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Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Cyrille Finyom Djoko
Food animals can be reservoirs of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and are involved in their zoonotic transmission through the food chain. In Africa, there is a dearth of information about the food safety issues associated with their dissemination in the farm-to-plate continuum. This study sought to determine and compare the carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and clonal relatedness of circulating MRS strains among pigs and exposed workers in Cameroon and South Africa. A total of 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples collected from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 6 mg/l cefoxitin...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jeong A Choi, Yoon Jeon Kim, Bo-Ra Seo, Jae-Young Koh, Young Hee Yoon
Purpose: We investigated whether zinc dyshomeostasis, a known mechanism of cell death in acute brain injury, contributes to the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and photoreceptor cell death in experimental retinal detachment (RD). Methods: RD was induced in mice by subretinal injection of 1:1 mixture of balanced salt solution and 1% sodium hyaluronate. On days 1 and 3 post RD, eyeballs were sectioned and examined for cell death (TUNEL staining), the degree of hypoxic insult (Hypoxyprobe staining), free zinc levels (TFL-Zn staining), and MMP-2 and -9 activity (gelatin zymography)...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lydia Sauer, Rebekah H Gensure, Karl M Andersen, Lukas Kreilkamp, Gregory S Hageman, Martin Hammer, Paul S Bernstein
Purpose: To investigate fundus autofluorescence (FAF) lifetimes in patients with nonexudative AMD. Methods: A total of 150 eyes of 110 patients (mean age: 73.2 ± 10.7 years) with nonexudative AMD, as well as a healthy group of 57 eyes in 38 subjects (mean age: 66.5 ± 8.7 years), were included. Investigations were conducted at the University Eye Clinic in Jena, Germany, as well as the Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis-based fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO)...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shan Zuidema, Wilfred M Wollheim, Madeleine M Mineau, Mark B Green, Robert J Stewart
Chloride contamination of rivers due to nonpoint sources is increasing throughout developed temperate regions due to road salt application in winter. We developed a river-network model of chloride loading to watersheds to estimate road salt application rates and investigated the meteorological factors that control riverine impairment by chloride at concentrations above thresholds protective of aquatic organisms. Chloride loading from road salt was simulated in the Merrimack River watershed in New Hampshire, which has gradients in development density...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Amrita V Pai, Crystal A West, Aline Maria Arlindo de Souza, Xi Cheng, David A West, Hong Ji, Xie Wu, Chris Baylis, Kathryn Sandberg
Inbred salt-sensitive (SS) rats developed by John Rapp and distributed by Harlan (SS/JrHsd) were shown to model ovariectomy-induced hypertension since on a low sodium (LS) diet, ovariectomized SS (SS-OVX) animals became hypertensive in contrast to their sham-operated (SS-SHAM) normotensive littermates. After Harlan merged with Envigo in 2015, inconsistencies in the LS normotensive phenotype were reported. To further investigate these inconsistencies, we studied the effects of ovariectomy on SS and salt-resistant (SR) rats purchased from Envigo (SS/JrHsd/Env) between 2015-2017...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Feng Jiang, Maxime A Siegler, Xiaobo Sun, Lin Jiang, Célia Fonseca Guerra, Elisabeth Bouwman
The redox interconversion between Co(III) thiolate and Co(II) disulfide compounds has been investigated experimentally and computationally. Reactions of cobalt(II) salts with disulfide ligand L1 SSL1 (L1 SSL1 = di-2-(bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino)-ethyl disulfide) result in the formation of either the high-spin cobalt(II) disulfide compound [CoII 2 (L1 SSL1 )Cl4 ] or a low-spin, octahedral cobalt(III) thiolate compound, such as [CoIII (L1 S)(MeCN)2 ](BF4 )2 . Addition of thiocyanate anions to a solution containing the latter compound yielded crystals of [CoIII (L1 S)(NCS)2 ]...
