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"human influenza challenge"

Julius Muller, Eneida Parizotto, Richard Antrobus, James Francis, Campbell Bunce, Amanda Stranks, Marshall Nichols, Micah McClain, Adrian V S Hill, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Sarah C Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Influenza challenge trials are important for vaccine efficacy testing. Currently, disease severity is determined by self-reported scores to a list of symptoms which can be highly subjective. A more objective measure would allow for improved data analysis. METHODS: Twenty-one volunteers participated in an influenza challenge trial. We calculated the daily sum of scores (DSS) for a list of 16 influenza symptoms. Whole blood collected at baseline and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post challenge was profiled on Illumina HT12v4 microarrays...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Victoria M W Gould, James N Francis, Katie J Anderson, Bertrand Georges, Alethea V Cope, John S Tregoning
In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ashley Sobel Leonard, Micah T McClain, Gavin J D Smith, David E Wentworth, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Amy Ransier, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman R Das, Anthony S Gilbert, Robert Lambkin-Williams, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Christopher W Woods, Katia Koelle
Knowledge of influenza virus evolution at the point of transmission and at the intrahost level remains limited, particularly for human hosts. Here, we analyze a unique viral data set of next-generation sequencing (NGS) samples generated from a human influenza challenge study wherein 17 healthy subjects were inoculated with cell- and egg-passaged virus. Nasal wash samples collected from 7 of these subjects were successfully deep sequenced. From these, we characterized changes in the subjects' viral populations during infection and identified differences between the virus in these samples and the viral stock used to inoculate the subjects...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Alicia M Fry, Weimin Zhong, Larisa V Gubareva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maryna C Eichelberger, Hongquan Wan
Neuraminidase (NA) is the second most abundant influenza surface glycoprotein and contributes to virus replication in several ways, most notably by removing sialic acids from the host and viral glycoproteins, releasing newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Antibodies that block this enzyme activity restrict virus replication in vitro. This chapter describes foundational epidemiologic and human influenza challenge studies that provide evidence of an association between NA inhibiting antibodies and resistance to disease...
2015: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Kyra D Zens, Donna L Farber
Influenza A virus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly among young children and the elderly. Current vaccines induce neutralizing antibody responses directed toward highly variable viral surface proteins, resulting in limited heterosubtypic protection to new viral serotypes. By contrast, memory CD4 T cells recognize conserved viral proteins and are cross-reactive to multiple influenza strains. In humans, virus-specific memory CD4 T cells were found to be the protective correlate in human influenza challenge studies, suggesting their key role in protective immunity...
2015: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Kuan-Ying Arthur Huang, Chris Ka-Fai Li, Elizabeth Clutterbuck, Cecilia Chui, Tom Wilkinson, Anthony Gilbert, John Oxford, Rob Lambkin-Williams, Tzou-Yien Lin, Andrew J McMichael, Xiao-Ning Xu
BACKGROUND:  Antibodies play a major role in the protection against influenza virus in human. However, the antibody level is usually short-lived and the cellular mechanisms underlying influenza virus-specific antibody response to acute infection remain unclear. METHODS:  We studied the kinetics and magnitude of influenza virus-specific B-cell and serum antibody responses in relation to virus replication during the course of influenza infection in healthy adult volunteers who were previously seronegative and experimentally infected with seasonal influenza H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 virus...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ben Killingley, Joanne E Enstone, Jane Greatorex, Anthony S Gilbert, Rob Lambkin-Williams, Simon Cauchemez, Jacqueline M Katz, Robert Booy, Andrew Hayward, John Oxford, Carolyn B Bridges, Neil M Ferguson, Jonathan S Nguyen Van-Tam
BACKGROUND: Influenza transmission in humans remains poorly understood. In particular, the relative contribution of contact, large droplet, and aerosol transmission is unknown. The aims of this proof-of-concept study were to determine whether an experimentally induced influenza infection is transmissible between humans and whether this would form a viable platform for future studies. METHODS: In a quarantine facility, healthy volunteers ("donors") were inoculated with A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) influenza virus via intranasal drops...
January 1, 2012: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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