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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432809/the-honeybee-as-a-model-insect-for-developmental-genetics
#1
REVIEW
A G Cridge, M R Lovegrove, J G Skelly, S E Taylor, G E L Petersen, R C Cameron, P K Dearden
Honeybees are an important component of modern agricultural systems, and a fascinating and scientifically engrossing insect. Honeybees are not commonly used as model systems for understanding development in insects despite their importance in agriculture. Honeybee embryogenesis, while being superficially similar to Drosophila, is molecularly very different, especially in axis formation and sex determination. In later development, much of honeybee biology is modified by caste development, an as yet poorly understood, but excellent, system to study developmental plasticity...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432790/single-molecule-visualization-of-fast-polymerase-turnover-in-the-bacterial-replisome
#2
Jacob S Lewis, Lisanne M Spenkelink, Slobodan Jergic, Elizabeth A Wood, Enrico Monachino, Nicholas P Horan, Karl E Duderstadt, Michael M Cox, Andrew Robinson, Nicholas E Dixon, Antoine M van Oijen
The Escherichia coli DNA replication machinery has been used as a road map to uncover design rules that enable DNA duplication with high efficiency and fidelity. Although the enzymatic activities of the replicative DNA Pol III are well understood, its dynamics within the replisome are not. Here we test the accepted view that the Pol III holoenzyme remains stably associated within the replisome. We use in vitro single-molecule assays with fluorescently labeled polymerases to demonstrate that the Pol III* complex (holoenzyme lacking the β2 sliding clamp), is rapidly exchanged during processive DNA replication...
April 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432779/nmdar-independent-hippocampal-long-term-depression-impairment-after-status-epilepticus-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Andrey D Ivanov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy is usually associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Despite numerous existing studies on various animal models, the mechanisms of these deficits remain largely unclear. A specific form of long-term synaptic efficacy changes - long-term depression (LTD) - is thought to play an important role in memory formation and learning. However, extremely little is known about the possible alteration of LTD induction and dynamics after a status epilepticus (SE). In the present work we investigated the acute and delayed effects of lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE on NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent hippocampal LTD in vitro...
April 22, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432663/the-vascular-wall-a-plastic-hub-of-activity-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize recent findings regarding the plasticity and fate switching among somatic and progenitor cells residing in the vascular wall of blood vessels in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell lineage tracing methods have identified multiple origins of stem cells, macrophages, and matrix-producing cells that become mobilized after acute or chronic injury of cardiovascular tissues. These studies also revealed that in the disease environment, resident somatic cells become plastic, thereby changing their stereotypical identities to adopt proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotypes...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432470/male-behavioural-plasticity-depends-on-maternal-mating-status-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite
#6
Keiko Oku, Tom P G van den Beuken
In haplodiploid organisms including the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), both unmated and mated females can produce male offspring. A previous study reported that males produced by unmated females (UM males) find pre-reproductive females more quickly than males produced by mated females (M males) in T. urticae. However, it remains unclear what factors cause the difference. We investigated effects of maternal mating status on mate-searching behaviour of their sons by changing the sons' developmental environment...
April 21, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432415/use-of-computer-imaging-in-rhinoplasty-a-survey-of-the-practices-of-facial-plastic-surgeons
#7
Prabhjyot Singh, Steven Pearlman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the use of computer imaging by facial plastic surgeons. METHODS: AAFPRS Facial plastic surgeons were surveyed about their use of computer imaging during rhinoplasty consultations. The survey collected information about surgeon demographics, practice settings, practice patterns, and rates of computer imaging (CI) for primary and revision rhinoplasty. For those surgeons who used CI, additional information was also collected, which included who performed the imaging and whether the patient was given the morphed images after the consultation...
April 21, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432288/overexpression-of-human-nr2b-receptor-subunit-in-lman-causes-stuttering-and-song-sequence-changes-in-adult-zebra-finches
#8
Mukta Chakraborty, Liang-Fu Chen, Emma E Fridel, Marguerita E Klein, Rebecca A Senft, Abhra Sarkar, Erich D Jarvis
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn to produce songs in a manner reminiscent of spoken language development in humans. One candidate gene implicated in influencing learning is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype 2B glutamate receptor (NR2B). Consistent with this idea, NR2B levels are high in the song learning nucleus LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) during juvenile vocal learning, and decreases to low levels in adults after learning is complete and the song becomes more stereotyped...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432200/tissue-adaptation-implications-for-gut-immunity-and-tolerance
#9
REVIEW
Ana M C Faria, Bernardo S Reis, Daniel Mucida
Tissue adaptation is an intrinsic component of immune cell development, influencing both resistance to pathogens and tolerance. Chronically stimulated surfaces of the body, in particular the gut mucosa, are the major sites where immune cells traffic and reside. Their adaptation to these environments requires constant discrimination between natural stimulation coming from harmless microbiota and food, and pathogens that need to be cleared. This review will focus on the adaptation of lymphocytes to the gut mucosa, a highly specialized environment that can help us understand the plasticity of leukocytes arriving at various tissue sites and how tissue-related factors operate to shape immune cell fate and function...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432141/the-spacing-effect-for-structural-synaptic-plasticity-provides-specificity-and-precision-in-plastic-changes
#10
Martin A San, L Rela, B D Gelb, M R Pagani
In contrast to trials of training without intervals (massed training), training trials spaced over time (spaced training) induce a more persistent memory identified as long-term memory (LTM). This phenomenon known as "the spacing effect for memory" is poorly understood. LTM is supported by structural synaptic plasticity; however, how synapses integrate spaced stimuli remains elusive. Here, we analyzed events of structural synaptic plasticity at the single synapse level after distinct patterns of stimulation in motoneurons of Drosophila We found that the spacing effect is a phenomenon detected at synaptic level, which determine the specificity and the precision in structural synaptic plasticity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432133/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-t-cell-heterogeneity-plasticity-and-selection-in-humans
#11
Federica Sallusto, Antonino Cassotta, Daniel Hoces, Mathilde Foglierini, Antonio Lanzavecchia
The wide range of effector and memory T cells is instrumental for immune regulation and tailored mechanisms of protection against pathogens. Here, we will focus on human CD4 T cells and discuss T-cell plasticity and intraclonal diversification in the context of a progressive and selective model of CD4 T-cell differentiation.
