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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141213/cpeb2-activates-grasp1-mrna-translation-and-promotes-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#1
Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141004/lack-of-mitochondrial-muts-homolog-1-in-toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-maintenance-and-fidelity-of-mitochondrial-dna-and-reveals-metabolic-plasticity
#2
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#3
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140838/assessing-specimens-of-devitalized-tissue-in-chronic-sacral-pressure-ulcers-a-pilot-study
#4
Juliany Lino Gomes Silva, Andressa Coope, Eliana Pereira de Araújo, Licio A Velloso, Mário José A Saad, Maria Helena Melo Lima
Pressure ulcers (PrUs)* are chronic wounds caused by a combination of factors, such as repetitive ischemia perfusion injury, bacterial colonization of the wound bed, local tissue hypoxia, or an altered cellular and systemic stress response. The objectives of this study were to analyze fragments of devitalized tissue of Stages III and IV PrUs and compare them with healthy tissue to evaluate the expression of the genes involved in wound inflammation. Samples of healthy skin from patients undergoing plastic surgery (n = 3) were collected, as well as from patients with devitalized tissue from Stages III and IV PrUs (n = 3) by means of sharp debridement...
December 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140385/virtual-treatment-planning-for-implant-retained-nasal-prosthesis-a-clinical-report
#5
Muaiyed Mahmoud Buzayan, Norsiah Binti Yunu, Ha Kien Oon, Omar Tawfiq
Osseointegrated craniofacial implants have improved retention and patients' perceptions of implant-retained nasal prostheses; however, the determination of the available bone sites for implant placement post-rhinectomy is difficult. This case report describes the use of cone beam computed tomography scanning and computer-assisted virtual planning in conjunction with digital photographs for rehabilitation of a facial defect with an implant-retained silicon nasal prosthesis. Two implants were planned in the anatomical area with adequate bone volume to achieve favorable cosmetic outcomes and accessibility for hygiene maintenance...
November 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140248/glutamate-is-required-for-depression-but-not-potentiation-of-long-term-presynaptic-function
#6
Zahid Padamsey, Rudi Tong, Nigel Emptage
Hebbian plasticity is thought to require glutamate signalling. We show this is not the case for hippocampal presynaptic long-term potentiation (LTPpre), which is expressed as an increase in transmitter release probability (Pr). We find that LTPpre can be induced by pairing pre- and postsynaptic spiking in the absence of glutamate signalling. LTPpre induction involves a non-canonical mechanism of retrograde nitric oxide signalling, which is triggered by Ca(2+) influx from L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, not postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and does not require glutamate release...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140194/validity-of-a-smartphone-application-for-measuring-ankle-plantar-flexion
#7
Robert W Cox, Rodrigo E Martinez, Russell T Baker, Lindsay W Larkins
CONTEXT: Range of motion (ROM) is a component of a physical exam used in the diagnostic and rehabilitative process. Following ankle injury and/or during research, it is common to measure plantarflexion with a universal goniometer. The ease and availability of digital inclinometers created as applications for smartphones, has led to an increase in using this method of ROM assessment. Smartphone applications have been validated as alternatives to inclinometer measurements in the knee; however, this application has not been validated for plantarflexion in the ankle...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#8
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139286/highly-sensitive-flexible-pressure-sensors-based-on-printed-organic-transistors-with-centro-apically-self-organized-organic-semiconductor-microstructures
#9
So Young Yeo, Sangsik Park, Yeonjin Yi, Do Hwan Kim, Jung Ah Lim
A highly sensitive pressure sensor based on a printed organic transistors with three-dimensionally self-organized organic semiconductor microstructures were demonstrated. A unique organic transistor with semiconductor channels positioned at the highest summit of printed cylindrical microstructures was achieved simply by printing an organic semiconductor and polymer blend on the plastic substrate without the use of additional etching or replication processes. A combination of the printed organic semiconductor microstructure and an elastomeric top-gate dielectric resulted in a highly sensitive OFET pressure sensor with a high pressure sensitivity of 1...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139266/-effect-of-fluidized-bed-technology-on-micromeritics-properties-of-leonurus-herba-extract
#10
Yan Du, Qi-Zhi Yi, Yao-Kun Xiong, Lan-Ping Xu
Based on different binders, the Leonurus Herba extract powders were fluidized and modified. The physical properties such as hygroscopicity, flowability, filling property and compression property were studied by various micromeritics methods before and after modification. The results showed that the physical properties of Leonurus Herba extract were close to those of microcrystalline cellulose, and its comprehensive flow index was between 61-75. Fluidization process can improve hygroscopicity, so the moisture absorption indexes of the samples were significantly lower than those of the original Leonurus Herba extract samples...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139210/timing-of-neuronal-plasticity-in-development-and-aging
#11
REVIEW
Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Ryan Weihsiang Lin, Kana Hamada, Chieh Chang
Molecular oscillators are well known for their roles in temporal control of some biological processes like cell proliferation, but molecular mechanisms that provide temporal control of differentiation and postdifferentiation events in cells are less understood. In the nervous system, establishment of neuronal connectivity during development and decline in neuronal plasticity during aging are regulated with temporal precision, but the timing mechanisms are largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans has been a preferred model for aging research and recently emerges as a new model for the study of developmental and postdevelopmental plasticity in neurons...
