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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214011/widespread-microplastic-ingestion-by-fish-assemblages-in-tropical-estuaries-subjected-to-anthropogenic-pressures
#1
A L Vendel, F Bessa, V E N Alves, A L A Amorim, J Patrício, A R T Palma
Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined...
February 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202278/plastic-litter-in-aquatic-environments-of-maremma-regional-park-tyrrhenian-sea-italy-contribution-by-the-ombrone-river-and-levels-in-marine-sediments
#2
Cristiana Guerranti, Susanna Cannas, Costanza Scopetani, Paolo Fastelli, Alessandra Cincinelli, Monia Renzi
During two surveys in 2015 and 2016, sediments samples were collected along the Ombrone river (Maremma Regional Park, province of Grosseto, Italy), in particular at its mouth and in the marine area in front of it, in order to quantify, identify and categorize plastic items (macro, meso and micro-plastics and colour, material etc.) and evaluate their potential sources. The Albegna and Osa rivers were identified as external areas of comparison. The results of the analysis showed different situations, especially as regards fluvial inputs, in addition to evidencing local provisions of plastic material derived from agricultural activities...
February 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199874/biodegradation-of-polyethylene-microplastics-by-the-marine-fungus-zalerion-maritimum
#3
Ana Paço, Kátia Duarte, João P da Costa, Patrícia S M Santos, R Pereira, M E Pereira, Ana C Freitas, Armando C Duarte, Teresa A P Rocha-Santos
Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196756/amberstripe-scad-decapterus-muroadsi-carangidae-fish-ingest-blue-microplastics-resembling-their-copepod-prey-along-the-coast-of-rapa-nui-easter-island-in-the-south-pacific-subtropical-gyre
#4
Nicolas Christian Ory, Paula Sobral, Joana Lia Ferreira, Martin Thiel
An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193590/fast-identification-of-microplastics-in-complex-environmental-samples-by-a-thermal-degradation-method
#5
Erik Dümichen, Paul Eisentraut, Claus Gerhard Bannick, Anne-Kathrin Barthel, Rainer Senz, Ulrike Braun
In order to determine the relevance of microplastic particles in various environmental media, comprehensive investigations are needed. However, no analytical method exists for fast identification and quantification. At present, optical spectroscopy methods like IR and RAMAN imaging are used. Due to their time consuming procedures and uncertain extrapolation, reliable monitoring is difficult. For analyzing polymers Py-GC-MS is a standard method. However, due to a limited sample amount of about 0.5 mg it is not suited for analysis of complex sample mixtures like environmental samples...
February 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185727/quantitative-investigation-of-the-mechanisms-of-microplastics-and-nanoplastics-toward-zebrafish-larvae-locomotor-activity
#6
Qiqing Chen, Michael Gundlach, Shouye Yang, Jing Jiang, Mirna Velki, Daqiang Yin, Henner Hollert
This study investigated the direct and indirect toxic effects of microplastics and nanoplastics toward zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae locomotor activity. Results showed that microplastics alone exhibited no significant effects except for the upregulated zfrho visual gene expression; whereas nanoplastics inhibited the larval locomotion by 22% during the last darkness period, and significantly reduced larvae body length by 6%, inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity by 40%, and upregulated gfap, α1-tubulin, zfrho and zfblue gene expression significantly...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169032/microplastics-in-freshwater-and-terrestrial-environments-evaluating-the-current-understanding-to-identify-the-knowledge-gaps-and-future-research-priorities
#7
REVIEW
Alice A Horton, Alexander Walton, David J Spurgeon, Elma Lahive, Claus Svendsen
Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160700/wastewater-treatment-plants-as-a-pathway-for-microplastics-development-of-a-new-approach-to-sample-wastewater-based-microplastics
#8
Shima Ziajahromi, Peta A Neale, Llew Rintoul, Frederic D L Leusch
Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes...
January 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143645/microplastics-en-route-field-measurements-in-the-dutch-river-delta-and-amsterdam-canals-wastewater-treatment-plants-north-sea-sediments-and-biota
#9
H A Leslie, S H Brandsma, M J M van Velzen, A D Vethaak
Environmental contamination by plastic particles, also known as 'microplastics', brings synthetic materials that are non-degradable and biologically incompatible into contact with ecosystems. In this paper we present concentration data for this emerging contaminant in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and freshwater and marine systems, reflecting the routes via which these particles can travel and the ecosystems they potentially impact along their path. Raw sewage influents, effluents and sewage sludge from seven municipal WWTPs in the Netherlands contained mean particle concentrations of 68-910L(-1), 51-81L(-1) and 510-760kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively (particle sizes between 10 and 5000μm)...