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432132/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-epigenome-a-dynamic-vehicle-for-transmitting-and-recording-cytokine-signaling
#12
John L Johnson, Golnaz Vahedi
CD4(+) T cells are critical for the elimination of an immense array of microbial pathogens. Although there are aspects of helper T-cell differentiation that can be modeled as a classic cell-fate commitment, CD4(+) T cells also maintain considerable flexibility in their transcriptional program. Here, we present an overview of chromatin biology during cellular reprogramming and, within this context, envision how the scope of cellular reprogramming may be expanded to further our understanding of the controversy surrounding CD4(+) T lymphocyte plasticity or determinism...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432129/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-complexities-of-interpretation-due-to-the-heterogeneity-of-memory-cd4-t-cells-including-t-follicular-helper-cells
#13
Shane Crotty
Plasticity is the ability of a cell type to convert to another cell type. There are multiple effector CD4 T-cell subtypes, including TH1, TH2, TH17, TH1*, CD4 CTL, TH9, and TFH cells. It is commonly thought that a CD4 T cell can readily show full plasticity-full conversion from one differentiated cell-and this propensity to plasticity is possessed by memory CD4 T cells. However, there remains no direct demonstration of in vivo-generated resting memory CD4 T-cell conversion to a different subtype on secondary antigen challenge in vivo in an intact animal at the single-cell level...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432103/morphology-and-cardiac-physiology-are-differentially-affected-by-temperature-in-developing-larvae-of-the-marine-fish-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#14
Prescilla Perrichon, Christina Pasparakis, Edward M Mager, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle) and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output) were recorded under two conditions by imaging: i) under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and then acutely exposed to 25° (rearing temperature), 27° and 30°C; ii) at two rearing (chronic) temperatures of 26° and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432027/introduction-to-neuroscience-letters-special-issue-plasticity-and-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
EDITORIAL
Paul Lu, Mark H Tuszynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432010/exposure-to-an-enriched-environment-facilitates-motor-recovery-and-prevents-short-term-memory-impairment-and-reduction-of-striatal-bdnf-in-a-progressive-pharmacological-model-of-parkinsonism-in-mice
#16
Clarissa L C Campêlo, José R Santos, Anatildes F Silva, Aline L Dierschnabel, André Pontes, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced PD. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of PD in mice...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431978/temporal-niche-switching-in-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx-seasonal-plasticity-of-24h-activity-patterns-in-a-large-desert-mammal
#17
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Mads F Bertelsen, Osama B Mohammed, Jason Hemingway, Nigel C Bennett, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, a moderately large mammal that inhabits a harsh desert environment, has been shown to exhibit seasonal variations in activity and inactivity patterns. Here we analyzed the continuous year-round activity patterns of twelve free-roaming Arabian oryx under natural conditions from two varying desert environments in Saudi Arabia using abdominally implanted activity meters. We simultaneously recorded weather parameters at both sites to determine whether environmental factors are responsible for temporal niche switching as well as the seasonal structuring and timing of this behavioural plasticity...
April 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#18
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431800/genetic-predictors-of-antipsychotic-response-to-lurasidone-identified-in-a-genome-wide-association-study-and-by-schizophrenia-risk-genes
#19
Jiang Li, Akane Yoshikawa, Mark D Brennan, Timothy L Ramsey, Herbert Y Meltzer
Biomarkers which predict response to atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) increases their benefit/risk ratio. We sought to identify common variants in genes which predict response to lurasidone, an AAPD, by associating genome-wide association study (GWAS) data and changes (Δ) in Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from two 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trials of lurasidone in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. We also included SCZ risk SNPs identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium using a polygenic risk analysis...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431744/incidence-of-marine-debris-in-seabirds-feeding-at-different-water-depths
#20
D C Tavares, J F de Moura, A Merico, S Siciliano
Marine debris such as plastic fragments and fishing gears are accumulating in the ocean at alarming rates. This study assesses the incidence of debris in the gastrointestinal tracts of seabirds feeding at different depths and found stranded along the Brazilian coast in the period 2010-2013. More than half (55%) of the species analysed, corresponding to 16% of the total number of individuals, presented plastic particles in their gastrointestinal tracts. The incidence of debris was higher in birds feeding predominantly at intermediate (3-6m) and deep (20-100m) waters than those feeding at surface (<2m)...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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