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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436478/tissue-accumulation-of-microplastics-in-mice-and-biomarker-responses-suggest-widespread-health-risks-of-exposure
#1
Yongfeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Bernardo Lemos, Hongqiang Ren
Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427773/bioturbation-transports-secondary-microplastics-to-deeper-layers-in-soft-marine-sediments-of-the-northern-baltic-sea
#2
Pinja Näkki, Outi Setälä, Maiju Lehtiniemi
Microplastics (MPs) are observed to be present on the seafloor ranging from coastal areas to deep seas. Because bioturbation alters the distribution of natural particles on inhabited soft bottoms, a mesocosm experiment with common benthic invertebrates was conducted to study their effect on the distribution of secondary MPs (different-sized pieces of fishing line<1mm). During the study period of three weeks, the benthic community increased MP concentration in the depth of 1.7-5.1cm in the sediment. The experiment revealed a clear vertical gradient in MP distribution with their abundance being highest in the uppermost parts of the sediment and decreasing with depth...
April 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412243/macrophage-conditioned-medium-induced-cellular-network-formation-in-mcf-7-cells-through-enhanced-tunneling-nanotube-formation-and-tunneling-nanotube-mediated-release-of-viable-cytoplasmic-fragments
#3
Pooja Patheja, Khageswar Sahu
Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410785/plastic-litter-in-sediments-from-the-coasts-of-south-tuscany-tyrrhenian-sea
#4
Susanna Cannas, Paolo Fastelli, Cristiana Guerranti, Monia Renzi
This study estimated the total loads of plastic litter (macro-meso- and micro-plastics) in sediments from a wide stretch of marine and coastal environment of Tyrrhenian Sea. The prevailing category of debris was microplastic. The results obtained, in terms of average amount of microplastic per kilogram of dry sediment, are in agreement with data reported by various Authors internationally. The study area resulted to be uniform for plastic items levels. Particularly evident was the influence of a flood, occurred in November 2012 in Talamone, on sediments collected at the harbour of this locality: in this area, a difference in levels and quality of plastic debris, attributable to periods before and after the flood, was observed in sediments...
April 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408187/microplastics-in-sediments-of-the-changjiang-estuary-china
#5
Guyu Peng, Bangshang Zhu, Dongqi Yang, Lei Su, Huahong Shi, Daoji Li
Microplastics are plastics that measure less than 5 mm in diameter. They enter the marine environment as primary sources directly from industrial uses, as well as secondary sources resulting from the degradation of large plastic debris. To improve the knowledge of microplastic pollution in China, we investigated samples from 53 estuarine sediment locations collected with a box corer within the Changjiang Estuary. Microplastics (<5 mm) were extracted from sediments by density separation, after which they were observed under a microscope and categorized according to shape, color and size...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408185/microplastic-ingestion-in-fish-larvae-in-the-western-english-channel
#6
Madeleine Steer, Matthew Cole, Richard C Thompson, Penelope K Lindeque
Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401387/quantifying-microplastic-pollution-on-sandy-beaches-the-conundrum-of-large-sample-variability-and-spatial-heterogeneity
#7
Mara Fisner, Alessandra P Majer, Danilo Balthazar-Silva, Daniel Gorman, Alexander Turra
Despite the environmental risks posed by microplastic pollution, there are presently few standardized protocols for monitoring these materials within marine and coastal habitats. We provide a robust comparison of methods for sampling microplastics on sandy beaches using pellets as a model and attempt to define a framework for reliable standing stock estimation. We performed multiple comparisons to determine: (1) the optimal size of sampling equipment, (2) the depth to which samples should be obtained, (3) the optimal sample resolution for cross-shore transects, and (4) the number of transects required to yield reproducible along-shore estimates across the entire sections of a beach...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391690/simultaneous-trace-identification-and-quantification-of-common-types-of-microplastics-in-environmental-samples-by-pyrolysis-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#8
Marten Fischer, Barbara M Scholz-Böttcher
The content of microplastics (MP) in the environment is constantly growing. Since the environmental relevance, particularly bioavailability, rises with decreasing particle size, the knowledge of the MP proportion in habitats and organisms is of gaining importance. The reliable recognition of MP particles is limited and underlies substantial uncertainties. Therefor spectroscopically methods are necessary to ensure the plastic nature of isolated particles, determine the polymer type and obtain particle count related quantitative data...
