed for the presence and location of microplastics (MPs). A total of 828 MPs were detected in the guts (gastrointestinal tracts), skin, muscle, gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish (Platycephalus indicus, Saurida tumbil, Sillago sihama, Cynoglossus abbreviatus) from all five sites and in the exoskeleton and muscle of the tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus, from three sites...
April 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Alessio Ceccarini, Andrea Corti, Francesca Erba, Francesca Modugno, Jacopo La Nasa, Sabrina Bianchi, Valter Castelvetro
The environmental pollution by plastic debris directly dispersed in or eventually reaching marine habitats is raising increasing concern not only for the vulnerability of marine species to ingestion and entanglement by macroscopic debris, but also for the potential hazards from smaller fragments down to a few micrometer size, often referred to as "microplastics". A novel procedure for the selective quantitative and qualitative determination of organic solvent soluble microplastics and microplastics degradation products (<2mm) in shoreline sediments was adopted to evaluate their concentration and distribution over the different sectors of a Tuscany (Italy) beach...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sadasivam Anbumani, Poonam Kakkar
The ubiquitous presence of microplastics in the environment has drawn the attention of ecotoxicologists on its safety and toxicity. Sources of microplastics in the environment include disintegration of larger plastic items (secondary microplastics), personal care products like liquid soap, exfoliating scrubbers, and cleaning supplies etc. Indiscriminate usage of plastics and its poor waste disposal management pose serious concern on ecosystem quality at global level. The present review focused on the ecological impact of microplastics on biota at different trophic levels, its uptake, accumulation, and excretion etc...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alicia Herrera, Paloma Garrido-Amador, Ico Martínez, María Dolores Samper, Juan López-Martínez, May Gómez, Theodore T Packard
Microplastics are small plastic particles, globally distributed throughout the oceans. To properly study them, all the methodologies for their sampling, extraction, and measurement should be standardized. For heterogeneous samples containing sediments, animal tissues and zooplankton, several procedures have been described. However, definitive methodologies for samples, rich in algae and plant material, have not yet been developed. The aim of this study was to find the best extraction protocol for vegetal-rich samples by comparing the efficacies of five previously described digestion methods, and a novel density separation method...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Joana Correia Prata
Microplastics are ubiquitous contaminants that could harm ecosystems. Wastewater contains microplastics and may lead to further contamination of the environment. This focus article presents a summary of current knowledge on microplastics in wastewater and possible solutions, suggesting current research needs.
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jin Soo Choi, Youn-Joo Jung, Nam-Hui Hong, Sang Hee Hong, June-Woo Park
The increasing global contamination of plastics in marine environments is raising public concerns about the potential hazards of microplastics to environmental and human health. Microplastics formed by the breakdown of larger plastics are typically irregular in shape. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of spherical or irregular shapes of microplastics on changes in organ distribution, swimming behaviors, gene expression, and enzyme activities in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus)...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Heidi R Waite, Melinda J Donnelly, Linda J Walters
This study determined the quantity and diversity of microplastics in water and soft tissues of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Atlantic mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) in Mosquito Lagoon, a shallow, microtidal estuary along the east coast of central Florida. One-liter water samples had an average of 23.1 microplastic pieces (n = 15). Crabs (n = 90) had an average of 4.2 pieces in tissues/individual plus an average of 20.3 pieces/individual temporarily entangled in exposed surfaces and released within 5 days in tanks...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Bo-Kai Zhu, Yi-Meng Fang, Dong Zhu, Peter Christie, Xin Ke, Yong-Guan Zhu
Microplastics are emerging pollutants that have recently aroused considerable concern but most toxicological studies have focused on marine biota, with little investigation of the influence of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we fed the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus with oatmeal containing 0, 0.025, 0.5, and 10% (dry weight basis) nano-polystyrene (0.05-0.1 μm particle size) to elucidate the impact of microplastics on the growth and gut microbiome of Enchytraeus crypticus. We observed a significant reduction of weight in the animals fed 10% polystyrene and an increase in the reproduction of those fed 0...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
F Capozzi, R Carotenuto, S Giordano, V Spagnuolo
Mosses are well known as biomonitors of fresh water for metal pollutants, but no studies were reported so far about their ability to intercept plastic particles, although this kind of pollution has become an urgent issue worldwide. In the present work, the interaction between the moss Sphagnum palustre L. cultured in vitro and polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) was studied for the first time in a laboratory experiment, in the view of using moss transplants for detecting microplastics in fresh water environments...
