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Abolfazl Naji, Zinat Esmaili, Farhan R Khan
Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1)...
November 25, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Manviri Rani, Won Joon Shim, Gi Myung Han, Mi Jang, Young Kyoung Song, Sang Hee Hong
Ultraviolet stabilizers (UVSs) and antioxidants are the most widely used additives in plastics to enhance the lifetime of polymeric materials. There is growing interest in the roles of plastic marine debris and microplastics as source or vector of toxic substances to marine environment and organisms. However, there is limited information available on plastic associated chemicals, particularly additive chemicals. Therefore, to evaluate their extent of exposure from plastics to the marine environment, we determined UVSs and antioxidants in plastic debris (n=29) collected from beaches along with their corresponding new plastic products in markets (n=27) belonging to food, fisheries, and general use...
November 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Julia Talvitie, Anna Mikola, Outi Setälä, Mari Heinonen, Arto Koistinen
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can offer a solution to reduce the point source input of microlitter and microplastics into the environment. To evaluate the contributing processes for microlitter removal, the removal of microlitter from wastewater during different treatment steps of mechanical, chemical and biological treatment (activated sludge) and biologically active filter (BAF) in a large (population equivalent 800 000) advanced WWTP was examined. Most of the microlitter was removed already during the pre-treatment and activated sludge treatment further decreased the microlitter concentration...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
Stefan Grigorakis, Sherri A Mason, Ken G Drouillard
Microplastics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic habitats and commonly found in the gut contents of fish yet relatively little is known about the retention of these particles by fish. In this study, goldfish were fed a commercial fish food pellet amended with 50 particles of one of two microplastics types, microbeads and microfibers. Microbeads were obtained from a commercial facial cleanser while microfibers were obtained from washed synthetic textile. Following consumption of the amended pellet, fish were allowed to feed to satiation on non-amended food followed by fasting for periods ranging from 1...
November 20, 2016: Chemosphere
Giuseppe Suaria, Carlo G Avio, Annabella Mineo, Gwendolyn L Lattin, Marcello G Magaldi, Genuario Belmonte, Charles J Moore, Francesco Regoli, Stefano Aliani
The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cai Zhang, Xiaohua Chen, Jiangtao Wang, Liju Tan
To investigate toxic effects of microplastic on marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum, both algal growth inhibition test and non-contact shading test were carried out, and algal photosynthesis parameters were also determined. The SEM images were used to observe interactions between microplastic and algae. It was found that microplastic (mPVC, average diameter 1 μm) had obvious inhibition on growth of microalgae and the maximum growth inhibition ratio (IR) reached up to 39.7% after 96 h exposure. However, plastic debris (bPVC, average diameter 1 mm) had no effects on growth of microalgae...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Liliya Khatmullina, Igor Isachenko
Terminal settling velocity of around 600 microplastic particles, ranging from 0.5 to 5mm, of three regular shapes was measured in a series of sink experiments: Polycaprolactone (material density 1131kgm(-3)) spheres and short cylinders with equal dimensions, and long cylinders cut from fishing lines (1130-1168kgm(-3)) of different diameters (0.15-0.71mm). Settling velocities ranging from 5 to 127mms(-1) were compared with several semi-empirical predictions developed for natural sediments showing reasonable consistency with observations except for the case of long cylinders, for which the new approximation is proposed...
November 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Shima Ziajahromi, Peta A Neale, Frederic D L Leusch
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually...
November 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Alan M Young, James A Elliott
Sediment samples were collected from two Hawai'ian beaches, Kahuku Beach on O'ahu and Kamilo Beach on the Big Island of Hawai'i. A total of 48,988 large microplastic and small mesoplastic (0.5-8mm) particles were handpicked from the samples and sorted into four size classes (0.5-1mm, 1-2mm, 2-4mm, 4-8mm) and nine color categories. For all sizes combined the most common plastic fragment color was white/transparent (71.8%) followed by blue (8.5%), green (7.5%), black/grey (7.3%), red/pink (2.6%), yellow (1.2%), orange (0...
