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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340496/recent-developments-in-nanomedicine-for-melanoma-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Jian-Qin Tang, Xiao-Yang Hou, Chun-Sheng Yang, Ya-Xi Li, Yong Xin, Wen-Wen Guo, Zhi-Ping Wei, Yan-Qun Liu, Guan Jiang
Melanoma is a most aggressive skin cancer with limited therapeutic options and its incidence is increasing rapidly in recent years. The discovery and application of new targeted therapy agents have shown significant benefits. However, adverse side-effects and resistance to chemotherapy remain formidable challenges in the clinical treatment of malignant melanoma. Nanotherapeutics offers an important prospect of overcoming these drawbacks. The anti-tumoral applications of nanomedicine are varied, including those in chemotherapy, RNA interference, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340480/using-uhplc-q-trap-ms-as-a-complementary-technique-to-in-depth-mine-uplc-q-tof-ms-data-for-identifying-modified-nucleosides-in-urine
#2
Zhiwei Lu, Qing Wang, Meiling Wang, Shuang Fu, Qingqing Zhang, Zhixin Zhang, Huizhen Zhao, Yuehong Liu, Zhenhai Huang, Ziye Xie, Honghong Yu, Xiaoyan Gao
Modified nucleosides, metabolites of RNA, are potential biomarkers of cancer before the appearance of morphological abnormalities. It is of great significance to comprehensively detect and identify nucleosides in human urine for discovery of cancer biomarkers. However, the lower abundance, the greater polarity and the matrix effects make it difficult to detect urinary nucleosides. In this paper, an integrated method consisted of sample preparation followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) detection and primary identification, then ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UHPLC Q-Trap/MS) further identification and validation were introduced...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340459/transcriptional-profiling-of-porcine-granulosa-cells-exposed-to-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
#3
Agnieszka Sadowska, Anna Nynca, Monika Ruszkowska, Lukasz Paukszto, Kamil Myszczynski, Karina Orlowska, Sylwia Swigonska, Tomasz Molcan, Jan P Jastrzebski, Renata E Ciereszko
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic man-made chemical compound contaminating the environment. An exposure of living organisms to TCDD may result in numerous disorders, including reproductive pathologies. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of TCDD on the transcriptome of porcine granulosa cell line AVG-16. By employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) we aimed to identify genes potentially involved in the mechanism of TCDD action and toxicity in porcine granulosa cells...
March 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340379/knockdown-of-ska1-gene-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-human-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#4
Li-Juan Zhao, Hong-Li Yang, Ke-Yi Li, Yue-Hua Gao, Kai Dong, Zhong-Hao Liu, Le-Xin Wang, Bin Zhang
The spindle and kinetochore-associated complex subunit 1(SKA1) is a newly discovered gene, which has been associated with mitosis and tumorigenesis. However, its role insalivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is still unknown, and the invasive and metastatic mechanism in SACC is still unclear. To explore the molecular mechanism of SKA1 in the process of malignant proliferation and metastasis in adenoid cystic cancer (ACC) cells, we employed lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA to knockdown SKA1 in SACC-83 cells...
March 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340374/ebola-virus-persistence-as-a-new-focus-in-clinical-research
#5
REVIEW
Katie Caviness, Jens H Kuhn, Gustavo Palacios
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe acute human disease with high lethality. Viremia is typical during the acute disease phase. However, EBOV RNA can remain detectable in immune-privileged tissues for prolonged periods of time after clearance from the blood, suggesting EBOV may persist during convalescence and thereafter. Eliminating persistent EBOV is important to ensure full recovery of survivors and decrease the risk of outbreak re-ignition caused by EBOV spread from apparently healthy survivors to naive contacts...
March 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340355/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-asp-rna-promotes-viral-latency-by-recruiting-the-polycomb-repressor-complex-2-and-promoting-nucleosome-assembly
#6
Juan C Zapata, Federica Campilongo, Robert A Barclay, Catherine DeMarino, Maria D Iglesias-Ussel, Fatah Kashanchi, Fabio Romerio
Various epigenetic marks at the HIV-1 5'LTR suppress proviral expression and promote latency. Cellular antisense transcripts known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) recruit the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) to gene promoters, which catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3), thus promoting nucleosome assembly and suppressing gene expression. We found that an HIV-1 antisense transcript expressed from the 3'LTR and encoding the antisense protein ASP promotes proviral latency. Expression of ASP RNA reduced HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells...
