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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340530/effect-of-severe-plastic-deformation-on-structure-and-properties-of-al-sc-ta-and-al-sc-ti-alloys
#1
Alla Berezina, Tetiana Monastyrska, Olexandr Davydenko, Oleh Molebny, Sergey Polishchuk
The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340434/potentially-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-of-methanogenesis-for-syntrophic-metabolism-under-sulfate-reducing-conditions-with-stainless-steel
#2
Yue Li, Yaobin Zhang, Yafei Yang, Xie Quan, Zhiqiang Zhao
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is an alternative to syntrophic metabolism in natural carbon cycle as well as in anaerobic digesters, but its function in anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater have not yet to be described. Here, conductive stainless steel was added into anaerobic digesters for treating sulfate-containing wastewater to investigate the potential role of DIET in the response to the sulfate impact. Results showed that adding the conductive stainless steel made the anaerobic digestion less affected by the sulfate reduction than adding insulative plastic material...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340187/biofilm-adherence-and-hydrophobicity-as-virulence-factors-in-malassezia-furfur
#3
Letizia Angiolella, Claudia Leone, Florencia Rojas, Javier Mussin, María de Los Angeles Sosa, Gustavo Giusiano
Malassezia species are natural inhabitants of the healthy skin. However, under certain conditions, they may cause or exacerbate several skin diseases. The ability of this fungus to colonize or infect is determined by complex interactions between the fungal cell and its virulence factors. This study aims to evaluate "in vitro" the hydrophobicity levels, the adherence on a plastic surface and the biofilm formation of 16 clinical isolates of Malassezia furfur. Cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) levels were determined by two-phase system...
March 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339976/effects-of-two-different-broiler-flooring-systems-on-production-performances-welfare-and-environment-under-commercial-production-conditions
#4
H Li, X Wen, R Alphin, Z Zhu, Z Zhou
Research comparing conventional litter and alternative perforated flooring (netting) systems is relatively limited under commercial production conditions. A comprehensive comparison of broiler production performances, welfare quality, and housing environment of two broiler houses with conventional litter and new perforated plastic floors was conducted over four flocks for eight months in eastern China. The two broiler houses each had 31,700 broilers per flock on average and were ventilated using a negative-pressure system...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339948/effects-of-dietary-coarsely-ground-corn-and-3-bedding-floor-types-on-broiler-live-performance-litter-characteristics-gizzard-and-proventriculus-weight-and-nutrient-digestibility
#5
Y Xu, Y M Lin, C R Stark, P R Ferket, C M Williams, J Brake
The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm)...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339828/single-session-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-assisted-walking-produces-corticomotor-symmetry-changes-related-to-changes-in-poststroke-walking-mechanics
#6
Jacqueline A Palmer, HaoYuan Hsiao, Tamara Wright, Stuart A Binder-Macleod
Background: Recent research demonstrated that symmetry of corticomotor drive to paretic and nonparetic plantarflexor muscles are related to the biomechanical ankle moment strategy that individuals with chronic stroke used to achieve their greatest walking speeds. Rehabilitation strategies that promote corticomotor balance could potentially improve post-stroke walking mechanics and enhance functional ambulation. Objective: To 1) test the effectiveness of a single session of gait training using functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry and 2) determine if changes in corticomotor symmetry relate to changes in ankle moment symmetry within the session...
