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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773546/kruse-jarres-r-johnsen-jm-how-i-treat-type-2b-von-willebrand-disease-blood-2018-131-12-1292-1300
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735306/renoprotective-effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors
#2
REVIEW
Hiddo J L Heerspink, Mikhail Kosiborod, Silvio E Inzucchi, David Z I Cherney
Over the past two years, our understanding of anti-hyperglycemic medications used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has fundamentally changed. Before the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, agents used to lower blood glucose were felt to prevent or delay the development of microvascular complications, but were not known to definitively reduce cardiovascular risk or mortality. Previous studies with then novel sodium-glucose cotransport-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors demonstrated improvements in several cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including HbA1c, blood pressure, weight, renal hyperfiltration, and albuminuria...
May 5, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732188/weaning-from-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-how-i-do-it
#3
REVIEW
Lars M Broman, Maximilian V Malfertheiner, Andrea Montisci, Federico Pappalardo
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is a rescue treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) failing protective mechanical ventilation. It temporarily provides proper gas exchange: hypoxia is treated by adjusting the blood flow rate and fraction in spired oxygen over the ventilator (FiO2 ) on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit while CO2 removal is regulated by the ECMO fresh gas flow. Therefore, ventilator settings can be gradually reduced allowing the lungs to rest and recover...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724898/how-i-safely-transfuse-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-manage-delayed-hemolytic-transfusion-reactions
#4
France Pirenne, Karina Yazdanbakhsh
Transfusions can be a life-saving treatment for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, availability of matched units can be limiting due to distinctive blood group polymorphisms in patients of African descent. Development of antibodies against the transfused red blood cells (RBCs), resulting in delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs), can be life-threatening and pose unique challenges for this population with regard to treatment strategies and transfusion management protocols. In cases where the transfused cells as well as patient's own RBCs are destroyed, diagnosis of DHTR can be difficult because symptoms may mimic vaso-occlusive crisis, and frequently antibodies are undetectable...
May 3, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720233/real-world-evidence-analysis-of-palbociclib-prescribing-patterns-for-patients-with-advanced-metastatic-breast-cancer-treated-in-community-oncology-practice-in-the-usa-one-year-post-approval
#5
J K Kish, M A Ward, D Garofalo, H V Ahmed, L McRoy, J Laney, G Zanotti, J Braverman, H Yu, B A Feinberg
BACKGROUND: Rapidly evolving understanding of cancer biology has presented novel opportunities to translate that understanding into clinically relevant therapy. Palbociclib, a novel, first-in-class cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor was approved in the USA in February 2015 for the treatment of advanced/metastatic breast cancer. We examined real-world evidence in the first year post approval to understand the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients treated with palbociclib in community oncology practices and the dosing, treatment, and complete blood count (CBC) monitoring patterns...
May 2, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712633/how-i-treat-t-cell-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-disease
#6
Catherine M Bollard, Jeffrey I Cohen
T cell chronic active EBV is a rare disease in which EBV is present predominantly in T cells which infiltrate the tissues; patients have high levels of EBV in the blood. If untreated, patients often develop liver failure, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, coronary artery aneurysms, EBV infiltrating T cells impairing organ function, or T cell lymphomas refractory to treatment. At present, hematopoietic stem transplantation is the only curative therapy, and it is critical to make a proper diagnosis and initiate transplantation before the disease progresses to an irreversible stage...
April 30, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707832/dealing-with-competing-risks-in-clinical-trials-how-to-choose-the-primary-efficacy-analysis
#7
James F Troendle, Eric S Leifer, Lauren Kunz
We investigate different primary efficacy analysis approaches for a 2-armed randomized clinical trial when interest is focused on a time to event primary outcome that is subject to a competing risk. We extend the work of Friedlin and Korn (2005) by considering estimation as well as testing and by simulating the primary and competing events' times from both a cause-specific hazards model as well as a joint subdistribution-cause-specific hazards model. We show that the cumulative incidence function can provide useful prognostic information for a particular patient but is not advisable for the primary efficacy analysis...
