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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110501/worldwide-variability-in-growth-and-its-association-with-health-incorporating-body-composition-developmental-plasticity-and-intergenerational-effects
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells
In their seminal book "Worldwide variation in human growth," published in 1976, Eveleth and Tanner highlighted substantial variability within and between populations in the magnitude and schedule of human growth. In the four decades since then, research has clarified why growth variability is so closely associated with human health. First, growth patterns are strongly associated with body composition, both in the short- and long-term. Poor growth in early life constrains the acquisition of lean tissue, while compensatory "catch-up" growth may elevate body fatness...
January 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110324/setting-kinetics-and-mechanical-properties-of-flax-fibre-reinforced-glass-ionomer-restorative-materials
#2
Abou Neel Ensanya Ali, Young Anne M
Regardless of the excellent properties of glass ionomer cements, their poor mechanical properties limit their applications to non-load bearing areas. This study aimed to investigate the effect of incorporated short, chopped and randomly distributed flax fibers (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 25 wt%) on setting reaction kinetics, and mechanical and morphological properties of glass ionomer cements. Addition of flax fibers did not significantly affect the setting reaction extent. According to their content, flax fibers increased the compressive (from 148 to 250 MPa) and flexure strength (from 20 to 42 MPa)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110210/il-12-and-il-23-modulate-plasticity-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-human-leprosy
#3
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma, D N Rao
Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110209/expansion-of-cd11b-ly-6c-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-driven-by-galectin-9-attenuates-cvb3-induced-myocarditis
#4
Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Xueqin Li, Zongsheng Tang, Ling He, Kun Lv
Galectin-9 is known to play a role in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity to ameliorate CVB3-induced myocarditis. In the present study, we found that galectin-9 induced the expansion of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the heart from CVB3-infected mice. Adoptive transfer of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) MDSCs significantly alleviated myocarditis accompanied by increased Th2 and Treg frequency and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression in the heart tissue. Moreover, Ly6C(+) MDSCs, but not Ly6G(+) cells, expressed Arg-1 and NOS2, and suppressed CD4(+) T cell proliferation in vitro in an Arg-1-dependent mechanism; an event that was reversed with treatment of either an Arg-1 inhibitor or addition of excess l-arginine...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110086/different-mechanisms-in-learning-different-second-languages-evidence-from-english-speakers-learning-chinese-and-spanish
#5
Fan Cao, Bethany L Sussman, Valeria Rios, Xin Yan, Zhao Wang, Gregory J Spray, Ryan M Mack
Word reading has been found to be associated with different neural networks in different languages, with greater involvement of the lexical pathway for opaque languages and greater invovlement of the sub-lexical pathway for transparent langauges. However, we do not know whether this language divergence can be demonstrated in second langauge learners, how learner's metalinguistic ability would modulate the langauge divergence, or whether learning method would interact with the language divergence. In this study, we attempted to answer these questions by comparing brain activations of Chinese and Spanish word reading in native English-speaking adults who learned Chinese and Spanish over a 2 week period under three learning conditions: phonological, handwriting, and passive viewing...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110019/cancer-cell-metabolism-and-mitochondria-nutrient-plasticity-for-tca-cycle-fueling
#6
REVIEW
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
Warburg's hypothesis that cancer cells take up a lot of glucose in the presence of ambient oxygen but convert pyruvate into lactate due to impaired mitochondrial function led to the misconception that cancer cells rely on glycolysis as their major source of energy. Most recent (13)C-based metabolomic studies, including in cancer patients, indicate that cancer cells may also fully oxidize glucose. In addition to glucose-derived pyruvate, lactate, fatty acids and amino acids supply substrates to the TCA cycle to sustain mitochondrial metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109973/sleep-loss-and-structural-plasticity
#7
REVIEW
Cassandra C Areal, Simon C Warby, Valérie Mongrain
Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109917/assessment-of-collagen-quality-associated-with-non-enzymatic-cross-links-in-human-bone-using-fourier-transform-infrared-imaging
#8
F N Schmidt, E A Zimmermann, G M Campbell, G E Sroga, K Püschel, M Amling, S Y Tang, D Vashishth, B Busse
Aging and many disease conditions, most notably diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic cross-links in the bone matrix. The non-enzymatic cross-links, also known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), occur at the collagen tissue level, where they are associated with reduced plasticity and increased fracture risk. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging was used to detect spectroscopic changes associated with the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone collagen...