July 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Kaushik Bera, Samarpan Maiti, Mritunjoy Maity, Chitra Mandal, Nakul C Maiti
With an aim to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), nontargeted delivery, and drug toxicity, we developed a new nanochemotherapeutic system with tetrasodium salt of meso -tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) armored on gold nanoparticles (TPPS-AuNPs). The nanocarrier is able to be selectively internalized within tumor cells than in normal cells followed by endocytosis and therefore delivers the antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) particularly to the nucleus of diseased cells. The embedment of TPPS on the gold nanosurface provides excellent stability and biocompatibility to the nanoparticles...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Lin-Lin Chen, Mei-Ling Zheng, Yong-Chao Zheng, Feng Jin, Qian-Qian Chai, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Xian-Wei Meng, Yan-Hong Liu, Xuan-Ming Duan
In this study, two kinds of novel carbazole-based ethynylpyridine salts: 3,6-bis[2-(1-methylpyridinium)ethynyl]-9-pentyl-carbazole diiodide (BMEPC) and 3,6-bis[2-(1-methylpyridinium)ethynyl]-9-methyl-carbazole diiodide (BMEMC) have been employed as photosensitizers owing to their excellent antibacterial activity. These molecules possess symmetric A-π-D-π-A-type structures, which would bring in the unique optical properties. The inhibition zone measurement of a gradient concentration from 0 to 100 μM showed BMEPC and BMEMC photoinduced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
JingJing Wu, Conghua Qiu, Yaxin Ren, Renxiang Yan, Xiuyun Ye, Guozeng Wang
A novel glycosyl hydrolase family 11 xylanase gene, xynMF13A , was cloned from Phoma sp. MF13, a xylanase-producing fungus isolated from mangrove sediment. xynMF13A was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris , and the recombinant XynMF13A (rXynMF13A) was purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The temperature and pH optima of purified rXynMF13A were 45 °C and pH 5.0, respectively. rXynMF13A showed a high level of salt tolerance, with maximal enzyme activity being seen at 0.5 M NaCl and as much as 53% of maximal activity at 4 M NaCl...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Zhihao Bi, Bin Lai, Yi Zhao, Lifeng Yan
Lignocellulose is a complex of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, whose overall conversion is still a challenge, especially by a fast and efficient method. Here, a very simple method has been developed using acidic molten salt of zinc chloride hydrate as the solvent and catalyst for complete disassembly of lignocellulose at 95 °C and atmospheric pressure in 12 min. The major products are lignin and monosaccharides, such as glucose and xylose. It was found that high-purity lignin in yield of about 20 wt % can be obtained with various biomass, and the maximum yield of glucose from bamboo is 40...
March 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Mayank Joshi, Angshuman Roy Choudhury
The objective of pharmaceutical cocrystallization is to create crystalline analogues that have vastly different properties, such as solubility, melting point, stability, and bioavailability from that observed in the pure active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Amoxapine is a benzoxazepine derivative and exhibits antidepressant properties. Amoxapine has very low solubility in water, so it was cocrystallized with natural acids in a 1:1 ratio in appropriate solvents by the solvent-drop grinding method. Single crystals of cocrystals were grown by the solvent evaporation method in water, ethanol, and methanol...
February 28, 2018: ACS Omega
Patrick J Snyder, Pramod Reddy, Ronny Kirste, Dennis R LaJeunesse, Ramon Collazo, Albena Ivanisevic
The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) of the n-type Ga-polar GaN was used to stimulate PC12 cells noninvasively. Analysis of the III-V semiconductor material by atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoconductivity, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy quantified bulk and surface charge, as well as chemical composition before and after exposure to UV light and cell culture media. The semiconductor surface was made photoconductive by illumination with UV light and experienced PPC, which was utilized to stimulate PC12 cells in vitro...
