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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778014/expression-of-grape-acs1-in-tomato-decreases-ethylene-and-alters-the-balance-between-auxin-and-ethylene-during-shoot-and-root-formation
#1
Xia Ye, Mengmeng Fu, Yu Liu, Dongliang An, Xianbo Zheng, Bin Tan, Jidong Li, Jun Cheng, Wei Wang, Jiancan Feng
Ethylene plays an important role in the grape rachis, where its production can be 10 times higher than in the berry. VvACS1 is the only rachis-specific ACC synthase (ACS) gene, and its expression is coincident with ethylene production in the rachis of Vitis vinifera 'Thompson seedless'. VvACS1 was cloned and ectopically expressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker'). Lateral buds were increased in two- or four-week-old 35s∷VvACS1 transgenic tomato plants after transplanting. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the transgenic tomato plants showed higher expression of the VvACS1 gene in the flowers, leaves, rachis, and fruits...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777862/revealing-a-raf-functions-through-its-interactome
#2
Xin-Yu Zhang, Hui Guo, Bing Han, Xu-Min Zhang, Ying Huang, Yang Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao-Xi Guo, Qian Hao, Su An, Tian-RuiXu
A-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family. Unlike B-Raf and C-Raf, the functions of A-Raf remain obscure. To gain more insight into the biological functions of A-Raf, we investigated the A-Raf interactome using proteomics. We found 132 proteins that interact with A-Raf and confirmed the interaction of 12 of these proteins with A-Raf by western blotting. Our data suggested that A-Raf regulates apoptosis, RNA catabolism, GTPase activity, and cell adhesion by interacting with proteins located in different cellular compartments...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777802/derivation-and-characterization-of-a-ucp1-reporter-human-es-cell-line
#3
Suranjit Mukherjee, Tuo Zhang, Lauretta A Lacko, Lei Tan, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Jason M Butler, Shuibing Chen
Interest in human brown fat as a novel therapeutic target to tackle the growing obesity and diabetes epidemic has increased dramatically in recent years. While much insight into brown fat biology has been gained from murine cell lines and models, few resources are available to study human brown fat in vitro, which makes the need for new ways to derive and study human brown adipocytes imperative. Human ES cell based reporter systems present an excellent tool to identify, mark, and purify cell populations of choice...
April 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777795/sirna-in-ovarian-cancer-delivery-strategies-and-targets-for-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Dirk van den Brand, Vicky Mertens, Leon F A G Massuger, Roland Brock
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, and the sixth leading cause of cancer related death in women overall. Despite improved surgical techniques and advances in chemotherapy, mortality hardly decreased over the last twenty years. The major problem is that (micro)metastases persevere in the abdominal cavity, causing incurable tumor recurrence. Therefore, there is an imminent need for new therapeutic strategies. Oligonucleotide (ON) based therapies such as RNA interference (RNAi) provide the possibility to specifically address disease-related pathways...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777785/psmd2-regulates-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-cell-cycle-progression-by-modulating-p21-and-p27-proteasomal-degradation
#5
Yunhai Li, Jing Huang, Beilei Zeng, Dejuan Yang, Jiazheng Sun, Xuedong Yin, Mengqi Lu, Zhu Qiu, Weiyan Peng, Tingxiu Xiang, Hongzhong Li, Guosheng Ren
Alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and UPS-associated proteins have been implicated in the development of many human malignancies. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of 797 UPS-related genes using HiSeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified that PSMD2 was markedly upregulated in breast cancer. High PSMD2 expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that transcriptome signatures involving proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were critically enriched in specimens with elevated PSMD2...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777657/mcv-mir-m1-targets-the-host-cell-immune-response-resulting-in-the-attenuation-of-neutrophil-chemotaxis
#6
P Akhbari, D Tobin, K Poterlowicz, W Roberts, J R Boyne
Virus-encoded miRNAs are emerging as key regulators of persistent infection and host-cell immune evasion. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), the predominant aetiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), encodes a single miRNA, MCV-miR-M1, which targets the oncogenic MCPyV large T antigen (LT). MCV-miR-M1 has previously been shown to play an important role in establishment of long-term infection, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A key unanswered question is whether, in addition to auto-regulating LT, MCV-miR-M1 also targets cellular transcripts to orchestrate an environment conducive for persistent infection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777514/a-modified-yeast-three-hybrid-system-enabling-both-positive-and-negative-selections
#7
Christopher P Wallis, Aleksandra Filipovska, Oliver Rackham
OBJECTIVE: To increase the reporter repertoire of the yeast three-hybrid system and introduce the option of negative selection. RESULTS: Two new versions of the yeast three-hybrid system were made by modifying the MS2 coat RNA-binding protein and fusing it to the Gal4 DNA-binding protein. This allows the use of Gal4 inducible reporters to measure RNA-protein interactions. We introduced two mutations, V29I and N55K into the tandem MS2 dimer and an 11 amino acid deletion to increase RNA-protein affinity and inhibit capsid formation...