March 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340352/human-epistatic-interaction-controls-il7r-splicing-and-increases-multiple-sclerosis-risk
#7
Gaddiel Galarza-Muñoz, Farren B S Briggs, Irina Evsyukova, Geraldine Schott-Lerner, Edward M Kennedy, Tinashe Nyanhete, Liuyang Wang, Laura Bergamaschi, Steven G Widen, Georgia D Tomaras, Dennis C Ko, Shelton S Bradrick, Lisa F Barcellos, Simon G Gregory, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder where T cells attack neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) leading to demyelination and neurological deficits. A driver of increased MS risk is the soluble form of the interleukin-7 receptor alpha chain gene (sIL7R) produced by alternative splicing of IL7R exon 6. Here, we identified the RNA helicase DDX39B as a potent activator of this exon and consequently a repressor of sIL7R, and we found strong genetic association of DDX39B with MS risk. Indeed, we showed that a genetic variant in the 5' UTR of DDX39B reduces translation of DDX39B mRNAs and increases MS risk...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340349/structure-reveals-mechanisms-of-viral-suppressors-that-intercept-a-crispr-rna-guided-surveillance-complex
#8
Saikat Chowdhury, Joshua Carter, MaryClare F Rollins, Sarah M Golden, Ryan N Jackson, Connor Hoffmann, Lyn'Al Nosaka, Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Karen L Maxwell, Alan R Davidson, Elizabeth R Fischer, Gabriel C Lander, Blake Wiedenheft
Genetic conflict between viruses and their hosts drives evolution and genetic innovation. Prokaryotes evolved CRISPR-mediated adaptive immune systems for protection from viral infection, and viruses have evolved diverse anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that subvert these immune systems. The adaptive immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (type I-F) relies on a 350 kDa CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to bind foreign DNA and recruit a trans-acting nuclease for target degradation. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Csy complex bound to two different Acr proteins, AcrF1 and AcrF2, at an average resolution of 3...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340348/the-evolutionary-pathway-to-virulence-of-an-rna-virus
#9
Adi Stern, Ming Te Yeh, Tal Zinger, Matt Smith, Caroline Wright, Guy Ling, Rasmus Nielsen, Andrew Macadam, Raul Andino
Paralytic polio once afflicted almost half a million children each year. The attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) has enabled world-wide vaccination efforts, which resulted in nearly complete control of the disease. However, poliovirus eradication is hampered globally by epidemics of vaccine-derived polio. Here, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental strategy that describes the molecular events leading from OPV to virulent strains. We discover that similar evolutionary events occur in most epidemics...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340337/structural-basis-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-initiation
#10
Christoph Engel, Tobias Gubbey, Simon Neyer, Sarah Sainsbury, Christiane Oberthuer, Carlo Baejen, Carrie Bernecky, Patrick Cramer
Transcription initiation at the ribosomal RNA promoter requires RNA polymerase (Pol) I and the initiation factors Rrn3 and core factor (CF). Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to obtain a molecular model for basal Pol I initiation. The three-subunit CF binds upstream promoter DNA, docks to the Pol I-Rrn3 complex, and loads DNA into the expanded active center cleft of the polymerase. DNA unwinding between the Pol I protrusion and clamp domains enables cleft contraction, resulting in an active Pol I conformation and RNA synthesis...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340332/super-elongation-complex-promotes-early-hiv-transcription-and-its-function-is-modulated-by-p-tefb
#11
Alona Kuzmina, Simona Krasnopolsky, Ran Taube
Early work on the control of transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laid the foundation for our current knowledge of how RNA Polymerase II is released from promoter-proximal pausing sites and transcription elongation is enhanced. The viral Tat activator recruits Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) and Super Elongation Complex (SEC) that jointly drive transcription elongation. While substantial progress in understanding the role of SEC in HIV gene transcription elongation has been obtained, defining of the mechanisms that govern SEC functions is still limited, and the role of SEC in controlling HIV transcription in the absence of Tat is less clear...
February 17, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340330/same-same-but-different-the-evolution-of-tbp-in-archaea-and-their-eukaryotic-offspring
#12
Fabian Blombach, Dina Grohmann
Transcription factors TBP and TF(II)B assemble with RNA polymerase at the promoter DNA forming the initiation complex. Despite a high degree of conservation, the molecular binding mechanisms of archaeal and eukaryotic TBP and TF(II)B differ significantly. Based on recent biophysical data, we speculate how the mechanisms co-evolved with transcription regulation and TBP multiplicity.