February 23, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339467/a-non-canonical-rna-degradation-pathway-suppresses-rnai-dependent-epimutations-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-mucor-circinelloides
#7
Silvia Calo, Francisco E Nicolás, Soo Chan Lee, Ana Vila, Maria Cervantes, Santiago Torres-Martinez, Rosa M Ruiz-Vazquez, Maria E Cardenas, Joseph Heitman
Mucorales are a group of basal fungi that includes the casual agents of the human emerging disease mucormycosis. Recent studies revealed that these pathogens activate an RNAi-based pathway to rapidly generate drug-resistant epimutant strains when exposed to stressful compounds such as the antifungal drug FK506. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this epimutation pathway, we performed a genetic analysis in Mucor circinelloides that revealed an inhibitory role for the non-canonical RdRP-dependent Dicer-independent silencing pathway, which is an RNAi-based mechanism involved in mRNA degradation that was recently identified...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339247/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-fragility-of-freon-113-the-most-fragile-plastic-crystal
#8
A Vispa, M Romanini, M A Ramos, L C Pardo, F J Bermejo, M Hassaine, A I Krivchikov, J W Taylor, J Ll Tamarit
We present a dynamic and thermodynamic study of the orientational glass former Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CCl_{2}F-CClF_{2}) in order to analyze its kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities. Freon 113 displays internal molecular degrees of freedom that promote a complex energy landscape. Experimental specific heat and its microscopic origin, the vibrational density of states from inelastic neutron scattering, together with the orientational dynamics obtained by means of dielectric spectroscopy have revealed the highest fragility value, both thermodynamic and kinetic, found for this orientational glass former...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#9
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#10
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338952/physiological-and-morphological-responses-to-permanent-and-intermittent-waterlogging-in-seedlings-of-four-evergreen-trees-of-temperate-swamp-forests
#11
Alejandra Zúñiga-Feest, Angela Bustos-Salazar, Fernanda Alves, Vanessa Martinez, Cecilia Smith-Ramírez, Joào Pereira
Waterlogging decreases a plant's metabolism, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A); however, some evergreen species show acclimation to waterlogging. By studying both the physiological and morphological responses to waterlogging, the objective of this study was to assess the acclimation capacity of four swamp forest species that reside in different microhabitats. We proposed that species (Luma apiculata [D.C.] Burret. and Drimys winteri J.R. et G. Forster.) abundant in seasonally and intermittently waterlogged areas (SIWA) would have a higher acclimation capacity than species abundant in the inner swamp (Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii [H et A...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338777/the-chlamydia-suis-genome-exhibits-high-levels-of-diversity-plasticity-and-mobile-antibiotic-resistance-comparative-genomics-of-a-recent-livestock-cohort-shows-influence-of-treatment-regimes
#12
Helena M B Seth-Smith, Sabrina Wanninger, Nathan Bachmann, Hanna Marti, Weihong Qi, Manuela Donati, Antonietta di Francesco, Adam Polkinghorne, Nicole Borel
Chlamydia suis is an endemic pig pathogen, belonging to a fascinating genus of obligate intracellular pathogens. Of particular interest, this is the only chlamydial species to have naturally acquired genes encoding for tetracycline resistance. To date, the distribution and mobility of the Tet-island is not well understood. Our study focused on whole genome sequencing of 29 C. suis isolates from a recent porcine cohort within Switzerland, combined with data from USA tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our findings show that the genome of C...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338763/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-autoimmunity
#13
Vito Pistoia, Lizzia Raffaghello
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are committed progenitors of mesodermal origin that are found virtually in every organ and exhibit multilineage differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs also mediate a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory activities that usually dampen innate and adaptive immune responses. These features have attracted interest in the perspective of developing novel cell therapies for autoimmune disease. However, depending on the microenvironmental conditions, MSCs may show a plastic behavior and switch to an immunostimulatory phenotype...
