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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290298/quantification-of-mycobacterium-bovis-transmission-in-a-badger-vaccine-field-trial
#1
I Aznar, K Frankena, S J More, J O'Keeffe, G McGrath, M C M de Jong
In the UK and Ireland, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of badgers has been suggested as one of a number of strategies to control or even eradicate Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. In this manuscript, we present the results of a badger field trial conducted in Ireland and discuss how the novel trial design and analytical methods allowed the effects of vaccination on protection against infection and, more importantly, on transmission to be estimated. The trial area was divided into three zones North to South (A, B and C) where vaccination coverages of 0, 50 and 100%, respectively, were applied...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247724/anti-hbv-response-to-toll-like-receptor-7-agonist-gs-9620-is-associated-with-intrahepatic-aggregates-of-t-cells-and-b-cells
#2
Li Li, Vivian Barry, Stephane Daffis, Congrong Niu, Erik Huntzicker, Dorothy M French, Igor Mikaelian, Robert E Lanford, William E Delaney, Simon P Fletcher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: GS-9620, an oral agonist of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), is in clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). GS-9620 was previously shown to induced prolonged suppression of serum viral DNA and antigens in the chimpanzee and woodchuck models of CHB. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying these antiviral effects. METHODS: Archived liver biopsies and paired PBMC samples from a previous chimpanzee study were analyzed by RNA-Seq, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216720/testosterone-replacement-therapy-trt-and-its-effect-on-bone-marrow-how-serious-is-it-and-is-there-a-true-polyglobulia
#3
M Levcikova, J Breza, J Luha, J Dubravicky, E Kovacova, J Fillo
INTRODUCTION: TRT in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) had multiple positive effects and restore a quality of life of affected men. Polyglobulia is the most common dose-limiting adverse effect of TRT, but the mechanisms of TRT-mediated erythropoesis remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated long term haematological side effects of TRT: polyglobulia, elevated hemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht). METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, the authors treated 69 men with TDS and the average age 59 years and the follow-up period 81...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197607/inflammatory-response-modulation-through-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-during-surgically-induced-visceral-ischemia-in-an-animal-model
#4
Bianca Pane, Valerio Gazzola, Giovanni Spinella, Paola Bagnato, Federica Grillo, Valerio Gaetano Vellone, Domenico Palombo
BACKGROUND: Ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury represents one of the most severe complications in vascular surgery where cross-clamping of the aorta and subsequent visceral ischemia are a recurrent issue. The literature describes a family of nuclear receptors, i.e., peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), in particular PPARγ isoform, which are important modulators of vascular inflammation resulting from I/R injury. The aim of our study is to evaluate how PPARγ agonist administration could reduce local and systemic inflammatory response after I/R injury during aortic supraceliac clamping in animal model...
November 29, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194746/pharmacokinetics-of-tiludronate-in-horses-a-field-population-study
#5
M A Popot, M Jacobs, P Garcia, B Loup, D J Guyonnet, P L Toutain, L Bailly-Chouriberry, Y Bonnaire
BACKGROUND: Tiludronate is a bisphosphonate drug marketed to treat different bone conditions in horses. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure the plasma concentrations of tiludronate in a population of race and sport horses under field conditions, and using pharmacokinetic population modeling, to estimate detection times for doping control. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. METHODS: This study was conducted under field conditions on 39 race or sport horses diagnosed with bone conditions based on a lameness examination and treated with tiludronate...
December 1, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016703/%C3%AE-arrestin-2-mediates-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibiting-gpcr-independent-cell-survival-signalling
#6
Yimei Wang, Li Jin, Ying Song, Mao Zhang, Dan Shan, Yuli Liu, Meng Fang, Fengxiang Lv, Rui-Ping Xiao, Yan Zhang
Aims: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although timely restoration of coronary blood flow (reperfusion) is the most effective therapeutics of myocardial infarction, reperfusion causes further cardiac damage, i.e. ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. β-arrestins (Arrbs) have been traditionally defined as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling, but recent studies have shown that they are essential for G protein-independent, GPCR-mediated biased signalling...
