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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801769/adult-onset-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-associated-with-ganglionic-acetylcholine-receptor-autoantibody
#1
Jonathan R Galli, Stacey L Clardy, M Mateo Paz Soldán
INTRODUCTION: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) may have a toxin induced, parainfectious, or paraneoplastic etiology. Several autoantibodies have been associated with adult-onset OMS, most commonly antineuronal nuclear antibody 2 (Ri), and it is most frequently associated with breast or small cell lung cancer. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (α3-AChR Ab) has not been described in association. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old woman was evaluated for symptoms of oscillopsia, tremor, gait imbalance, and mild cognitive deficits that began 6 weeks prior...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719854/functional-eye-movement-disorders
#2
D Kaski, A M Bronstein
Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660495/atypical-oculopalatal-tremor-as-the-presentation-of-vertebral-artery-dolichoectasia
#3
Kavin Vanikieti, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Panitha Jindahra, Sirin Lueangaram, Tanyatuth Padungkiatsagul
Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare dilative arteriopathy defined as elongation or widening of the intracranial vertebral and/or basilar arteries. The prevalence ranges from 0.06% to 5.8%. The majority of VBDs are asymptomatic. Downbeat nystagmus has been reported as a component of an infrequent ocular movement disorder in VBD. Nevertheless, oculopalatal tremor (OPT), delayed sequelae of a brainstem lesion, has never been demonstrated in VBD cases. Synchronized rhythmic involuntary contractions of the soft palate with an ocular pendular nystagmus, predominantly vertical pendular nystagmus, are the hallmark presentation...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638075/bilateral-vestibulopathy
#4
M Strupp, K Feil, M Dieterich, T Brandt
The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638073/acute-unilateral-loss-of-vestibular-function
#5
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638062/multisensory-integration-in-balance-control
#6
A M Bronstein
This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of multisensory integration in balance control in, both, health and disease. One of the best-studied examples is that of visuo-vestibular interaction, which is the ability of the visual system to enhance or suppress the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR suppression). Of clinical relevance, examination of VOR suppression is clinically useful because only central, not peripheral, lesions impair VOR suppression. Visual, somatosensory (proprioceptive), and vestibular inputs interact strongly and continuously in the control of upright balance...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527543/clinical-reasoning-a-57-year-old-woman-with-ataxia-and-oscillopsia-varicella-zoster-encephalitis
#7
Michael J Bradshaw, Don Gilden, Patrick Lavin, Subramaniam Sriram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524793/ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-in-refractory-short-lasting-unilateral-neuralgiform-headache-attacks
#8
Sarah Miller, Harith Akram, Susie Lagrata, Marwan Hariz, Ludvic Zrinzo, Manjit Matharu
SEE LEONE AND PROIETTI CECCHINI DOI101093/AWW233 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks are primary headache disorders characterized by short-lasting attacks of unilateral pain accompanied by autonomic features. A small minority are refractory to medical treatment. Neuroimaging studies have suggested a role of the posterior hypothalamic region in their pathogenesis. Previous case reports on deep brain stimulation of this region, now understood to be the ventral tegmental area, for this disorder are limited to a total of three patients...
October 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464452/titanium-t-plate-as-a-platform-for-globe-stabilization-in-acquired-nystagmus-and-oscillopsia-without-a-null-zone
#9
Brian C Tse, Craig A McKeown, David T Tse
A 49-year-old woman with debilitating nystagmus and oscillopsia failed conservative therapy. A titanium T-plate was anchored to the lateral orbital rim and cantilevered into the orbit where it was secured to the inferior rectus muscle tendon with a suture. After the procedure was performed on both eyes, the patient had significant decreases in the amplitudes of her nystagmus and oscillopsia, thereby improving her daily function. She had sustained duration of effect through 7 years of follow up. This novel surgical technique holds promise in the treatment of acquired nystagmus and debilitating oscillopsia for which conventional therapy may be ineffective...
July 21, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306762/therapy-of-vestibular-paroxysmia-superior-oblique-myokymia-and-ocular-neuromyotonia
#10
REVIEW
Michael Strupp, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt, Katharina Feil
Neurovascular compression syndromes are characterized by recurrent attacks of neurological symptoms and clinical signs depending on the cranial nerve affected. It is assumed that pulsatile compression of the nerve is caused mainly by an artery. The result is segmental demyelination of the transition zone or the central part of the cranial nerve, which is covered by oligodendrocytes, and subsequent ephaptic axonal transmission. Compression of the vestibular nerve can cause attacks of spinning or non-spinning vertigo: vestibular paroxysmia...
July 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273008/temporal-hollowing-and-other-adverse-effects-after-lateral-orbital-wall-decompression
#11
Hans Olav Ueland, Olav H Haugen, Eyvind Rødahl
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and late postoperative complications after lateral orbital wall decompression in a series of patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). METHODS: One hundred and three patients operated in the period 1999-2013 were invited to participate in the study, and 84 were included after a median (range) follow-up time of 124 (13-188) months. The patients were interviewed, and preoperative and postoperative data were collected from hospital records...