February 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338733/genetic-adaptation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-contribute-to-greater-leaf-hydraulic-tolerance-in-response-to-drought-in-warmer-climates
#14
Chris J Blackman, Michael J Aspinwall, David T Tissue, Paul D Rymer
The ability of plants to maintain an intact water transport system in leaves under drought conditions is intimately linked to survival and can been be seen as adaptive in shaping species climatic limits. Large differences in leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought are known among species from contrasting climates, yet whether this trait varies among populations within a single species and, furthermore, whether it is altered by changes in growth conditions, remain unclear. We examined intraspecific variation in both leaf water transport capacity (Kleaf) and leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought (P50leaf) among eight populations of Corymbia calophylla (R...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338673/environmental-fluctuation-governs-selection-for-plasticity-in-biofilm-production
#15
Jing Yan, Carey D Nadell, Bonnie L Bassler
Bacteria can grow in a free-swimming state, as planktonic cells, or in surface-attached communities, termed biofilms. The planktonic and biofilm growth modes differ dramatically with respect to spatial constraints, nutrient access, population density and cell-cell interactions. Fitness trade-offs underlie how successfully bacteria compete in each of these environments. Accordingly, some bacteria have evolved to be specialists in biofilm formation, while others specialize in planktonic growth. There are species, however, that possess flexible strategies: they can transition between the molecular programs required for biofilm formation and for planktonic growth...
March 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338622/phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-as-a-therapeutic-approach-to-neuroprotection-and-repair
#16
REVIEW
Eric P Knott, Mazen Assi, Sudheendra N R Rao, Mousumi Ghosh, Damien D Pearse
A wide diversity of perturbations of the central nervous system (CNS) result in structural damage to the neuroarchitecture and cellular defects, which in turn are accompanied by neurological dysfunction and abortive endogenous neurorepair. Altering intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and immune regulation, neural cell death, axon plasticity and remyelination has shown therapeutic benefit in experimental models of neurological disease and trauma. The second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP), are two such intracellular signaling targets, the elevation of which has produced beneficial cellular effects within a range of CNS pathologies...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338515/surgeon-participation-in-early-accountable-care-organizations
#17
Matthew J Resnick, Amy J Graves, Melinda B Buntin, Michael R Richards, David F Penson
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the landscape of surgeon participation in early accountable care organizations (ACOs) and to identify specialty-, organization-, and market-specific factors associated with ACO participation. BACKGROUND: Despite rapid deployment of alternative payment models (APMs), little is known about the prevalence of surgeon participation, and key drivers behind surgeon participation in APMs. METHODS: Using data from SK&A, a research firm, we evaluated the near universe of US practices to characterize ACO participation among 125,425 US surgeons in 2015...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338092/high-rate-squeezing-process-of-bulk-metallic-glasses
#18
Jitang Fan
High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338014/entropic-stabilization-of-a-deubiquitinase-provides-conformational-plasticity-and-slow-unfolding-kinetics-beneficial-for-functioning-on-the-proteasome
#19
Yun-Tzai Cloud Lee, Chia-Yun Chang, Szu-Yu Chen, Yun-Ru Pan, Meng-Ru Ho, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Human ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolyase UCH-L5 is a topologically knotted deubiquitinase that is activated upon binding to the proteasome subunit Rpn13. The length of its intrinsically disordered cross-over loop is essential for substrate recognition. Here, we showed that the catalytic domain of UCH-L5 exhibits higher equilibrium folding stability with an unfolding rate on the scale of 10(-8) s(-1), over four orders of magnitudes slower than its paralogs, namely UCH-L1 and -L3, which have shorter cross-over loops...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337802/the-snf1-activating-kinase-sak1-is-a-key-regulator-of-metabolic-adaptation-and-in-vivo-fitness-of-candida-albicans
#20
Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala, Austin Mottola, Julia Haubenreißer, Sabrina Schneider, Stefanie Allert, Sascha Brunke, Knut Ohlsen, Bernhard Hube, Joachim Morschhäuser
The metabolic flexibility of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is important for colonisation and infection of different host niches. Complex regulatory networks, in which protein kinases play central roles, link metabolism and other virulence-associated traits, such as filamentous growth and stress resistance, and thereby control commensalism and pathogenicity. By screening a protein kinase deletion mutant library that was generated in the present work using an improved SAT1 flipper cassette, we found that the previously uncharacterised kinase Sak1 is a key upstream activator of the protein kinase Snf1, a highly conserved regulator of nutrient stress responses that is essential for viability in C...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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