April 29, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670745/induction-of-immunity-following-vaccination-with-a-chemically-attenuated-malaria-vaccine-correlates-with-persistent-antigenic-stimulation
#8
Jennifer M Reiman, Sanjai Kumar, Ingrid B Rodriguez, Sedami Gnidehou, Koichi Ito, Danielle I Stanisic, Moses Lee, Virginia McPhun, Victoria Majam, Nicole M Willemsen, Michael R Batzloff, Amber I Raja, Brad Dooley, Stephen L Hoffman, Stephanie K Yanow, Michael F Good
Objectives: Blood stage malaria parasites attenuated with seco-cyclopropyl pyrrolo indole (CPI) analogues induce robust immunity in mice to homologous and heterologous malaria parasites and are being considered for the development of a human vaccine. However, it is not understood how attenuated parasites induce immunity. We showed that following vaccination, parasite DNA persisted in blood for several months, raising the possibility that ongoing immune stimulation may be critical. However, parasites were not seen microscopically beyond 24 h postvaccination...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625790/transfusion-associated-hazards-a-revisit-of-their-presentation
#9
O Garraud, C Sut, A Haddad, S Tariket, C Aloui, S Laradi, H Hamzeh-Cognasse, T Bourlet, F Zeni, C Aubron, Y Ozier, S Laperche, T Peyrard, P Buffet, D Guyotat, E Tavernier, F Cognasse, B Pozzetto, G Andreu
As a therapy or a support to other therapies, despite being largely beneficial to patients in general, transfusion it is not devoid of some risks. In a moderate number of cases, patients may manifest adverse reactions, otherwise referred to as transfusion-associated hazards (TAHs). The latest French 2016 haemovigilance report indicates that 93% of TAHs are minor (grade 1), 5.5% are moderate (grade 2) and 1.6% are severe (grade 3), with only five deaths (grade 4) being attributed to transfusion with relative certainty (imputability of level [or grade] 1 to 3)...
April 3, 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603681/a-comparative-cfd-study-of-four-inferior-vena-cava-filters
#10
Josep M López, Gerard Fortuny, Dolors Puigjaner, Joan Herrero, Francesc Marimon
Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the flow of blood within an inferior vena cava (IVC) geometry model that was reconstructed from computed tomography images obtained from a real patient. The main novelty of the present work is that we simulated the implantation of four different filter models in this realistic IVC geometry. We considered different blood flow rates in the range between Vin =20 and Vin =80cm3 /s and all simulations were performed with both the Newtonian and a non-Newtonian model for the blood viscosity...
March 30, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502979/amelioration-of-cavernosal-fibrosis-and-erectile-function-by-lysyl-oxidase-inhibition-in-a-rat-model-of-cavernous-nerve-injury
#11
Zhi-Hua Wan, Guo-Hao Li, Yong-Lian Guo, Wen-Zhou Li, Lin Chen, Yuan-Jie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) causes fibrosis and loss of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the corpus cavernosum and leads to erectile dysfunction, and lysyl oxidase (LOX) activation has been found to play an important role in fibrotic diseases. AIM: To evaluate the role of LOX in penile fibrosis after bilateral CNI (BCNI). METHODS: Rats underwent BCNI or a sham operation and were treated with vehicle or β-aminopropionitrile, a specific LOX activity inhibitor...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496416/aluminium-al-speciation-in-serum-and-urine-after-subcutaneous-venom-immunotherapy-with-al-as-adjuvant
#12
Bernhard Michalke, Matthias F Kramer, Randolf Brehler
BACKGROUND: Aluminium is associated with disorders and is the commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Understanding the mechanisms of how Al is transported, metabolized or of its toxicity depends on the knowledge of Al-interactions with bioligands, i.e. Al-species. Al-speciation in serum is difficult because of low concentration and the risk of exogenous Al contamination. Furthermore, Al-measurements may be hampered according to various interferences. This study aims for developing quality controlled protocols for reliable Al- and Al-species determination and for investigating probable differences in Al (-speciation) after Al-containing subcutaneous immunotherapy (SIT)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487615/genetic-parameter-estimates-for-metabolizing-two-common-pharmaceuticals-in-swine
#13
Jeremy T Howard, Melissa S Ashwell, Ronald E Baynes, James D Brooks, James L Yeatts, Christian Maltecca
In livestock, the regulation of drugs used to treat livestock has received increased attention and it is currently unknown how much of the phenotypic variation in drug metabolism is due to the genetics of an animal. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the amount of phenotypic variation in fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine drug metabolism due to genetics. The population consisted of crossbred female and castrated male nursery pigs ( n = 198) that were sired by boars represented by four breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450504/association-of-adenotonsillectomy-with-blood-pressure-among-hypertensive-and-nonhypertensive-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#14
Cho-Hsueh Lee, Kun-Tai Kang, Shuenn-Nan Chiu, I-Sheng Chang, Wen-Chin Weng, Pei-Lin Lee, Wei-Chung Hsu
Importance: Hypertension in childhood may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Evidence suggests that adenotonsillectomy for childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be associated with blood pressure (BP) improvement. However, how adenotonsillectomy is associated with BP in hypertensive and nonhypertensive children with OSA remains unclear. Objective: To investigate disparities in BP changes after adenotonsillectomy in hypertensive and nonhypertensive children with OSA...