January 28, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129952/biomarker-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae-exposed-to-pristine-low-density-polyethylene-fragments
#10
Ali Karami, David B Groman, Scott P Wilson, Patimah Ismail, Vasantha K Neela
There are serious concerns over the adverse impacts of microplastics (MPs) on living organisms. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of MPs on the total length, weight, condition factor (CF), transcriptional level of antioxidant, anti and pro-apoptotic, and neurotransmitter genes, and the histopathology of the gill, liver, brain, kidney, and intestine in the larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were exposed to one of three levels of pristine low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fragments (5, 50, or 500 μg/L) for 10 or 20 days...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125881/microplastic-exposure-assessment-in-aquatic-environments-learning-from-similarities-and-differences-to-engineered-nanoparticles
#11
Thorsten Hüffer, Antonia Praetorius, Stephan Wagner, Frank Von Der Kammer, Thilo Hofmann
Microplastics (MPs) have been identified as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments and research into their behavior and fate has been sharply increasing in recent years. Nevertheless, significant gaps remain in our understanding of several crucial aspects of MP exposure and risk assessment, including the quantification of emissions, dominant fate processes, types of analytical tools required for characterization and monitoring, and adequate laboratory protocols for analysis and hazard testing...
January 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124265/sources-and-fate-of-microplastics-in-marine-and-beach-sediments-of-the-southern-baltic-sea-a-preliminary-study
#12
Bożena Graca, Karolina Szewc, Danuta Zakrzewska, Anna Dołęga, Magdalena Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Microplastics' (particles size ≤5 mm) sources and fate in marine bottom and beach sediments of the brackish are strongly polluted Baltic Sea have been investigated. Microplastics were extracted using sodium chloride (1.2 g cm(-3)). Their qualitative identification was conducted using micro-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (μFT-IR). Concentration of microplastics varied from 25 particles kg(-1) d.w. at the open sea beach to 53 particles kg(-1) d.w. at beaches of strongly urbanized bay. In bottom sediments, microplastics concentration was visibly lower compared to beach sediments (0-27 particles kg(-1) d...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117374/adverse-effects-of-microplastics-and-oxidative-stress-induced-mapk-nrf2-pathway-mediated-defense-mechanisms-in-the-marine-copepod-paracyclopina-nana
#13
Chang-Bum Jeong, Hye-Min Kang, Min-Chul Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Dae-Sik Hwang, Sami Souissi, Su-Jae Lee, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Microplastic pollution causes a major concern in the marine environment due to their worldwide distribution, persistence, and adverse effects of these pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Despite its global presence, there is still a lack of information on the effect of microplastics on marine organisms at the molecular level. Herein we demonstrated ingestion and egestion of nano- (0.05 μm) and micro-sized (0.5 and 6 μm) polystyrene microbeads in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana, and examined molecular responses to exposure to microbeads with in vivo endpoints such as growth rate and fecundity...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117186/microplastic-litter-composition-of-the-turkish-territorial-waters-of-the-mediterranean-sea-and-its-occurrence-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-fish
#14
Olgaç Güven, Kerem Gökdağ, Boris Jovanović, Ahmet Erkan Kıdeyş
Microplastic pollution of marine environment is receiving increased publicity over the last few years. The present survey is, according to our knowledge, the survey with the largest sample size analyzed, to date. In total, 1337 specimens of fish were examined for the presence of plastic microlitter representing 28 species and 14 families. In addition, samples of seawater and sediment were also analyzed for the quantification of microplastic in the same region. Samples of water/sediment were collected from 18 locations along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117184/evidence-of-microplastic-ingestion-in-the-shark-galeus-melastomus-rafinesque-1810-in-the-continental-shelf-off-the-western-mediterranean-sea
#15
Carme Alomar, Salud Deudero