January 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109911/rho-kinase-inhibitor-prevents-acute-injury-against-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-enhancing-the-expression-and-function-of-gaba-receptors-in-rats
#9
Lin Huang, Qin Li, Ruiting Wen, Zhiying Yu, Na Li, Liping Ma, Wanyu Feng
Studies have shown hydroxyfasudil-mediated inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) has efficacy in rodent models of focal ischemia and in in vitro systems that recapitulate stroke conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of the ROCK inhibitor on stroke are not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons in the effects of hydroxyfasudil on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) induced acute ischemia-reperfusion injury to explore the mechanisms...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109839/ex-utero-culture-of-viviparous-embryos-of-the-lizard-zootoca-vivipara-provides-insights-into-calcium-homeostasis-during-development
#10
Tom W Ecay, James R Stewart, Greg Wiessner, Benoit Heulin
The chorioallantoic membrane resides adjacent to either the inner surface of the egg shell or uterine epithelium in oviparous and viviparous reptiles, respectively. Chorionic cells face the shell or uterine epithelium and transport calcium to underlying embryonic capillaries. Calcium transport activity of the chorioallantois increases in the final stages of development coincident with rapid embryonic growth and skeletal ossification. We excised embryos from viviparous Zootoca vivipara females at a stage prior to significant calcium accumulation and incubated them ex utero with and without calcium to test the hypothesis that chorioallantois calcium transport activity depends on developmental stage and not calcium availability...
January 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109837/interspecific-variation-and-plasticity-in-hemoglobin-nitrite-reductase-activity-and-its-correlation-with-oxygen-affinity-in-vertebrates
#11
Frank B Jensen, Rasmus A H Kolind, Natashia S Jensen, Gabriella Montesanti, Tobias Wang
Deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) is a nitrite reductase that reduces naturally occurring nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), supplying physiological relevant NO under hypoxic conditions. The nitrite reductase activity is modulated by the allosteric equilibrium between the R and T structures of Hb that also determines oxygen affinity. In the present study we investigated nitrite reductase activity and O2 affinity in Hbs from ten different vertebrate species under identical conditions to disclose interspecific variations and allow an extended test for a correlation between the rate constant for nitrite reduction and O2 affinity...
January 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109814/carboxymethyl-sesbania-gum-synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-for-drug-delivery
#12
Shakuntla Verma, Munish Ahuja
In the present study, carboxymethyl Sesbania gum was synthesized and evaluated for drug delivery. Carboxymethylation was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid under alkaline conditions. Modification of the gum was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The degree of carboxymethyl substitution was determined to be 1.3. Carboxymethylation improved the flow properties, increased the degree of crystallinity and changed the compression behaviour from elastic to plastic. Further, the interaction between the modified gum and Ca(2+)-ions was optimized employing a 3-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare mucoadhesive sustained release beads using metformin hydrochloride as the model drug...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109792/bisacodyl-and-its-cytotoxic-activity-on-human-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-implication-of-inositol-1-4-5-triphosphate-receptor-dependent-calcium-signaling
#13
Jihu Dong, Francisco Aulestia, Suzana Assad Kahn, Maria Zeniou, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Elias A El-Habr, François Daubeuf, Nassera Tounsi, Samuel H Cheshier, Nelly Frossard, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Isabelle Néant, Marc Moreau, Catherine Leclerc, Jacques Haiech, Marie-Claude Kilhoffer
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor. The heterogeneity at the cellular level, metabolic specificities and plasticity of the cancer cells are a challenge for glioblastoma treatment. Identification of cancer cells endowed with stem properties and able to propagate the tumor in animal xenografts has opened a new paradigm in cancer therapy. Thus, to increase efficacy and avoid tumor recurrence, therapies need to target not only the differentiated cells of the tumor mass, but also the cancer stem-like cells...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109663/sector-based-vocs-emission-factors-and-source-profiles-for-the-surface-coating-industry-in-the-pearl-river-delta-region-of-china
#14
Zhuangmin Zhong, Qing'e Sha, Junyu Zheng, Zibing Yuan, Zongjiang Gao, Jiamin Ou, Zhuoyun Zheng, Cheng Li, Zhijiong Huang
Accurate depiction of VOCs emission characteristics is essential for the formulation of VOCs control strategies. As one of the continuous efforts in improving VOCs emission characterization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, this study targeted on surface coating industry, the most important VOCs emission sources in the PRD. Sectors in analysis included shipbuilding coating, wood furniture coating, metal surface coating, plastic surface coating, automobile coating and fabric surface coating. Sector-based field measurement was conducted to characterize VOCs emission factors and source profiles in the PRD...