May 18, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777445/a-reverse-genetics-system-for-enterovirus-d68-using-human-rna-polymerase-i
#8
Minglei Pan, Shuai Gao, Zhenwei Zhou, Keke Zhang, Sihua Liu, Zhiyun Wang, Tao Wang
Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a highly contagious virus, which causes respiratory tract infections. However, no effective vaccines are currently available for controlling EV-D68 infection. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system to recover EV-D68 minireplicons and infectious EV-D68 from transfected plasmids using the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) promoter. The EV-D68 minireplicons contained the luciferase reporter gene, which flanked by the non-coding regions of the EV-D68 RNA. The luciferase signals could be detected in cells after transfection and Pol I promoter-mediated luciferase signal was significantly stronger than that mediated by the T7 promoter...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777364/cell-division-and-turgor-mediate-enhanced-plant-growth-in-arabidopsis-plants-treated-with-the-bacterial-signalling-molecule-lumichrome
#9
Motlalepula Pholo, Beatrix Coetzee, Hans J Maree, Philip R Young, James R Lloyd, Jens Kossmann, Paul N Hills
Transcriptomic analysis indicates that the bacterial signalling molecule lumichrome enhances plant growth through a combination of enhanced cell division and cell enlargement, and possibly enhances photosynthesis. Lumichrome (7,8 dimethylalloxazine), a novel multitrophic signal molecule produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria, has previously been shown to elicit growth promotion in different plant species (Phillips et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:12275-12280, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.22.12275 , 1999)...
May 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777235/response-of-skeletal-muscle-ucp2-expression-during-metabolic-adaptation-to-caloric-restriction
#10
Sascha Heinitz, Paolo Piaggi, Shanshan Yang, Susan Bonfiglio, Jason Steel, Jonathan Krakoff, Susanne B Votruba
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spendthrift vs. thrifty individuals expend more energy and experience greater weight loss during caloric restriction (CR). Adaptive mechanisms in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and on hormone level modulate energy expenditure (EE) during weight loss. Metabolic mechanisms underlying the variability in EE during CR are unclear. The present study explored whether during long-term CR (i) gene expression changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue relate with the individual EE response and weight loss, and (ii) altered catecholamine and FGF21-concentrations are associated with measures of metabolic adaptation...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777111/knockdown-of-rna-interference-pathway-genes-impacts-the-fitness-of-western-corn-rootworm
#11
Courtney Davis-Vogel, Angel Ortiz, Lisa Procyk, Jonathan Robeson, Adane Kassa, Yiwei Wang, Emily Huang, Carl Walker, Amit Sethi, Mark E Nelson, Dipali G Sashital
Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is a serious agricultural pest known for its high adaptability to various management strategies, giving rise to a continual need for new control options. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal RNAs represents a novel mode of action for rootworm management that is dependent on the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways of the insect for efficacy. Preliminary evidence suggests that western corn rootworm could develop broad resistance to all insecticidal RNAs through changes in RNAi pathway genes; however, the likelihood of field-evolved resistance occurring through this mechanism remains unclear...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777089/human-plasma-and-serum-extracellular-small-rna-reference-profiles-and-their-clinical-utility
#12
Klaas E A Max, Karl Bertram, Kemal Marc Akat, Kimberly A Bogardus, Jenny Li, Pavel Morozov, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Xin Li, Zachary R Weiss, Azadeh Azizian, Anuoluwapo Sopeyin, Thomas G Diacovo, Catherine Adamidi, Zev Williams, Thomas Tuschl
Circulating extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have the potential to serve as biomarkers for a wide range of medical conditions. However, limitations in existing exRNA isolation methods and a lack of knowledge on parameters affecting exRNA variability in human samples may hinder their successful discovery and clinical implementation. Using combinations of denaturants, reducing agents, proteolysis, and revised organic extraction, we developed an automated, high-throughput approach for recovery of exRNAs and exDNA from the same biofluid sample...
