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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151854/strong-population-structure-deduced-from-genetics-otolith-chemistry-and-parasite-abundances-explains-vulnerability-to-localized-fishery-collapse-in-a-large-sciaenid-fish-protonibea%C3%A2-diacanthus
#1
Laura Taillebois, Diane P Barton, David A Crook, Thor Saunders, Jonathan Taylor, Mark Hearnden, Richard J Saunders, Stephen J Newman, Michael J Travers, David J Welch, Alan Greig, Christine Dudgeon, Safia Maher, Jennifer R Ovenden
As pressure on coastal marine resources is increasing globally, the need to quantitatively assess vulnerable fish stocks is crucial in order to avoid the ecological consequences of stock depletions. Species of Sciaenidae (croakers, drums) are important components of tropical and temperate fisheries and are especially vulnerable to exploitation. The black-spotted croaker, Protonibea diacanthus, is the only large sciaenid in coastal waters of northern Australia where it is targeted by commercial, recreational and indigenous fishers due to its food value and predictable aggregating behaviour...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#2
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135871/ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-where-are-we-now
#3
Julia Dlugaiczyk
OBJECTIVE: Over the last decade, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) have evolved as a new clinical test for dynamic otolith (predominantly utricular) function. The aim of this review is to give an update on the neurophysiological foundations of oVEMPs and their implications for recording and interpreting oVEMP responses in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: Different lines of anatomical, neurophysiological, and clinical evidence support the notion that oVEMPs measure predominantly contralateral utricular function, while cervical cVEMPs are an indicator of ipsilateral saccular function...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118200/vestibular-short-latency-evoked-potential-vsep-is-abolished-by-low-frequency-noise-exposure-in-rats
#4
Courtney Elaine Stewart, Ariane C Kanicki, Richard A Altschuler, W Michael King
The vestibular system plays a critical role in detection of head movements and is essential for normal postural control. Because of their anatomical proximity to the cochlea, the otolith organs are selectively exposed to sound pressure and are at risk for noise overstimulation. Clinical reports suggest a link between noise exposure and balance problems, but the structural and physiological basis for this linkage is not well understood. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of low frequency noise (LFN), on the otolith organs by correlating changes in vestibular short latency evoked potentials, (VsEPs), with changes in saccular afferent endings following noise exposure...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110937/ocean-acidification-does-not-impair-predator-recognition-but-increases-juvenile-growth-in-a-temperate-wrasse-off-co2-seeps
#5
Carlo Cattano, Antonio Calò, Antonio Di Franco, Roberto Firmamento, Federico Quattrocchi, Khalil Sdiri, Paolo Guidetti, Marco Milazzo
Fish behavioural effects under Ocean Acidification (OA) rely on changes expected to occur in brain function, which can be reversed by gabazine, a GABA-A antagonist. Here, using standard two-channel choice flume, we assessed OA effects on the predator recognition ability of both gabazine-treated and -untreated Symphodus ocellatus post-settlers living off CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea. To estimate the post-settlers background predation risk we evaluated the density of their predator in the wild and through otolith aging techniques we assessed their post-settlement growth...