April 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Adrian Frank Herbort, Michael Toni Sturm, Katrin Schuhen
Based on a new concept for the sustainable removal of microplastics from freshwater systems, a case study for a pH-induced agglomeration and subsequent removal of polyethylene and polypropylene particles from water is presented. The two-step-based process includes firstly a localization and secondly an aggregation of microplastic particles (250-350 μM) in a physicochemical process. The research describes a strong increase in the particle size independent of pH of the aquatic milieu induced by the addition of trichlorosilane-substituted Si derivatives...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Natalie Ann Welden, Bexultan Abylkhani, Leigh Michael Howarth
Microplastic pollution is apparent throughout the marine environment from deep ocean sediments to coastal habitats. Most of this is believed to originate on land, although marine activities, such as fishing and shipping, also contribute to the release and redistribution of microplastic. The relative importance of these maritime plastic sources, the manner by which they are distributed in the environment, and their effect on uptake by marine organisms are yet to be fully quantified. In this study, the relative impact of fishing activities on microplastic uptake by demersal fish and crustaceans was explored...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik, Berna Ayat, Burak Aydoğan, Serkan Karaca
Floods caused by heavy rain carry significant amounts of pollutants into marine environments. This study evaluates the effect of multiple floods that occurred in the northeastern Mediterranean region in Turkey between December 2016 and January 2017 on the microplastic pollution in the Mersin Bay. Sampling was repeated in four different stations both before and after the flood period, and it was determined that in the four stations, there was an average of 539,189 MPs/km2 before the flood, and 7,699,716 MPs/km2 afterwards, representing a 14-fold increase...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
G Pellini, A Gomiero, T Fortibuoni, Carmen Ferrà, F Grati, A N Tassetti, P Polidori, G Fabi, G Scarcella
Micro-plastic particles in the world's oceans represent a serious threat to both human health and marine ecosystems. Once released into the aquatic environment plastic litter is broken down to smaller pieces through photo-degradation and the physical actions of waves, wind, etc. The resulting particles may become so small that they are readily taken up by fish, crustaceans and mollusks. There is mounting evidence for the uptake of plastic particles by marine organisms that form part of the human food chain and this is driving urgent calls for further and deeper investigations into this pollution issue...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Guowen Tang, Mengyang Liu, Qian Zhou, Haixia He, Kai Chen, Haibo Zhang, Jiahui Hu, Qinghui Huang, Yongming Luo, Hongwei Ke, Bin Chen, Xiangrong Xu, Minggang Cai
Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated to study the influence of human activities and to find their possible relationship on the coastal environments, where the coastal areas around Xiamen are undergoing intensive processes of industrialization and urbanization in the southeast China. The abundance of microplastics in Xiamen coastal areas was 103 to 2017particles/m3 in surface seawater and 76 to 333 particles/kg in sediments. Concentrations of dissolved PAHs varied from 18...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fen Wang, Charles S Wong, Da Chen, Xingwen Lu, Fei Wang, Eddy Y Zeng
Occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the environment has attracted great attention as it has become a global concern. This review aims to systematically demonstrate the role of marine microplastic as a novel medium for environmental partitioning of chemicals in the ocean, which can cause toxic effects in the ecological environment. This review assimilated and analyzed available data published between 1972 and 2017 on the interaction between MPs and selected chemicals. Firstly, the review analyzes the occurrence of chemicals in MPs and outlines their distribution patterns...
April 6, 2018: Water Research
Maria E Iñiguez, Juan A Conesa, Andres Fullana
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li-Juan Feng, Jing-Jing Wang, Shu-Chang Liu, Xiao-Dong Sun, Xian-Zheng Yuan, Shu-Guang Wang
Microplastics and nanoplastics in aquatic systems have become a global concern because of their persistence and adverse consequences to ecosystems and potentially human health. Though wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered a potential source of microplastics in the environment, the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge on the fate of nanoplastics is not clear. In this study, the role of EPS in the influence of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) on the endogenous respiration of activated sludge was investigated for the first time...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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