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Brin Freund, James J Gugger, Alexandra Reynolds, William O Tatum, Jan Claassen, Peter W Kaplan
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges (PDs) are EEG patterns denoting brain dysfunction and ictal tendency. Their exact meaning regarding etiology and outcomes is not well known. In particular, bilateral independent PDs (BIPDs) are poorly described. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study evaluating neuroimaging, epileptic, clinical, and EEG correlates of BIPDs. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients studied with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale 6...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Zengli Zhang, Huiqian Wang, Qifeng Ding, Yufei Xing, Zhonghua Xu, Chun Lu, Dongdong Luo, Longjiang Xu, Wei Xia, Caicun Zhou, Minhua Shi
The prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is poor. One of the reasons for this hampered progress has been a lack of in vitro models that would faithfully recapitulate the heterogeneity of tumors and response to treatment. In this study, surgically resected tumors were obtained from patients with stage I/II NSCLC during curative-intent surgery. Using a 3D patient-derived tumor spheroids culture system, our results demonstrate successful long-term expansion of primary NSCLC cells in vitro (> 120 days)...
2018: PloS One
Bo-Jun Huang, Jun-Han Lin, H H Cheng, Guo-En Chang
We report GeSn p-i-n resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetectors (RCEPDs) grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates. A vertical cavity, composed of a buried oxide as the bottom reflector and a deposited SiO2 layer on the top surface as the top reflector, is created for the GeSn p-i-n structure to enhance the light-matter interaction. The responsivity experiments demonstrate that the photodetection range is extended to 1820 nm, completely covering all the telecommunication bands, because of the introduction of 2...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Yan Liang, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Chung-Tong Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Hee-Ju Kang, Wai-Kwong Tang
Objective: All types of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were found to be associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). This study explored whether the combination of the four markers constituting an overall SVD burden was associated with PDS. Methods: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were followed over a 15-month period after the index stroke. A score of ≥7 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was defined as clinically significant PDS...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Aditya Simha, Camille Maria Webb, Ramakrishna Prasad, N Randall Kolb, Peter J Veldkamp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family medicine program directors (PDs) experienced moral distress due to obstacles to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, and to explore whether they found those obstacles to be unethical. DESIGN: An omnibus survey by the Council of Academic Family Medicine's Educational Research Alliance was administered to 452 and completed by 273 US-based PDs. The survey gauged attitudes and opinions regarding ethical dilemmas in patient access to HCV treatment...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Guoqing Tong, Huan Li, Zhifeng Zhu, Yan Zhang, Linwei Yu, Jun Xu, Yang Jiang
Hybrid perovskite photodetectors (PDs) exhibit outstanding performance in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum but have poor detectability in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region (200-350 nm). In this work, a novel inorganic-hybrid architecture that incorporates a dual-phase (CsPbBr3-Cs4PbBr6) inorganic perovskite material as a down-conversion window layer and a hybrid perovskite as light capture layer was prepared to achieve faster, highly sensitive photodetection in the DUV spectrum. A dual-phase inorganic perovskite film coated on the back surface of photodetector enables strong light absorption and tunes the incident energy into emission bands that are optimized for the perovskite photodetector...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Longzheng Chen, Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Jing Ding, Xianbin Gu, Yanjun Li, Tingting Gu, Ren Wang, Xinchun Lin, Ziniu Deng, Richard J McAvoy, Frederick G Gmitter, Zhanao Deng, Yunde Zhao, Yi Li
Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Marianne Kaiser, Magdalena Jacobson, Pia Haubro Andersen, Poul Bækbo, José Joaquin Cerón, Jan Dahl, Damián Escribano, Stine Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is not fully elucidated and affected sows often present vague clinical signs. Accurate and timely diagnosis is difficult, and PDS is often recognized with a delay once piglets begin to starve. Increased rectal temperature of the sow is an important diagnostic parameter, but it may also be influenced by a number of other parameters and is thus difficult to interpret. Inflammatory markers may be important adjuncts to the clinical assessment of sows with PDS, but such markers have only been studied to a limited extent...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Guanyu Chen, Jeroen Goyvaerts, Sulakshna Kumari, Joris Van Kerrebrouck, Muhammad Muneeb, Sarah Uvin, Yu Yu, Gunther Roelkens
We propose and demonstrate the integration of 850 nm GaAs-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors (PDs) based on transfer printing for application in photonic interposers. Both devices that directly interface with a multimode optical fiber (with device dimensions of 70 μm × 70 μm) as well as devices that interface with a SiN waveguide layer through a grating coupler (with device dimensions of 30 μm × 30 μm) are demonstrated. The dark currents are measured to be 22 nA and 7.2 nA at 2 V bias for the larger and smaller PDs respectively...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Sae-Kyoung Kang, Joon Young Huh, Jie Hyun Lee, Joon Ki Lee
We design and implement a cost-effective and compact 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) by using a TO-can package instead of an expensive box-type package. It consists of an optical demultiplexer, two PIN-PDs and a 2-channel linear transimpedance amplifier. The components are passively aligned and assembled using alignment marks engraved on each part. With a real-time PAM-4 DSP chip, we measured the back-to-back receiver sensitivities of the 100-Gb/s ROSA based on TO-56 to be less than -13...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
M Timmermans, G S Sonke, W J van Driel, R I Lalisang, P B Ottevanger, C D de Kroon, K K Van de Vijver, M A van der Aa, R F Kruitwagen
INTRODUCTION: Primary debulking surgery (PDS) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is historically recommended as first line treatment for advanced stage ovarian cancer. Two randomized controlled trials, however, showed similar efficacy and reduced toxicity with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS). Nevertheless, uptake of NACT-IDS varies widely between hospitals, which cannot be explained by difference in patient populations. In this survey, we therefore aimed to evaluate the views on NACT-IDS among all Dutch gynaecologists and medical oncologists involved in the treatment of ovarian cancer...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Liucheng Chen, Hao Yu, Hong-Jie Pang, Bin-Bin Jiang, Lei Su, Xun Shi, L D Chen, Xiaojia Chen
An extended study on PdS is carried out with the measurements of the resistivity, Hall coefficient, Raman scattering, and X-ray diffraction at high pressures up to 42.3 GPa. With increasing pressure, superconductivity is observed accompanying with a structural phase transition at around 19.5 GPa. The coexistence of semiconducting and metallic phases observed at normal state is examined by the Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction between 19.5 and 29.5 GPa. After that, only the metallic normal state maintains with an almost constant superconducting transition temperature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Russ C Kolarik, Richard L O'Neal, Joseph A Ewing
BACKGROUND: Burnout and depression are prevalent among resident physicians, though the supportive role of the program director (PD) is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To understand the residents' view of the residency program director's role in assessing and promoting resident wellness. METHODS: A single institution survey of all house staff was conducted in 2017. Rates of burnout and depression were identified via the 2-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Patient Health Questionaire-2 (PHQ-2), respectively...