January 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Pauric Bannigan, Edel Durack, Conor Madden, Matteo Lusi, Sarah P Hudson
Clofazimine is an antimycobacterial agent that is routinely used for the treatment of leprosy. Clofazimine has also been shown to have high clinical potential for the treatment of many Gram-positive pathogens, including those that exhibit high levels of antibiotic resistance in the medical community. The use of clofazimine against these pathogens has largely been limited by the inherently poor water solubility of the drug substance. In this work, the possibility of repurposing and reformulating clofazimine to maximize its clinical potential is investigated...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Gowtham Sathyanarayanan, Mafalda Rodrigues, David Limón, Romén Rodriguez-Trujillo, Josep Puigmartí-Luis, Lluïsa Pérez-García, David B Amabilino
It is shown here that controlled mixing of a gelator, drug, solvent, and antisolvent in a microfluidic channel leads to faster setting gels and more robust materials with longer release profiles than the physical gels of the same composition obtained using random mixing in solution. The system is similar to a related gelator system we had studied previously, but we were unable to apply the same gelling procedure because of the instability of the colloid caused by the small structural modification (length of the alkyl chain in the bis-imidazolium head group)...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Tadesse M Abegaz, Ousman A Abdela, Akshaya S Bhagavathula, Fitsum S Teni
Background: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. There is lack of data on uncontrolled blood pressure in developing countries. Objectives: To determine the magnitude and predicting factors of uncontrolled blood pressure in hypertensive patients attending Gondar university hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2015 to March 2016. All hypertensive patients were followed and the blood pressure levels were measured...
April 2018: Pharmacy Practice
Michelle A Oscar, Simon Barak, Gidon Winters
The tropical seagrass species, Halophila stipulacea , originated from the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, subsequently invading the Mediterranean and has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Due to its invasive nature, there is growing interest in understanding this species' capacity to adapt to new conditions. One approach to understanding the natural tolerance of a plant is to compare the tolerant species with a closely related non-tolerant species. We compared the physiological responses of H...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emilie Aubry, Natalie Friedli, Philipp Schuetz, Zeno Stanga
Aging is linked to physiological and pathophysiological changes. In this context, elderly patients often are frail, which strongly correlates with negative health outcomes and disability. Elderly patients are often malnourished, which again is an independent risk factor for both frailty and adverse clinical outcomes. Malnutrition and resulting frailty can be prevented by adequate nutritional interventions. Yet, use of nutritional therapy can also have negative consequences, including a potentially life-threatening metabolic alteration called refeeding syndrome (RFS) in high-risk patients...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Xiaoling Guo, Zhi Sun, Jilt Sietsma, Bart Blanpain, Muxing Guo, Yongxiang Yang
The dissolution of rare earth oxides in molten fluorides is a critical step in the preparation of the corresponding rare earth metals by oxide-fluoride electrolysis. However, quantitatively understanding the nature of dissolution, especially in the case of molten salts, is usually difficult to be achieved by postmortem characterization. In this paper, the dissolution behavior of Nd2 O3 particles in molten fluorides was studied via in situ observation with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Combining direct observation with thermodynamic analyses on the oxide dissolution, the rate-limiting step(s) and the effects of parameters like temperature, salt type, and composition on the dissolution rate are identified...
February 7, 2018: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Rafael Rodríguez-Mosqueda, Eddy A Bramer, Timo Roestenberg, Gerrit Brem
Potassium carbonate is a highly hygroscopic salt, and this aspect becomes important for CO2 capture from ambient air. Moreover, CO2 capture from ambient air requires adsorbents with a very low pressure drop. In the present work an activated carbon honeycomb monolith was coated with K2 CO3 , and it was treated with moist N2 to hydrate it. Its CO2 capture capacity was studied as a function of the temperature, the water content of the air, and the air flow rate, following a factorial design of experiments. It was found that the water vapor content in the air had the largest influence on the CO2 adsorption capacity...
March 14, 2018: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
J David Spence
Resistant hypertension (failure to achieve target blood pressures with three or more antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) is an important and preventable cause of stroke. Hypertension is highly prevalent in China (>60% of persons above age 65), and only ~6% of hypertensives in China are controlled to target levels. Most strokes occur among persons with resistant hypertension; approximately half of strokes could be prevented by blood pressure control. Reasons for uncontrolled hypertension include (1) non-compliance; (2) consumption of substances that aggravated hypertension, such as excess salt, alcohol, licorice, decongestants and oral contraceptives; (3) therapeutic inertia (failure to intensify therapy when target blood pressures are not achieved); and (4) diagnostic inertia (failure to investigate the cause of resistant hypertension)...
June 2018: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
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