November 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983021/sayani-fa-abrams-cs-how-i-treat-refractory-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-blood-2015-125-25-3860-3867
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982143/ifn-%C3%AE-alters-the-expression-of-diverse-immunity-related-genes-in-a-cell-culture-model-designed-to-represent-maturing-neutrophils
#8
Michael A Ellison, Christy M Gearheart, Christopher C Porter, Daniel R Ambruso
The cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is approved as a drug to treat chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and osteopetrosis and is also used in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes. Patients with CGD have defects in proteins of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase system. This leads to reduced production of microbicidal ROS by PMNs and recurrent life threatening infections. The goal of this study was to better understand how IFN-γ might support phagocyte function in these diseases, and to obtain information that might expand potential uses for IFN-γ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964519/inhibiting-prolactin-by-cabergoline-accelerates-mammary-gland-remodeling-during-the-early-dry-period-in-dairy-cows
#9
M Boutinaud, N Isaka, E Gandemer, P Lamberton, S Wiart, A I De Prado Taranilla, L M Sordillo, V Lollivier
The inhibition of prolactin release using cabergoline, a dopamine agonist, is an effective strategy to accelerate the changes in mammary secretion composition after drying-off. The objective of this study was to determine how cabergoline may affect mammary tissue remodeling during early involution. Holstein dairy cows were treated with either a single i.m. administration of 5.6 mg of cabergoline (Velactis, Ceva Santé Animale, Libourne, France, n = 7) or placebo (n = 7) at the time of drying-off. Mammary biopsy samples were collected 1 wk before drying-off (d -6), after 30 h of milk accumulation (d 1), and again 8 d following drying-off (d 8) to determine changes in gene expression, lactoferrin content, and cell turnover...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939717/apolipoprotein-a-i-modulates-atherosclerosis-through-lymphatic-vessel-dependent-mechanisms-in-mice
#10
Andreea Milasan, Gabriel Jean, François Dallaire, Jean-Claude Tardif, Yahye Merhi, Mary Sorci-Thomas, Catherine Martel
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneously injected lipid-free apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) reduces accumulation of lipid and immune cells within the aortic root of hypercholesterolemic mice without increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Lymphatic vessels are now recognized as prerequisite players in the modulation of cholesterol removal from the artery wall in experimental conditions of plaque regression, and particular attention has been brought to the role of the collecting lymphatic vessels in early atherosclerosis-related lymphatic dysfunction...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928840/a-cytokine-signal-inhibitor-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-enhances-cancer-metastasis-via-depletion-of-nk-cells-in-an-experimental-lung-metastasis-mouse-model-of-colon-cancer
#11
Hideki Shimaoka, Shinsuke Takeno, Kenji Maki, Takahide Sasaki, Suguru Hasegawa, Yuichi Yamashita
Current therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) relies on global suppression of the immune response or specific blockade of inflammatory cytokines. However, it is unclear how immunosuppressants affect patients with cancer. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of three biological agents, tofacitinib, anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) and etanercept, which are used for the treatment of RA diseases, on a tumor-bearing mouse model was investigated. The effect of the three agents was examined using a mouse lung-metastasis model with the murine colon 26 cancer cell line...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822103/current-progress-in-innovative-engineered-antibodies
#12
REVIEW
William R Strohl
As of May 1, 2017, 74 antibody-based molecules have been approved by a regulatory authority in a major market. Additionally, there are 70 and 575 antibody-based molecules in phase III and phase I/II clinical trials, respectively. These total 719 antibody-based clinical stage molecules include 493 naked IgGs, 87 antibody-drug conjugates, 61 bispecific antibodies, 37 total Fc fusion proteins, 17 radioimmunoglobulins, 13 antibody fragments, and 11 immunocytokines. New uses for these antibodies are being discovered each year...