October 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095749/genetics-of-vestibular-syndromes
#6
Pablo Roman-Naranjo, Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, Jose A Lopez Escamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increased availability of next generation sequencing has enabled a rapid progress in the discovery of genetic variants associated with vestibular disorders. We have summarized molecular genetics finding in vestibular syndromes during the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic studies continue to shed light on the genetic background of vestibular disorders. Novel genes affecting brain development and otolith biogenesis have been associated with motion sickness...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081426/bilateral-vestibulopathy-diagnostic-criteria-consensus-document-of-the-classification-committee-of-the-b%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-ny-society
#7
Michael Strupp, Ji-Soo Kim, Toshihisa Murofushi, Dominik Straumann, Joanna C Jen, Sally M Rosengren, Charles C Della Santina, Herman Kingma
This paper describes the diagnostic criteria for bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) by the Classification Committee of the Bárány Society. The diagnosis of BVP is based on the patient history, bedside examination and laboratory evaluation. Bilateral vestibulopathy is a chronic vestibular syndrome which is characterized by unsteadiness when walking or standing, which worsen in darkness and/or on uneven ground, or during head motion. Additionally, patients may describe head or body movement-induced blurred vision or oscillopsia...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081424/hippocampal-gene-expression-serum-cortisol-level-and-spatial-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-hypergravity
#8
Arata Horii, Kenji Mitani, Chisako Masumura, Atsuhiko Uno, Takao Imai, Yuka Morita, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Tadashi Kitahara, Hidenori Inohara
BACKGROUND: Due to spatial disorientation reported in space, spatial memory and navigation performances could be more largely impaired by gravity changes. Hippocampus, a key structure for spatial memory, receives inputs from gravity-sensing otolith organs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the key molecules in the rat hippocampus that contribute to an adaptation to altered gravity in terms of spatial memory performance. METHODS: Gene expression of hippocampus and spatial memory after continuous two-weeks exposure to 2 G hypergravity (HG) were examined using a microarray analysis followed by real-time PCR methods and radial arm maze testing, respectively...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080887/evaluation-of-vestibular-functions-in-patients-with-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#9
Keishi Fujiwara, Shinya Morita, Kimiko Hoshino, Atsushi Fukuda, Yuji Nakamaru, Akihiro Homma
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is an idiopathic, multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological manifestations. The purpose of this study is to investigate vestibular functions in patients with VKH disease. A total of 43 patients with VKH disease in Hokkaido University Hospital were enrolled in this study. Subjective symptoms such as dizziness or vertigo and the results of various vestibular examinations including nystagmus testing, caloric testing, and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing were investigated...
2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077736/a-millennium-of-north-east-atlantic-cod-juvenile-growth-trajectories-inferred-from-archaeological-otoliths
#10
Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir, Gróa Pétursdóttir, Hlynur Bárðarson, Ragnar Edvardsson
Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076638/effect-of-calcium-ions-on-structure-and-stability-of-the-c1q-like-domain-of-otolin-1-from-human-and-zebrafish
#11
Rafał Hołubowicz, Magdalena Wojtas, Michał Taube, Maciej Kozak, Andrzej Ożyhar, Piotr Dobryszycki
Otolin-1 is a collagen-like protein expressed in the inner ear of vertebrates. It provides an organic scaffold for otoliths in fish and otoconia in land vertebrates. In this study, the expression and purification procedure of C1q-like domain of otolin-1 from human and zebrafish was developed. The structure and stability of the proteins were investigated. The results of sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle X-ray scattering indicated that the C1q-like domain of otolin-1 forms stable trimers in solution in the presence of calcium ions...
October 27, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068043/life-history-strategies-of-the-rock-hind-grouper-epinephelus-adscensionis-at-ascension-island
#12
E T Nolan, K J Downes, A Richardson, A Arkhipkin, P Brickle, J Brown, R J Mrowicki, Z Shcherbich, N Weber, S B Weber
Epinephelus adscensionis sampled from Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, exhibits distinct life-history traits, including larger maximum size and size at sexual maturity than previous studies have demonstrated for this species in other locations. Otolith analysis yielded a maximum estimated age of 25 years, with calculated von Bertalanffy growth parameters of: L∞  = 55·14, K = 0·19, t0  = -0·88. Monthly gonad staging and analysis of gonad-somatic index (IG ) provide evidence for spawning from July to November with an IG peak in August (austral winter), during which time somatic growth is also suppressed...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057523/aging-related-changes-in-the-cortical-processing-of-otolith-information-in-humans
#13
Peter Zu Eulenburg, Ria Maxine Ruehl, Pia Runge, Marianne Dieterich
Acoustic short tone bursts (STB) trigger ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs/cVEMPs) by activating irregular otolith afferents. Simultaneously, STBs introduce an artificial net acceleration signal of otolith origin into the vestibular network. VEMP parameters as diagnostic otolith processing markers have been shown to decline after the age of thirty. To delineate the differential effects of healthy aging on the cortical vestibular subnetwork processing otolith information, we measured cVEMPs and the differential effects of unilateral STB in three age groups (20-40, 40-60, 60+; n=42) using functional neuroimaging...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046174/gravitational-and-somatosensory-influences-on-control-and-perception-of-roll-balance