January 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109654/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-macro-meso-and-microplastic-abundance-on-a-remote-coral-island-of-the-maldives-indian-ocean
#15
Hannes K Imhof, Robert Sigl, Emilia Brauer, Sabine Feyl, Philipp Giesemann, Saskia Klink, Kathrin Leupolz, Martin G J Löder, Lena A Löschel, Jan Missun, Sarah Muszynski, Anja F R M Ramsperger, Isabella Schrank, Susan Speck, Sebastian Steibl, Benjamin Trotter, Isabel Winter, Christian Laforsch
Plastic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment and the world's shores represent a major sink. However, knowledge about plastic abundance in remote areas is scarce. Therefore, plastic abundance was investigated on a small island of the Maldives. Plastic debris (>1mm) was sampled once in natural long-term accumulation zones at the north shore and at the high tide drift line of the south shore on seven consecutive days to quantify daily plastic accumulation. Reliable identification of plastic debris was ensured by FTIR spectroscopy...
January 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109312/locus-coeruleus-cellular-and-molecular-pathology-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Sarah C Kelly, Bin He, Sylvia E Perez, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Scott E Counts
A major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) projection neurons that mediate attention, memory, and arousal. However, the extent to which the LC projection system degenerates during the initial stages of AD is still under investigation. To address this question, we performed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology of noradrenergic LC neurons in tissue harvested postmortem from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, a putative prodromal AD stage), or mild/moderate AD...
January 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108859/the-arc-gene-confers-genetic-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-han-chinese
#17
Rui Bi, Li-Li Kong, Min Xu, Guo-Dong Li, Deng-Feng Zhang, Tao Li, Yiru Fang, Chen Zhang, Buchang Zhang, Yong-Gang Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain was considered one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. As the loss of synapses always occurs during AD progression, AD has been gradually regarded as a "synaptopathy." The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) was recently identified as a key factor for AD due to its active roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, and Aβ generation. However, there is little evidence to support the association of the Arc gene with AD...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108827/the-prognostic-impact-of-unplanned-excisions-in-a-cohort-of-728-soft-tissue-sarcoma-patients-a-multicentre-study
#18
Maria Anna Smolle, Per-Ulf Tunn, Elisabeth Goldenitsch, Florian Posch, Joanna Szkandera, Marko Bergovec, Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger, Andreas Leithner
BACKGROUND: Unplanned excisions (UE) of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) carry a high risk for local recurrence (LR) due to marginal/intralesional resections. However, there are reports about improved prognosis for UE patients who have re-resection compared with patients who undergo planned surgery. The present multicentre study was designed to define characteristics of UE patients and to investigate the impact of UE on subsequent therapy and patient outcomes. METHODS: A total of 728 STS patients (376 males, 352 females; mean age: 58 years) who underwent definite surgery at one of three tumour centres were retrospectively included...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108457/rb1-and-tp53-loss-promotes-lineage-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#19
(no author information available yet)
Loss of RB1 and TP53 induces a neuroendocrine phenotype that confers resistance to antiandrogen therapy.
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108357/sigma-1-receptor-deficiency-reduces-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-leading-to-ltd-impairment-and-depressive-like-behaviors
#20
Baofeng Zhang, Ling Wang, Tingting Chen, Juan Hong, Sha Sha, Jun Wang, Hang Xiao, Ling Chen
Sigma-1 receptor knockout (σ1R-/-) in male mice causes depressive-like phenotype. We observed the expression of σ1R in principal neurons of basolateral amygdala (BLA), a main region for affective regulation. The present study investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency in BLA neurons on synaptic properties and plasticity at cortico-BLA pathway. In comparison with wild-type (WT) mice, the slopes of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were reduced in σ1R-/- mice with the increases in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) values...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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