April 1, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443050/a-co-culture-method-to-investigate-the-crosstalk-between-x-ray-irradiated-caco-2-cells-and-pbmc
#15
Gabriele Babini, Jacopo Morini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Giovanni Battista Ivaldi, Marco Liotta, Paola Tabarelli de Fatis, Andrea Ottolenghi
The protocol adopted in this work aims at unraveling how X-rays perturb the functioning of the intestinal barrier, focusing on the interplay between colorectal tumor cells and the immune system. Colorectal carcinoma is among the most common type of cancer, typically treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Advantages of radiotherapy in targeting the tumor are well known. However, even limited exposures of healthy tissues are of great concern, particularly regarding the effects on the intestinal barrier and the immune system...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398697/clinical-pharmacology-of-intravitreal-anti-vegf-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Stefano Fogli, Marzia Del Re, Eleonora Rofi, Chiara Posarelli, Michele Figus, Romano Danesi
Clinical efficacy of intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs has been widely demonstrated in several angiogenesis-driven eye diseases including diabetic macular edema and the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration. Pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and aflibercept have been approved for use in the eye, whereas bevacizumab is widely used by ophthalmologists to treat patients "off-label". These drugs are active in the nanomolar to picomolar range; however, caution is required when establishing the rank order of affinity and potency due to in vitro inter-experimental variation...
February 5, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377071/how-i-manage-red-cell-transfusions-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#17
REVIEW
David C Rees, Susan Robinson, Jo Howard
Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest serious inherited diseases in the world, and red cell transfusion is still one of the few effective treatments for acute and chronic complications. Transfusion corrects anaemia and dilutes out the number of red cells able to cause vaso-occlusion and vascular damage. Urgent red cell transfusions are used to correct acute anaemia, treat acute chest syndrome and patients with acute neurological symptoms. We use elective transfusions preoperatively for moderate risk surgery, and in some pregnant women...
February 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354655/guidelines-vs-actual-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-emergency-department
#18
Rahul S Kamath, Deepthi Sudhakar, Julianna G Gardner, Vagish Hemmige, Hossam Safar, Daniel M Musher
Background: Infections of skin and soft tissue (SSTI) commonly cause visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs). The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has published guidelines for the management of SSTI, but it is unclear how closely these guidelines are followed in practice. Methods: We reviewed records of patients seen in the ED at a large tertiary care hospital to determine guidelines adherence in 4 important areas: the decision to hospitalize, choice of antibiotics, incision and drainage (I&D) of abscesses, and submission of specimens for culture...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290298/quantification-of-mycobacterium-bovis-transmission-in-a-badger-vaccine-field-trial
#19
I Aznar, K Frankena, S J More, J O'Keeffe, G McGrath, M C M de Jong
In the UK and Ireland, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of badgers has been suggested as one of a number of strategies to control or even eradicate Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. In this manuscript, we present the results of a badger field trial conducted in Ireland and discuss how the novel trial design and analytical methods allowed the effects of vaccination on protection against infection and, more importantly, on transmission to be estimated. The trial area was divided into three zones North to South (A, B and C) where vaccination coverages of 0, 50 and 100%, respectively, were applied...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247724/anti-hbv-response-to-toll-like-receptor-7-agonist-gs-9620-is-associated-with-intrahepatic-aggregates-of-t-cells-and-b-cells
#20
Li Li, Vivian Barry, Stephane Daffis, Congrong Niu, Erik Huntzicker, Dorothy M French, Igor Mikaelian, Robert E Lanford, William E Delaney, Simon P Fletcher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: GS-9620, an oral agonist of toll-like receptor 7, is in clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). GS-9620 was previously shown to induce prolonged suppression of serum viral DNA and antigens in the chimpanzee and woodchuck models of CHB. Herein, we investigated the immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying these antiviral effects. METHODS: Archived liver biopsies and paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from a previous chimpanzee study were analyzed by RNA sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH)...
May 2018: Journal of Hepatology
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