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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901325/asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-who-should-be-screened-who-should-be-treated-and-how-should-we-treat-them
#1
Djurre D DE Waard, Dylan Morris, Gert J DE Borst, Richard Bulbulia, Alison Halliday
Although stopping smoking, lowering blood pressure and reducing lipid levels will reduce global stroke risk and cardiovascular mortality, these remain leading causes of death and disability especially in ageing populations. Further prevention strategies are needed and, in the first part of this review, we explore the potential benefits of appropriate screening for carotid artery disease to reduce stroke and identify those who may have related cardiac disease. Although whole-population carotid screening is an inefficient and costly means of identifying candidates with tight carotid stenosis who might warrant intervention, it can identify many people with lower levels of stenosis who may benefit from cardiovascular risk reducing medications...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853267/characterizing-focused-ultrasound-mediated-drug-delivery-to-the-heterogeneous-primate-brain-in-vivo-with-acoustic-monitoring
#2
Shih-Ying Wu, Carlos Sierra Sanchez, Gesthimani Samiotaki, Amanda Buch, Vincent P Ferrera, Elisa E Konofagou
Focused ultrasound with microbubbles has been used to noninvasively and selectively deliver pharmacological agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for treating brain diseases. Acoustic cavitation monitoring could serve as an on-line tool to assess and control the treatment. While it demonstrated a strong correlation in small animals, its translation to primates remains in question due to the anatomically different and highly heterogeneous brain structures with gray and white matteras well as dense vasculature...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843539/regulatory-and-activated-effector-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-relation-to-autoimmunity
#3
Hanan Fouad, Maissa El Raziky, Eman Medhat Hassan, Ghada Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, Samar K Darweesh, Ahmed Reda Sayed
AIM: To investigate how Tregs are regulated in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients via assessment of Tregs markers (granzyme 2, CD69 and FoxP3), Teffs markers [TNFRSF4 (OX40), INFG] and CD4, CD25 genes. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 120 subjects divided into 4 groups: Group I (n = 30) treatment naïve chronic HCV patients; Group II (n = 30) chronic HCV treated with Peg/Riba; Group III (n = 30) chronic HCV associated with non-organ specific autoantibody and Group IV (n = 30) healthy persons as a control group...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842495/effectiveness-of-the-empower-par-intervention-in-improving-clinical-outcomes-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-primary-care-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Anis Safura Ramli, Sharmini Selvarajah, Maryam Hannah Daud, Jamaiyah Haniff, Suraya Abdul-Razak, Tg Mohd Ikhwan Tg-Abu-Bakar-Sidik, Mohamad Adam Bujang, Boon How Chew, Thuhairah Rahman, Seng Fah Tong, Asrul Akmal Shafie, Verna K M Lee, Kien Keat Ng, Farnaza Ariffin, Hasidah Abdul-Hamid, Md Yasin Mazapuspavina, Nafiza Mat-Nasir, Chun W Chan, Abdul Rahman Yong-Rafidah, Mastura Ismail, Sharmila Lakshmanan, Wilson H H Low
BACKGROUND: The chronic care model was proven effective in improving clinical outcomes of diabetes in developed countries. However, evidence in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of EMPOWER-PAR intervention (based on the chronic care model) in improving clinical outcomes for type 2 diabetes mellitus using readily available resources in the Malaysian public primary care setting. METHODS: This was a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel, matched pair, controlled trial using participatory action research approach, conducted in 10 public primary care clinics in Malaysia...
November 14, 2016: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837552/fundamental-principles-of-stem-cell-banking
#5
Changbin Sun, Jianhui Yue, Na He, Yaqiong Liu, Xi Zhang, Yong Zhang
Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785927/momelotinib-in-myelofibrosis-jak1-2-inhibitor-with-a-role-in-treating-and-understanding-the-anemia
#6
Elliott F Winton, Vamsi Kota
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a chronic malignancy of the blood-forming system caused by hyperactivation of JAK2/STAT signaling pathway. Small-molecule inhibitors of JAK2 can variably ameliorate MF-related symptoms caused by chronic inflammation and hepatosplenomegaly. Anemia is a significant problem and adverse prognostic factor in over a third of MF patients and is often worsened by JAK2 inhibitors. The JAK1/2 inhibitor momelotinib unexpectedly resulted in reduction of anemia in MF patients during Phase I/II trials...