November 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138966/postnatal-nutrition-influences-male-attractiveness-and-promotes-plasticity-in-male-mating-preferences
#12
José C Noguera, Neil B Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan
Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138675/benign-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-on-brain-plasticity-assessed-by-nitric-oxide-metabolism-during-poststroke-rehabilitation
#13
Natalia Cichoń, Piotr Czarny, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Tomasz Śliwiński, Janusz Szemraj, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signal molecules, involved in both physiological and pathological processes. As a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, NO regulates cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on generation and metabolism of NO, as a neurotransmitter, in the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138490/bidirectional-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-by-dopaminergic-d4-receptors-in-the-ca1-area-of-hippocampus
#14
Sheeja Navakkode, Katherine C M Chew, Sabrina Jia Ning Tay, Qingshu Lin, Thomas Behnisch, Tuck Wah Soong
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the persistent increase in the strength of the synapses. However, the neural networks would become saturated if there is only synaptic strenghthening. Synaptic weakening could be facilitated by active processes like long-term depression (LTD). Molecular mechanisms that facilitate the weakening of synapses and thereby stabilize the synapses are also important in learning and memory. Here we show that blockade of dopaminergic D4 receptors (D4R) promoted the formation of late-LTP and transformed early-LTP into late-LTP...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138442/uv-irradiation-to-mouse-skin-decreases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-protein-expression-via-hpa-axis-activation
#15
Mira Han, Jae-Jun Ban, Jung-Soo Bae, Chang-Yup Shin, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#16
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138296/the-genetics-of-pkm%C3%AE-and-memory-maintenance
#17
REVIEW
Todd Charlton Sacktor, Johannes W Hell
Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that maintain long-term memory is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Accumulating evidence suggests that persistent signaling by the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) might maintain synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory. However, the role of PKMζ has been challenged by genetic data from PKMζ-knockout mice showing intact LTP and long-term memory. Moreover, the PKMζ inhibitor peptide ζ inhibitory peptide (ZIP) reverses LTP and erases memory in both wild-type and knockout mice...
November 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138092/abnormal-cortical-neuroplasticity-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-preliminary-study
#18
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Yvonne Höller, Vanessa N Frey, Francesco Brigo, Luca Sebastianelli, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
We aimed at assessing in this pilot study whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) show alterations of sensorimotor plasticity within the primary motor cortex (M1). Since learning in human M1 occurs through LTP-like mechanisms, we employed the paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is able to induce LTP-like effects in M1, in subjects with chronic SCI. We found that PAS protocol significantly increased corticospinal excitability as long as 30minutes in healthy subjects and in SCI patients with good motor recovery, while it was followed by a non-significant increase of MEP amplitude in the SCI patients with poor functional recovery...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138001/pdz-ligand-binding-induced-conformational-coupling-of-the-pdz-sh3-gk-tandems-in-psd-95-family-maguks
#19
Menglong Zeng, Fei Ye, Jia Xu, Mingjie Zhang
DLG MAGUKs are abundantly expressed in glutamatergic synapses, crucial for synaptic transmission and plasticity by anchoring various postsynaptic components including glutamate receptors, downstream scaffold proteins and signaling enzymes. Different DLG members have shared structures and functions, but also contain unique features. How DLG family proteins function individually and cooperatively are largely unknown. Here, we report that PSD-95 PDZ3 directly couples with SH3-GK tandem in a PDZ ligand binding-dependent manner, and the coupling can promote PSD-95 dimerization and multimerization...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137986/long-range-stress-transmission-guides-endothelial-gap-formation
#20
C Corey Hardin, Joyjit Chattoraj, Greeshma Manomohan, Jader Colombo, Trong Nguyen, Dhananjay Tambe, Jeffrey J Fredberg, Konstantin Birukov, James P Butler, Emanuela Del Gado, Ramaswamy Krishnan
In endothelial gap formation, local tractions exerted by the cell upon its basal adhesions are thought to exceed balancing tensile stresses exerted across the cell-cell junction, thus causing the junction to rupture. To test this idea, we mapped evolving tractions, intercellular stresses, and corresponding growth of paracellular gaps in response to agonist challenge. Contrary to expectation, we found little to no relationship between local tensile stresses and gap formation. Instead, we discovered that intercellular stresses were aligned into striking multi-cellular domains punctuated by defects in stress alignment...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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