April 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383020/the-presence-of-microplastics-in-commercial-salts-from-different-countries
#9
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Cheng Keong Choo, Vincent Larat, Tamara S Galloway, Babak Salamatinia
The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in saltwater bodies is relatively well studied, but nothing is known about their presence in most of the commercial salts that are widely consumed by humans across the globe. Here, we extracted MP-like particles larger than 149 μm from 17 salt brands originating from 8 different countries followed by the identification of their polymer composition using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were absent in one brand while others contained between 1 to 10 MPs/Kg of salt...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382446/quantification-and-characterization-of-microplastics-in-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-protocol-setup-and-preliminary-data-on-the-contamination-of-the-french-atlantic-coast
#10
Nam Ngoc Phuong, Aurore Zalouk-Vergnoux, Abderrahmane Kamari, Catherine Mouneyrac, Frederic Amiard, Laurence Poirier, Fabienne Lagarde
Microplastics (MPs) constitute a main environmental issue due to their threat to marine organisms and so far to humans. The lack of a fast standard protocol in MP isolation and identification from living organisms bring to challenge for the science. In this paper, an optimized protocol using potassium hydroxide 10% (KOH 10%; m/v) for digestion of mussel soft tissues (Mytilus edulis) and multi-steps of sedimentation has been developed. Efficiency higher than 99.9% of organic and mineral matter elimination was shown by application on mussels sampled on the French Atlantic coast...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376390/microplastic-contamination-in-lake-winnipeg-canada
#11
Philip J Anderson, Sarah Warrack, Victoria Langen, Jonathan K Challis, Mark L Hanson, Michael D Rennie
Microplastics are an emerging contaminant of concern in aquatic ecosystems. To better understand microplastic contamination in North American surface waters, we report for the first time densities of microplastics in Lake Winnipeg, the 11th largest freshwater body in the world. Samples taken 2014 to 2016 revealed similar or significantly greater microplastic densities in Lake Winnipeg compared with those reported in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Plastics in the lake were largely of secondary origin, overwhelmingly identified as fibres...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371735/influence-of-environmental-and-anthropogenic-factors-on-the-composition-concentration-and-spatial-distribution-of-microplastics-a-case-study-of-the-bay-of-brest-brittany-france
#12
L Frère, I Paul-Pont, E Rinnert, S Petton, J Jaffré, I Bihannic, P Soudant, C Lambert, A Huvet
The concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) was investigated in two surveys. Surface water and sediment were sampled at nine locations in areas characterized by contrasting anthropic pressures, riverine influences or water mixing. Microplastics were categorized by their polymer type and size class. Microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment was dominated by polyethylene fragments (PE, 53-67%) followed by polypropylene (PP, 16-30%) and polystyrene (PS, 16-17%) microparticles...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370324/investigation-of-toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-cold-atmospheric-argon-plasma
#13
T Maisch, A K Bosserhoff, P Unger, J Heider, T Shimizu, J L Zimmermann, G E Morfill, M Landthaler, S Karrer
Cold atmospheric argon plasma is recognized as a new contact free approach for the decrease of bacterial load on chronic wounds in patients. So far very limited data are available on its toxicity and mutagenicity on eukaryotic cells. Thus, the toxic/mutagenic potential of cold atmospheric argon plasma using the MicroPlaSter β(®) , which has been used efficiently in humans treating chronic and acute wounds, was investigated using the XTT assay in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) assay with V79 Chinese hamster cells...
April 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365455/toxic-effects-of-polyethylene-terephthalate-microparticles-and-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-on-the-calanoid-copepod-parvocalanus-crassirostris
#14
Franz M Heindler, Fahad Alajmi, Roger Huerlimann, Chaoshu Zeng, Stephen J Newman, George Vamvounis, Lynne van Herwerden
Large amounts of plastic end up in the oceans every year where they fragment into microplastics over time. During this process, microplastics and their associated plasticizers become available for ingestion by different organisms. This study assessed the effects of microplastics (Polyethylene terephthalate; PET) and one plasticizer (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; DEHP) on mortality, productivity, population sizes and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris. Copepods were exposed to DEHP for 48h to assess toxicity...
March 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358493/rapid-and-efficient-method-for-the-detection-of-microplastic-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-fishes
#15
Samuel Roch, Alexander Brinker
The rising evidence of microplastic pollution impacts on aquatic organisms in both marine and freshwater ecosystems highlights a pressing need for adequate and comparable detection methods. Available tissue digestion protocols are time-consuming (>10 h) and/or require several procedural steps, during which materials can be lost and contaminants introduced. This novel approach comprises an accelerated digestion step using sodium hydroxide and nitric acid in combination to digest all organic material within 1 h plus an additional separation step using sodium iodide which can be used to reduce mineral residues in samples where necessary...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355064/plastic-bag-derived-microplastics-as-a-vector-for-metal-exposure-in-terrestrial-invertebrates
#16
Mark E Hodson, Calum A Duffus-Hodson, Andy Clark, Miranda T Prendergast-Miller, Karen L Thorpe
Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. one mm(2) in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics. Desorption of the Zn was minimal from both microplastics and soil in synthetic soil solution (0...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340965/identification-and-quantification-of-microplastics-using-nile-red-staining
#17
Won Joon Shim, Young Kyoung Song, Sang Hee Hong, Mi Jang
We investigated the applicability of Nile Red (NR), a fluorescent dye, for microplastic analysis, and determined the optimal staining conditions. Five mg/L NR solution in n-hexane effectively stained plastics, and they were easily recognized in green fluorescence. The NR staining method was successfully applied to micro-sized polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyurethane, and poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate), except for polyvinylchloride, polyamide and polyester. The recovery rate of polyethylene (100-300μm) spiked to pretreated natural sand was 98% in the NR stating method, which was not significantly (p<0...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318789/transport-of-microplastics-by-two-collembolan-species
#18
Stefanie Maaß, Daniel Daphi, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C Rillig
Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302357/micro-and-mesoplastics-in-northeast-levantine-coast-of-turkey-the-preliminary-results-from-surface-samples
#19
Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik
The determination of the microplastic distribution will be beneficial as a measure of the potential effects on the environment. The Mediterranean Sea had a high risk of pollution as it was enclosed by highly populated and industrialized countries. Here, we determined the level of micro- and mesoplastic pollution in Iskenderun and Mersin Bays, located in the Northeastern Levantine coast of Turkey. The average level of both micro- and mesoplastic was determined to be 0.376 item/m(2) at seven stations. The highest level was determined in Mersin Bay at the mouth of the Seyhan river (Station no...
March 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300146/a-rapid-screening-approach-to-detect-and-quantify-microplastics-based-on-fluorescent-tagging-with-nile-red
#20
Thomas Maes, Rebecca Jessop, Nikolaus Wellner, Karsten Haupt, Andrew G Mayes
A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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