October 27, 2016: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754026/yia-03-02-adiponectin-mediated-epithelial-autophagy-attenuates-hypertensive-renal-fibrosis
#7
Cheng-Chao Ruan, Yan Li, Yu Ma, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ping-Jin Gao
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that adiponectin (APN) protects against hypertension-related cardiovascular disease. However, whether APN is involved in the regulation of hypertensive renal damage remains unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate how APN regulates renal epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) in desoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male APN knockout (APNKO) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 littermates were sc infused with DOCA pellet (50 mg for 21 day release)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746782/cd4-t-cell-responses-in-primary-hiv-infection-interrelationship-with-immune-activation-and-virus-burden
#8
Mathieu F Chevalier, Céline Didier, Pierre-Marie Girard, Maria E Manea, Pauline Campa, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Daniel Scott-Algara, Laurence Weiss
Early events during primary HIV infection (PHI) are thought to influence disease outcome. Although a growing body of evidence suggests a beneficial role of HIV-specific CD4 help in HIV infection, it is unclear how early viral replication, systemic immune activation, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may shape CD4 T-cell responses during PHI, and whether HIV-specific CD4 responses contribute to the high immune activation observed in PHI. Twenty-seven patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and 12 of them received ART after enrollment...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733399/leukocyte-telomere-length-pattern-in-a-chuvash-population-that-experienced-mass-famine-in-1922-1923-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Eugene Kobyliansky, Dmitry Torchinsky, Leonid Kalichman, David Karasik
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there are no experimental studies that have addressed the effects of starvation on the maintenance of telomere length. Two epidemiologic studies that have addressed this topic gave controversial results. OBJECTIVE: We characterized leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a Chuvash population that was comprised of survivors of the mass famine of 1922-1923 and in these survivors' descendants. DESIGN: The tested cohort consisted of native Chuvash men (n = 687) and women (n = 647) who were born between 1909 and 1980 and who resided in small villages in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725150/anesthesia-specific-differences-in-a-cardio-pulmonary-resuscitation-rat-model-halothane-versus-sevoflurane
#10
Torben Esser, Gerburg Keilhoff, Uwe Ebmeyer
OBJECTIVE: Our asphyxia cardiac arrest (ACA) rat model is well established. The original model was designed in the 1990(th) using halothane and nitrous oxide for pre-insult anesthesia. Because of its hepato-toxicity and its potential to induce severe liver failures, halothane is no longer used in clinical anesthesia for several years. In order to minimize the health risk for our laboratory staff as well as to keep the experimental settings of our model on a clinically oriented basis we decided to replace halothane by sevoflurane...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691947/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-meloxicam-after-intravenous-and-intramuscular-administration-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#11
Daniel V Fredholm, Natalie D Mylniczenko, Butch KuKanich
Critically evaluating the pharmacokinetic behavior of a drug in the body provides crucial information about how to effectively treat a patient. Pharmacokinetic studies that exist in fish have primarily focused on drugs used to treat infectious disease, with minimal attention given to analgesic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) (n = 12). A single dose of meloxicam was administered either i.v. or i.m. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined times after drug injection...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643410/effect-of-antihypertensive-drugs-on-uric-acid-metabolism-in-patients-with-hypertension-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#12
S Ueno, T Hamada, S Taniguchi, N Ohtani, S Miyazaki, E Mizuta, A Ohtahara, K Ogino, A Yoshida, M Kuwabara, K Yoshida, H Ninomiya, H Kotake, F Taufiq, K Yamamoto, I Hisatome
Background: Hypertension is a common complication in patients with gout and/or hyperuricemia. Besides, hyperuricemia is a risk factor of gout as well as ischemic heart disease in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the risk of gout is modified by antihypertensive drugs. However, it remains unclear how antihypertensive agents affect uric acid metabolism. Purpose: In the present study, we investigated the uric acid metabolism in treated hypertensive patients to find out whether any of them would influence serum levels of uric acid...