March 5, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Joseph E Beeney, Sophie A Lazarus, Michael N Hallquist, Stephanie D Stepp, Aidan G C Wright, Lori N Scott, Rachel A Giertych, Paul A Pilkonis
Calls have increased to place interpersonal and self-disturbance as defining features of personality disorders (PDs). Findings from a methodologically diverse set of studies suggest that a common factor undergirds all PDs. The nature of this core of PDs, however, is not clear. In the current study, interviews were completed for DSM-IV PD diagnosis and interpersonal dysfunction independently with 272 individuals (PD = 191, no-PD = 91). Specifically, we evaluated interpersonal dysfunction across social domains...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Casey M Strickland, Christopher J Hopwood, Marina A Bornovalova, Elizabeth C Rojas, Robert F Krueger, Christopher J Patrick
Symptom-based models, typically operationalized through diagnostic interview, and trait models, typically operationalized via questionnaire inventories, reflect historically competing conceptions of personality disorder (PD). DSMD-5 includes models of both types, in Sections II and III, respectively. In this study, we sought to synthesize these alternative conceptualizations by fitting bifactor models to data for both Section II PD symptoms (assessed using the SCID-II interview protocol) and dimensional traits for the six PDs retained in Section III (assessed using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
N A Gillespie, S H Aggen, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, R F Krueger, S C South, N Czajkowski, R Nesvåg, E Ystrom, K S Kendler, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individual differences in DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased prevalence of substance use disorders. Our aims were to determine which combination of PDs trait scores best predict cannabis use (CU) and cannabis use disorder (CUD), and to estimate the size and significance of genetic and environmental risks in PD traits shared with CU and CUD. DESIGN: Linear mixed effects models were used to identify PD traits for inclusion in twin analyses to explore the genetic and environmental associations between the traits and cannabis use...
March 3, 2018: Addiction
Giovanni Musso, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elena Paschetta, Antonio Sircana
The resolution of necroinflammation and fibrosis remains a primary clinical target in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the most common chronic liver disease and a major cause of end-stage liver disease. Our understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms driving inflammation and fibrosis and their resolution in obesity-related conditions, including NASH, have led to the proposal of a novel, tractable therapeutic paradigm involving specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), namely lipoxins (LXs), resolvins (Rvs), protectins (PDs), and maresins (MaRs)...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
K Tominaga, Y Sakata, H Kusunoki, T Odaka, K Sakurai, O Kawamura, A Nagahara, T Takeuchi, Y Fujikawa, T Oshima, M Kato, T Furuta, K Murakami, T Chiba, H Miwa, Y Kinoshita, K Higuchi, M Kusano, R Iwakiri, K Fujimoto, J F Tack, T Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD), a heterogeneous disorder, involves multiple pathogenetic mechanisms. Developing treatments for FD has been challenging. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to determine the efficacy of rikkunshito, a Japanese herbal medicine, in FD patients. METHODS: FD patients (n = 192) who met the Rome III criteria without Helicobacter pylori infection, predominant heartburn, and depression were enrolled at 56 hospitals in Japan...
March 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Aleksandra Kaurin, Kyle Sauerberger, David C Funder
BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers - either clinicians or acquaintances - because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different, three-person laboratory interactions (i...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Personality
Dalila Lebsir, Line Manens, Stephane Grison, Philippe Lestaevel, Teni Ebrahimian, David Suhard, Guillaume Phan, Isabelle Dublineau, Karine Tack, Marc Benderitter, Annick Pech, Jean-Rene Jourdain, Maâmar Souidi
BACKGROUND: A single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer during nuclear accidents. However in case of prolonged radioiodine exposure, more than one dose of KI may be necessary. This work aims to evaluate the potential toxic effect of repeated administration of KI. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats received an optimal dose of KI 1 mg/kg over a period of 1, 4 or 8 days. RESULTS: hormonal status (TSH, FT4) of treated rats was unaffected...
February 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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