May 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777057/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-activity-regulates-mrna-methylation-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Kelsie J Faulds, Jennifer N Egelston, Laura J Sedivy, Matthew K Mitchell, Sanjana Garimella, Hanna Kozlowski, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Jeremy L Balsbaugh, Christopher J Phiel
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) activity regulates multiple signal transduction pathways, and is also a key component of the network responsible for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Genetic deletion of Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β or inhibition of Gsk-3 activity via small molecules promotes stem cell pluripotency, yet the mechanism underlying the role for Gsk-3 in this process remains ambiguous. Another cellular process that has been shown to affect stem cell pluripotency is mRNA methylation (m6 A). Here, we describe an intersection between these components - the regulation of m6 A by Gsk-3...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777050/the-yeast-telomerase-recruitment-module-requires-a-specific-rna-architecture
#14
Nancy Laterreur, Bruno Lemieux, Hannah Neumann, Jean-Christophe Berger-Dancause, Daniel Lafontaine, Raymund J Wellinger
Telomerases are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes that are related to reverse transcriptases. While they maintain genome stability, their composition varies significantly between species. Yeast telomerase RNPs contain an RNA that is comparatively large and its overall folding shows long helical segments with distal functional parts. Here we investigated the essential stem IVc module of the budding yeast telomerase RNA, called Tlc1. The distal part of stem IVc includes a conserved sequence element CS2a and structurally conserved features to which bind the Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 proteins and which together function analogously to the P3 domains of the RNase P/MRP RNPs...
May 18, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776974/the-long-noncoding-rna-lncparp1-contributes-to-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-upregulation-of-parp1
#15
Heqiang Qi, Yuyan Lu, Jie Lv, Huita Wu, Jing Lu, Changmao Zhang, Sheng Zhang, Qing Bao, Xiuming Zhang, Chengrong Xie, Zhenyu Yin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for a large proportion of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The functional impact of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human cancer is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel oncogenic lncRNA termed lncPARP1, which was significantly upregulated in HCC. Increase of lncPARP1 expression was associated with age, AFP levels, tumor size, recurrence, and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Loss-of-function approaches showed that knockdown of lncPARP1 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, while induced apoptosis in HCC cells...
May 18, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776561/circulating-micrornas-as-emerging-cardiac-biomarkers-responsive-to-acute-exercise
#16
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Alberto Dávalos, Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, Laura Amado-Rodríguez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Ana Montero, Ángela García-González, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés, Maria Eugenia Heras, Araceli Boraita Pérez, Ángel E Díaz-Martínez, Natalia Úbeda, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are mediators of intercellular communication with great potential as cardiac biomarkers. The analysis of c-miRNAs in response to physiological stress, such as exercise, would provide valuable information for clinical practice and a deeper understanding of the molecular response to physical activity. Here, we analysed for the first time the acute exercise response of c-miRNAs reported as biomarkers of cardiac disease in a well-characterized cohort of healthy active adults...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776440/radiological-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis-associated-to-limited-cutaneous-systemic-sclerosis-a-case-report
#17
D Hassoun, S Dirou, P P Arrigoni, C Durant, M Hamidou, A Néel, C Agard
BACKGROUND: Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a very rare interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by progressive fibrotic lesions of the visceral pleura and the sub-pleural parenchyma, affecting predominantly the upper lobes. PPFE may occur in different contextes like bone marrow or lung transplantations, but also in the context of telomeropathy with mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) or regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) genes...
May 18, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776426/detection-of-zika-virus-infection-among-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-in-the-north-of-peru
#18
Claudia Weilg, Lucinda Troyes, Zoila Villegas, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Fernando Mazulis, Ammy Febres, Mario Troyes, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: To report an outbreak of ZIKV infection among asymptomatic pregnant women during 2016 in the city of Jaen, Cajamarca. RESULTS: Zika virus RNA was detected in 3.2% (n = 36) of cases by RT-PCR. The mean age of patients positive for ZIKV infection was 29.6 years. 7 patients (19.4%) infected with ZIKV were in their first-trimester of gestation, 13 (36.1%) were in their second-trimester, and 16 (44%) were in their third-trimester. All of the infected pregnant women were asymptomatic...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776409/calcitriol-downregulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-through-histone-deacetylase-activation-in-hl-1-atrial-myocytes
#19
Ting-Wei Lee, Ting-I Lee, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). FGF-2 was reported to induce cardiac hypertrophy through activation of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Multiple laboratory findings indicate that calcitriol may be a potential treatment for CVDs. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether calcitriol regulates FGFR1 expression to modulate the effects of FGF-2 signaling in cardiac myocytes and explored the potential regulatory mechanism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776384/competence-of-mosquitoes-native-to-the-united-kingdom-to-support-replication-and-transmission-of-rift-valley-fever-virus
#20
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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