December 2016: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642944/yia-03-02-adiponectin-mediated-epithelial-autophagy-attenuates-hypertensive-renal-fibrosis
#13
Cheng-Chao Ruan, Yan Li, Yu Ma, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ping-Jin Gao
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that adiponectin (APN) protects against hypertension-related cardiovascular disease. However, whether APN is involved in the regulation of hypertensive renal damage remains unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate how APN regulates renal epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) in desoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male APN knockout (APNKO) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 littermates were sc infused with DOCA pellet (50 mg for 21 day release)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631140/omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-biomarker-and-treatment-studies
#14
Erika F H Saunders, Christopher E Ramsden, Mostafa S Sherazy, Alan J Gelenberg, John M Davis, Stanley I Rapoport
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that inflammation is an important mediator of pathophysiology in bipolar disorder. The omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolic pathways participate in several inflammatory processes and have been linked through epidemiologic and clinical studies to bipolar disorder and its response to treatment. We review the data on PUFAs as biomarkers in bipolar disorder and n-3 PUFA used as treatment for bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and CINAHL were searched for articles on PUFA and bipolar disorder published in the English language through November 6, 2013, with an updated search conducted on August 20, 2015...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621733/hematopoietic-stem-cell-regulation-by-type-i-and-ii-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-acquired-aplastic-anemia
#15
REVIEW
Julianne N P Smith, Vikramjit S Kanwar, Katherine C MacNamara
Aplastic anemia (AA) occurs when the bone marrow fails to support production of all three lineages of blood cells, which are necessary for tissue oxygenation, infection control, and hemostasis. The etiology of acquired AA is elusive in the vast majority of cases but involves exhaustion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are usually present in the bone marrow in a dormant state, and are responsible for lifelong production of all cells within the hematopoietic system. This destruction is immune mediated and the role of interferons remains incompletely characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547397/the-use-of-finger-stick-blood-to-assess-lactate-in-critically-ill-surgical-patients
#16
Joseph Sabat, Scott Gould, Ezra Gillego, Anita Hariprashad, Christine Wiest, Shailyn Almonte, David J Lucido, Asaf Gave, I Michael Leitman, Simon D Eiref
BACKGROUND: Using finger-stick capillary blood to assess lactate from the microcirculation may have utility in treating critically ill patients. Our goals were to determine how finger-stick capillary lactate correlates with arterial lactate levels in patients from the surgical intensive care unit, and to compare how capillary and arterial lactate trend over time in patients undergoing resuscitation for shock. METHODS: Capillary whole blood specimens were obtained from finger-sticks using a lancet, and assessed for lactate via a handheld point-of-care device as part of an "investigational use only" study...
September 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513935/silica-triggered-autoimmunity-in-lupus-prone-mice-blocked-by-docosahexaenoic-acid-consumption
#17
Melissa A Bates, Christina Brandenberger, Ingeborg I Langohr, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Adam L Lock, Jack R Harkema, Andrij Holian, James J Pestka
Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (cSiO2, quartz) is etiologically linked to systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) and other human autoimmune diseases (ADs). In the female NZBWF1 mouse, a widely used animal model that is genetically prone to lupus, short-term repeated intranasal exposure to cSiO2 triggers premature initiation of autoimmune responses in the lungs and kidneys. In contrast to cSiO2's triggering action, consumption of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prevents spontaneous onset of autoimmunity in this mouse strain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508721/-op-4d-02-adiponectin-mediated-epithilial-autophagy-attenuates-hypertensive-renal-fibrosis
#18
C Ruan, Y Li, Y Ma, L-R Kong, Q Ge, D-L Zhu, P-J Gao
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that adiponectin (APN) protects against hypertension-related cardiovascular disease. However, whether APN is involved in the regulation of hypertensive renal damage remains unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate how APN regulates renal epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) in desoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice.(Figure is included in full-text article.) DESIGN AND METHOD: : Male APN knockout (APNKO) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 littermates were sc infused with DOCA pellet (50 mg for 21 day release)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418556/consumption-of-a-high-fat-high-calorie-meal-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-intracellular-co-localization-of-ppar-%C3%AE-mrna-and-protein-in-monocytes
#19
Andrea L Henning, Brian K McFarlin
Acute and habitual dietary habits contribute to the onset and progression of many forms of cardiovascular disease. Circulating peripheral blood monocytes have been a target of pre-clinical research related to the risk of atherosclerosis. Specifically, when monocytes migrate into the subendothelial space and endocytosize modified LDL (i.e. acLDL or oxLDL) they phenotypically transform into foam cells. The endocytosis of modified LDL is mediated by the scavenger receptor CD36, whose expression is in tern regulated by the transcription factor PPAR-γ...
July 12, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328690/the-continuum-of-spreading-depolarizations-in-acute-cortical-lesion-development-examining-le%C3%A3-o-s-legacy
#20
Jed A Hartings, C William Shuttleworth, Sergei A Kirov, Cenk Ayata, Jason M Hinzman, Brandon Foreman, R David Andrew, Martyn G Boutelle, K C Brennan, Andrew P Carlson, Markus A Dahlem, Christoph Drenckhahn, Christian Dohmen, Martin Fabricius, Eszter Farkas, Delphine Feuerstein, Rudolf Graf, Raimund Helbok, Martin Lauritzen, Sebastian Major, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Frank Richter, Eric S Rosenthal, Oliver W Sakowitz, Renán Sánchez-Porras, Edgar Santos, Michael Schöll, Anthony J Strong, Anja Urbach, M Brandon Westover, Maren Kl Winkler, Otto W Witte, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum of spreading mass depolarizations, a concept that is central to understanding their pathologic effects. Within minutes of acute severe ischemia, the onset of persistent depolarization triggers the breakdown of ion homeostasis and development of cytotoxic edema...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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