November 11, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Cheng Keong Choo, Nicholas Romano, Yu Bin Ho, Babak Salamatinia
So far, several classes of digesting solutions have been employed to extract microplastics (MPs) from biological matrices. However, the performance of digesting solutions across different temperatures has never been systematically investigated. In the first phase of the present study, we measured the efficiency of different oxidative agents (NaClO or H2O2), bases (NaOH or KOH), and acids [HCl or HNO3; concentrated and diluted (5%)] in digesting fish tissues at room temperature (RT, 25°C), 40, 50, or 60°C...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A G Anderson, J Grose, S Pahl, R C Thompson, K J Wyles
Microplastics enter the environment as a result of larger plastic items breaking down ('secondary') and from particles originally manufactured at that size ('primary'). Personal care products are an important contributor of secondary microplastics (typically referred to as 'microbeads'), for example in toothpaste, facial scrubs and soaps. Consumers play an important role in influencing the demand for these products and therefore any associated environmental consequences. Hence we need to understand public perceptions in order to help reduce emissions of microplastics...
November 8, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jessica A Bryant, Tara M Clemente, Donn A Viviani, Allison A Fong, Kimberley A Thomas, Paul Kemp, David M Karl, Angelicque E White, Edward F DeLong
Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the "great Pacific garbage patch." The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m(-3) across sampling stations...
May 2016: MSystems
Katharina Kesy, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Felix Müller, Matthias Labrenz
Plastic is ubiquitous in global oceans and constitutes a newly available habitat for surface-associated bacterial assemblages. Microplastics (plastic particles <5 mm) are especially susceptible to ingestion by marine organisms, as the size of these particles makes them available also to lower trophic levels. Because many marine invertebrates harbour potential pathogens in their guts, we investigated whether bacterial assemblages on polystyrene are selectively modified during their passage through the gut of the lugworm Arenicola marina and are subsequently able to develop pathogenic biofilms...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Anita Jemec, Petra Horvat, Urban Kunej, Marjan Bele, Andrej Kržan
Microplastic fibers (MP) from textile weathering and washing are increasingly being recognized as environmental pollutants. The majority of studies on the bioavailability and effects of microplastic focused on small polystyrene spherical plastic particles, while less data are available for fibers and for other materials besides polystyrene. We investigated the ingestion and effects of ground polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile microfibers (length range: 62-1400 μm, width 31-528 μm, thickness 1-21.5 μm) on the freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna after a 48 h exposure and subsequent 24 h of recovery in MP free medium and algae...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Yini Ma, Anna Huang, Siqi Cao, Feifei Sun, Lianhong Wang, Hongyan Guo, Rong Ji
Contamination of fine plastic particles (FPs), including micrometer to millimeter plastics (MPs) and nanometer plastics (NPs), in the environment has caught great concerns. FPs are strong adsorbents for hydrophobic toxic pollutants and may affect their fate and toxicity in the environment; however, such information is still rare. We studied joint toxicity of FPs with phenanthrene to Daphnia magna and effects of FPs on the environmental fate and bioaccumulation of (14)C-phenanthrene in fresh water. Within the five sizes particles we tested (from 50 nm to 10 μm), 50-nm NPs showed significant toxicity and physical damage to D...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Pollution
M Zobkov, E Esiukova
Microplastics in the marine environment are known as a global ecological problem but there are still no standardized analysis procedures for their quantification. The first breakthrough in this direction was the NOAA Laboratory Methods for quantifying synthetic particles in water and sediments, but fibers numbers have been found to be underestimated with this approach. We propose modifications for these methods that will allow us to analyze microplastics in bottom sediments, including small fibers. Addition of an internal standard to sediment samples and occasional empty runs are advised for analysis quality control...
October 31, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yifeng Lu, Yan Zhang, Yongfeng Deng, Wei Jiang, Yanping Zhao, Jinju Geng, Lili Ding, Hongqiang Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Lisa Baumann, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Helmut Segner, Jeffrey C Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tamara Gajšt, Tine Bizjak, Andreja Palatinus, Svitlana Liubartseva, Andrej Kržan
Plastics are the most common material of marine litter and have become a global pollution concern. They are persistent in the environment where they gradually degrade into increasingly smaller particles-microplastics (MP). Our study presents results of sea-surface monitoring for MP in the Slovenian part of the Trieste Bay in the Northern Adriatic Sea. In 17 trawls conducted over a 20-month period we found a high average concentration of 406×10(3)MPparticles/km(2). Over 80% of the particles were identified as polyethylene...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Max Liboiron, France Liboiron, Emily Wells, Natalie Richárd, Alexander Zahara, Charles Mather, Hillary Bradshaw, Judyannet Murichi
Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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