February 8, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340271/snp-detection-using-rna-sequences-of-candidate-genes-associated-with-puberty-in-cattle
#13
M M Dias, A Cánovas, C Mantilla-Rojas, D G Riley, P Luna-Nevarez, S J Coleman, S E Speidel, R M Enns, A Islas-Trejo, J F Medrano, S S Moore, M R S Fortes, L T Nguyen, B Venus, I S D P Diaz, F R P Souza, L F S Fonseca, F Baldi, L G Albuquerque, M G Thomas, H N Oliveira
Fertility traits, such as heifer pregnancy, are economically important in cattle production systems, and are therefore, used in genetic selection programs. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) data from ovary, uterus, endometrium, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, liver, longissimus dorsi muscle, and adipose tissue in 62 candidate genes associated with heifer puberty in cattle. RNA-Seq reads were assembled to the bovine reference genome (UMD 3...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340266/rna-seq-based-transcriptome-and-the-reproduction-related-genes-for-the-aphid-schlechtendalia-chinensis-hemiptera-aphididae
#14
P Liu, Z X Yang, X M Chen, P Yang
Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340181/different-expression-patterns-of-sperm-motility-related-genes-in-testis-of-diploid-and-tetraploid-cyprinid-fish1
#15
Fangzhou Hu, Kang Xu, Yunfan Zhou, Chang Wu, Shi Wang, Jun Xiao, Min Wen, Rurong Zhao, Kaikun Luo, Min Tao, Wei Duan, Shaojun Liu
Sperm motility is an important standard to measure the fertility of male. In our previous study, we found that the diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrid (4nAT) had longer durations of rapid and slow progressive motility than haploid spermatozoa from common carp (COC). In this study, to explore sperm motility-related molecular mechanisms, we compared the testis tissues transcriptomes from two years old male COC and 4nAT. The RNA-seq data revealed that 2985 genes were differentially expressed between COC and 4nAT, including 2216 up-regulated and 769 down-regulated genes in 4nAT...
March 7, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340109/mth1-an-8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine-triphosphatase-and-myh-a-dna-glycosylase-cooperate-to-inhibit-mutations-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-of-ionising-radiation
#16
Sara Shakeri Manesh, Traimate Sangsuwan, Ali Pour Khavari, Asal Fotouhi, S Noushin Emami, Siamak Haghdoost
Our previous results showed that in addition to the immediate interaction of ionising radiation with DNA (direct and indirect effect), low-dose and chronic low-dose rate of irradiation induce endogenous oxidative stress. During oxidative stress, free radicals react with DNA, nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), proteins and lipids, and modify their structures. The MYH and MTH1 genes play important roles in preventing mutations induced by 8-hydroxy-guanine, which is an oxidised product of guanine. In this study, we used short-hairpin RNA to permanently knockdown MYH and MTH1 proteins in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells...
March 16, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339981/transcriptome-analysis-of-comb-and-testis-from-rose-comb-silky-chicken-r1-r1-and-beijing-fatty-wild-type-chicken-r-r
#17
Y Wang, J Li, C Feng, Y Zhao, X Hu, N Li
Rose-comb was one of the chicken comb-variants first used by Bateson and Punnet in 1902 to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance in animals. Rose-comb is a monogenic trait that has been widely described in chickens. It is caused by a large structural rearrangement that leads to mis-expression of transcription factor MNR2 on chromosome 7. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects in homozygous roosters, which is associated with poor sperm mobility. It was postulated that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at the distal inversion breakpoint...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#18
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339833/vdac1-is-a-molecular-target-in-glioblastoma-with-its-depletion-leading-to-reprogrammed-metabolism-and-reversed-oncogenic-properties
#19
Tasleem Arif, Yakov Kerlin, Itay Nakdimon, Daniel Benharroch, Avijit Paul, Daniela Dadon-Klein, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor with frequent relapses and a high mortality, still awaits an effective treatment. Like many cancers, GBM cells acquire oncogenic properties, including metabolic reprogramming, vital for growth. As such, tumor metabolism is an emerging avenue for cancer therapy. One relevant target is the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a mitochondrial protein controlling cell energy and metabolic homeostasis. Methods...
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339803/transcriptional-comparison-of-myogenesis-in-leghorn-and-low-score-normal-embryos
#20
J Griffin, N St-Pierre, M S Lilburn, M Wick
In a previous study, we reported on a quantitative transcriptomic method which confirmed the temporal transcription of developmental fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (fsMyHC) embryonic isoforms in the embryonic Pectoralis major (PM) of the Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL). The objective of the current study was to further investigate the transcriptional events underlying embryonic PM growth in the SCWL and a genotype exhibiting partial muscular dystrophy, the Low Score Normal (LSN). We hypothesized that within the SCWL and LSN embryos, there would be differences in the temporal transcription of the fsMyHC isoforms and other myogenic regulatory genes...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
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