Microplastic (<5 mm) ingestion has been recorded in Galeus melastomus, the blackmouth catshark, around the Balearic Islands. In total 125 individuals were analyzed for microplastic ingestion. Results have shown that 16.80% of the specimens had ingested a mean value of 0.34 ± 0.07 microplastics/individual. Stomach fullness index ranged from 0.86 to 38.89% and regression analyses showed that fuller stomachs contained more microplastics. A higher quantity of filament type microplastics were identified compared to granular or hard plastic type...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109654/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-macro-meso-and-microplastic-abundance-on-a-remote-coral-island-of-the-maldives-indian-ocean
#16
Hannes K Imhof, Robert Sigl, Emilia Brauer, Sabine Feyl, Philipp Giesemann, Saskia Klink, Kathrin Leupolz, Martin G J Löder, Lena A Löschel, Jan Missun, Sarah Muszynski, Anja F R M Ramsperger, Isabella Schrank, Susan Speck, Sebastian Steibl, Benjamin Trotter, Isabel Winter, Christian Laforsch
Plastic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment and the world's shores represent a major sink. However, knowledge about plastic abundance in remote areas is scarce. Therefore, plastic abundance was investigated on a small island of the Maldives. Plastic debris (>1mm) was sampled once in natural long-term accumulation zones at the north shore and at the high tide drift line of the south shore on seven consecutive days to quantify daily plastic accumulation. Reliable identification of plastic debris was ensured by FTIR spectroscopy...
January 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089550/assessment-of-microplastic-sorbed-contaminant-bioavailability-through-analysis-of-biomarker-gene-expression-in-larval-zebrafish
#17
Victoria A Sleight, Adil Bakir, Richard C Thompson, Theodore B Henry
Microplastics (MPs) are prevalent in marine ecosystems. Because toxicants (termed here "co-contaminants") can sorb to MPs, there is potential for MPs to alter co-contaminant bioavailability. Our objective was to demonstrate sorption of two co-contaminants with different physicochemistries [phenanthrene (Phe), log10Kow=4.57; and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), log10Kow=3.67] to MPs; and assess whether co-contaminant bioavailability was increased after MP settlement. Bioavailability was indicated by gene expression in larval zebrafish...
January 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065554/morphology-of-the-filtration-apparatus-of-three-planktivorous-fishes-and-relation-with-ingested-anthropogenic-particles
#18
France Collard, Bernard Gilbert, Gauthier Eppe, Laetitia Roos, Philippe Compère, Krishna Das, Eric Parmentier
Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their economic and ecological importance. This study aims to describe the morphology of the filtration apparatus of three wild-caught Clupeiformes (Sardina pilchardus, Clupea harengus and Engraulis encrasicolus) and to relate the results to ingested APs. Consequently, the species with the more efficient filtration apparatus will be more likely to ingest APs...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063703/is-the-feeding-type-related-with-the-content-of-microplastics-in-intertidal-fish-gut
#19
Ricardo Mizraji, Camila Ahrendt, Diego Perez-Venegas, Juan Vargas, Jose Pulgar, Marcela Aldana, F Patricio Ojeda, Cristian Duarte, Cristobal Galbán-Malagón
Microplastics pollution is a growing global concern that affects all aquatic ecosystems. Microplastics in the environment can be in the form of fibers and/or particles, being the former the most abundant in the marine environment, representing up to 95% of total plastics. The aim of this work was to compare the content of microplastics among intertidal fish with different feeding type. Our results show that omnivorous fish presented a higher amount of microplastic fibers than registered in herbivores and carnivores...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063702/size-and-dynamics-of-microplastic-in-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-northern-fulmars-fulmarus-glacialis-and-sooty-shearwaters-ardenna-grisea
#20
Alicia K Terepocki, Alex T Brush, Lydia U Kleine, Gary W Shugart, Peter Hodum
We found microplastic in 89.5% of 143 Northern Fulmars from 2008 to 2013 and 64% of 25 Sooty Shearwaters in 2011-2012 that were found dead or stranded on Oregon and Washington beaches. Average plastic loads were 19.5 pieces and 0.461g for fulmars and 13.3 pieces and 0.335g for shearwaters. Pre-manufactured plastic pellets accounted for 8.5% of fulmar and 33% of shearwater plastic pieces. In both species, plastic in proventriculi averaged 2-3mm larger in greatest dimension than in ventriculi. Intestinal plastic in fulmars averaged 1mm less in greatest dimension than ventricular plastic...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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