#14
Alexander Sacha Panic, Heather Panic, Paul DiZio, James R Lackner
INTRODUCTION: Blindfolded subjects used a joystick to orient themselves to the direction of balance in a device programmed to exhibit inverted pendulum behavior in the roll plane; they indicated with a trigger press when they were at that location. Our goal was to determine how otolith and somatosensory information about the gravitational vertical influenced the ability to locate the direction of balance. METHODS: The subjects (N = 12) were tested in each of three orientations of the body roll plane: vertical (Upright), 45° back (45_Degree), and 90° back (Supine), which provided progressively less salient otolith and somatosensory information about roll orientation with regard to the direction of gravity...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038475/climate-and-permafrost-effects-on-the-chemistry-and-ecosystems-of-high-arctic-lakes
#15
K E Roberts, S F Lamoureux, T K Kyser, D C G Muir, M J Lafrenière, D Iqaluk, A J Pieńkowski, A Normandeau
Permafrost exerts an important control over hydrological processes in Arctic landscapes and lakes. Recent warming and summer precipitation has the potential to alter water availability and quality in this environment through thermal perturbation of near surface permafrost and increased mobility of previously frozen solutes to Arctic freshwaters. We present a unique thirteen-year record (2003-16) of the physiochemical properties of two High Arctic lakes and show that the concentration of major ions, especially SO4(2-), has rapidly increased up to 500% since 2008...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028550/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-17-alpha-ethinylestradiol-concentrations-modifies-testicular-transcription-affecting-the-sperm-transcript-content-and-the-offspring-performance-in-zebrafish
#16
David G Valcarce, Elena Vuelta, Vanesa Robles, Maria Paz Herráez
The synthetic estrogen 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a major constituent in contraceptive pills, is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) present in the aquatic environment at concentrations of ng/L. Developmental exposure to these low concentrations in fish can induce several disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a perfect organism for monitoring the effects of environmental contaminants. Our hypothesis is that changes promoted by EE2 in the germ line of male adults could be transmitted to the unexposed progeny...
September 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023719/natural-variability-and-effects-of-cleaning-and-storage-procedures-on-vertebral-chemistry-of-the-blacktip-shark-carcharhinus-limbatus
#17
J P Lewis, W F Patterson, J K Carlson
Key methodological assumptions regarding the degree of natural variability and influence of sample handling and storage of elasmobranch vertebral chemistry were assessed using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Vertebral chemistry of juvenile blacktip sharks Carcharhinus limbatus was examined to identify whether differences existed among different regions of the vertebral column, between thoracic vertebrae of individual fish or within individual vertebrae. Additionally, the effects of bleach exposure and storage in ethanol on vertebral chemistry were compared...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988244/evolution-of-sound-source-localization-circuits-in-the-nonmammalian-vertebrate-brainstem
#18
Peggy L Walton, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Catherine E Carr
The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement created by external sources. The potential to identify and localize these external sources may have been a major selection force in the evolution of the early vertebrate ear and in the processing of sound in the central nervous system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981340/vestibular-consequences-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-blast-exposure-a-review
#19
Faith W Akin, Owen D Murnane, Courtney D Hall, Kristal M Riska
The purpose of this article is to review relevant literature on the effect of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and blast injury on the vestibular system. Dizziness and imbalance are common sequelae associated with mTBI, and in some individuals, these symptoms may last for six months or longer. In war-related injuries, mTBI is often associated with blast exposure. The causes of dizziness or imbalance following mTBI and blast injuries have been linked to white matter abnormalities, diffuse axonal injury in the brain, and central and peripheral vestibular system damage...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980586/-the-importance-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-for-the-assessment-of-the-otolith-function-in-the-patients-presenting-with-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#20
N L Kunel'skaya, E V Baybakova, A L Guseva, M A Chugunova, E A Manaenkova
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the otolith function in the patients presenting with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (pBPPV) attributable to the occlusion of the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) of the inner ear with the use of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Cervical (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) were measured in 34 patients with idiopathic pBPPV before and 7 days after the treatment by means of reposition maneuvers. The results of the repeated Dix-Hallpike test performed 7 days after the repositioning maneuver were negative in 27 patients and positive in 7 patients...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
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