December 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182467/treatment-of-nystagmus-in-brainstem-cavernous-malformation-with-botulinum-toxin
#12
Yi-Ren Chen, Douglas Fredrick, Gary K Steinberg, Yaping J Liao
We report a long-term eye movement study of a 68-year-old female with pontomedullary junction cavernous malformation whose dysconjugate nystagmus was treated with retrobulbar botulinum toxin A injections. Sequential, bilateral retrobulbar injections of botulinum toxin A were performed. Injections immediately decreased oscillopsia and nystagmus, and improved visual acuities. One to three months following injection, three-dimensional infrared oculography measured a significant 39-100% (P = 0.001) decrease in nystagmus amplitudes at multiple dimensions...
2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159575/evaluation-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-graves%C3%A2-ophthalmopathy-before-and-after-orbital-decompression
#13
Lykke Iacobæus, Sven Sahlin
Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a potentially sight threatening orbital disease that can have a large negative impact on the quality of life of the patient. Studies on long-term effects of GO on the quality of life are few. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health-related quality of life in patients with GO, before and after orbital decompression surgery. This is a prospective, longitudinal, interventional study in which patients who had orbital decompression were given the Graves´ ophthalmopathy quality of life questionnaire (GO-QOL) before and after surgery...
June 2016: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158666/tinnitus-oscillopsia-and-hyperventilation-induced-nystagmus-vestibular-paroxysmia
#14
Bryan K Ward, Daniel R Gold
Vestibular paroxysmia is the name given to vascular compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Substantial evidence has been discovered in support of vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve as the etiology for trigeminal neuralgia, and effective therapies have been targeted to address this pathophysiology. Perhaps due to the common and often vaguely-described symptoms of dizziness and tinnitus, vascular compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve as a cause of symptoms has remained controversial. Recent clinical studies, however, have better defined diagnostic criteria for vestibular paroxysmia...
2016: Open Journal of Clinical & Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158101/evaluation-of-the-visual-function-of-patients-with-locked-in-syndrome-report-of-13-cases
#15
M Graber, G Challe, M F Alexandre, B Bodaghi, P LeHoang, V Touitou
Although visual function is thought to be preserved in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS), enabling them to communicate through vertical or lateral eye movements or blinking of the upper eyelid, nothing is known about the actual visual function of patients with LIS. The goal of this study is to evaluate the visual function of patients with LIS which may enable better evaluation of the state of consciousness of these patients. Patients with LIS seen in a single neurovascular unit of a tertiary center between 1997 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
May 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116725/vision-disturbances-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Fiona Costello
Visual disturbances are frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS), and include problems with how affected individuals see the world (afferent visual pathway symptoms) and how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). Optic neuritis is the most common afferent visual pathway manifestation of MS, from which visual recovery is often incomplete. Visual field defects caused by lesions in the retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway also occur, albeit less frequently...
April 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973594/bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-insights-in-etiologies-clinical-subtypes-and-diagnostics
#17
F Lucieer, P Vonk, N Guinand, R Stokroos, H Kingma, Raymond van de Berg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the different etiologies and clinical subtypes of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and the value of diagnostic tools in the diagnostic process of BVH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case review was performed on 154 patients diagnosed with BVH in a tertiary referral center, between 2013 and 2015. Inclusion criteria comprised (1) imbalance and/or oscillopsia during locomotion and (2) summated slow phase velocity of nystagmus of less than 20°/s during bithermal caloric tests...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936363/-nystagmus-clinical-characteristics-and-therapeutic-options
#18
B Käsmann-Kellner
This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of nystagmus and the differential diagnostics of congenital and acquired nystagmus. In addition, the principles of conservative, surgical and pharmacotherapy treatment options are described. The pathophysiological basis of nystagmus deepens the understanding of the etiology of the individual forms of nystagmus. The therapeutic approach to calming of nystagmus aims at an extension of the foveation time, which has the most significant impact on visual acuity...
March 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919071/orbito-masticatory-syndrome
#19
Pradeep Mettu, M Tariq Bhatti, Mays A El-Dairi, Evan B Price, Amy Y Lin, Ali Alaraj, Pete Setabutr, Heather E Moss
We describe 2 unique cases of visual symptoms occurring during mastication in patients with lateral orbital wall defects. A 57-year-old man reported intermittent double vision and oscillopsia after a right fronto-temporal-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy with osteotomy of the lesser wing of the sphenoid for a complex invasive pituitary adenoma. Proptosis of the right globe was present only during mastication. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a bony defect in the right lateral orbital wall. A 48-year-old man presented with transient diplopia and scotoma in the right eye elicited by chewing...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918638/hippocampal-gray-matter-volume-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure
#20
Martin Göttlich, Nico M Jandl, Andreas Sprenger, Jann F Wojak, Thomas F Münte, Ulrike M Krämer, Christoph Helmchen
Bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) is a severe chronic disorder of the labyrinth or the eighth cranial nerve characterized by unsteadiness of gait and disabling oscillopsia during head movements. According to animal data, vestibular input to the hippocampus is proposed to contribute to spatial memory and spatial navigation. Except for one seminal study showing the association of impaired spatial navigation and hippocampal atrophy, patient data in BVF are lacking. Therefore, we performed a voxel-wise comparison of the hippocampal gray matter volume (GMV) in a clinically representative sample of 27 patients with incomplete BVF and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls to test the hypothesis of hippocampal atrophy in BVF...
May 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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