August 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804607/effects-of-buprenorphine-in-the-adrenal-thyroid-and-cytokine-intra-operative-responses-in-a-rat-model-rattus-norvegicus-a-preliminary-study
#13
Nuno M Félix, Rodolfo O Leal, I Goy-Thollot, Ronald S Walton, Solange A Gil, Luísa M Mateus, Ana S Matos, Maria M R E Niza
OBJECTIVES: Buprenorphine is a common analgesic in experimental research, due to effectiveness and having few side-effects, including a limited influence in the immune and endocrine systems. However, how buprenorphine affects cytokine levels and the adrenal and thyroid response during general anesthesia and surgery is incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess whether buprenorphine modulated significantly those responses in rats submitted to general anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and surgical insertion of intravascular catheters...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798204/imaging-igf-i-uptake-in-growth-plate-cartilage-using-in-vivo-multiphoton-microscopy
#14
Maria A Serrat, Gabriela Ion
Bones elongate through endochondral ossification in cartilaginous growth plates located at ends of primary long bones. Linear growth ensues from a cascade of biochemical signals initiated by actions of systemic and local regulators on growth plate chondrocytes. Although cellular processes are well defined, there is a fundamental gap in understanding how growth regulators are physically transported from surrounding blood vessels into and through dense, avascular cartilage matrix. Intravital imaging using in vivo multiphoton microscopy is one promising strategy to overcome this barrier by quantitatively tracking molecular delivery to cartilage from the vasculature in real time...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777888/sildenafil-for-pulmonary-hypertension-in-neonates
#15
REVIEW
Lauren E Kelly, Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate (PPHN) is associated with high mortality. Currently, the therapeutic mainstay for PPHN consists of assisted ventilation and administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). However, nitric oxide is costly, and its use may not be appropriate in resource-poor settings. Approximately 30% of patients fail to respond to iNO. High concentrations of phosphodiesterases in the pulmonary vasculature have led to the use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as sildenafil or milrinone...
August 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740696/uniportal-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-thymectomy-and-resection-of-a-giant-thymoma-in-a-patient-witness-of-jehova
#16
Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Ching Feng Wu, Mercedes de la Torre
A rare case of a giant thymoma in a patient witness of Jehova treated by single port thoracoscopic resection is reported. A 78-year-old man with chest pain and mild dyspnea had been previously diagnosed with giant thymoma went to our hospital and asked for second opinion of operation. Computed tomography showed a 12.5 cm × 9.5 cm × 10 cm mass in the anterior mediastinum. Under the request of this patient, he is only willing to receive minimal invasive surgery without blood transfusion. Thirty-six hours after surgical resection, the patient safely discharged from our hospital without complication...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616565/lactated-ringer-s-solution-for-preventing-myocardial-reperfusion-injury
#17
Takashi Koyama
Reperfusion of ischemic myocardium is crucial for salvaging myocardial cells from ischemic cell death. However, reperfusion itself induces various deleterious effects on the ischemic myocardium. These effects, known collectively as reperfusion injury, comprise stunned myocardium, reperfusion-induced arrhythmia, microvascular reperfusion injury, and lethal reperfusion injury. No approach has proven successful in preventing any of these injuries in the clinical setting. My colleagues and I recently proposed a new postconditioning protocol, postconditioning with lactate-enriched blood (PCLeB), for the prevention of reperfusion injury...
June 2017: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577874/ras-genetic-variants-in-interaction-with-ace-inhibitors-drugs-influences-essential-hypertension-control
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Farzad Heidari, Ramachandran Vasudevan, Siti Zubaidah Mohd Ali, Patimah Ismail, Mohammad Arkani
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Essential Hypertension (EH) is a common disorder associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. To investigate how genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) influence EH control with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor drugs (ACEI). METHODS: A case-control, cross-sectional population-based nested study (n = 142) included hypertensive subjects treated with ACEI drugs, either lisinopril or enalapril (20 mg, once daily) as monotherapy for 24 weeks...
January 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572287/how-i-treat-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#19
REVIEW
Eric Solary, Raphael Itzykson
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic malignancy that may deserve specific management. Defined by a persistent peripheral blood monocytosis ≥1 × 109/L and monocytes accounting for ≥10% of the white blood cells, this aging-associated disease combines cell proliferation as a consequence of myeloid progenitor hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor with myeloid cell dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The only curative option for CMML remains allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
July 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550195/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-stimulates-distal-tubular-natriuresis-and-increases-in-circulating-sdf-1%C3%AE-1-67-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Julie A Lovshin, Harindra Rajasekeran, Yulyia Lytvyn, Leif E Lovblom, Shajiha Khan, Robel Alemu, Amy Locke, Vesta Lai, Huaibing He, Lucinda Hittle, Weixun Wang, Daniel J Drucker, David Z I Cherney
OBJECTIVE: Antihyperglycemic agents, such as empagliflozin, stimulate proximal tubular natriuresis and improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used in combination with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, we examined whether and how sitagliptin modulates fractional sodium excretion and renal and systemic hemodynamic function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 32 patients with type 2 diabetes in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
August 2017: Diabetes Care
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