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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719825/degeneration-of-the-vestibular-nerve-in-unilateral-meniere-s-disease-evaluated-by-galvanic-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#1
Chih-Ming Chang, Yi-Ho Young, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chi-Te Wang, Po-Wen Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The staging system of Meniere's disease utilizes audiograms to probe cochlear dysfunction. We explored the addition of galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) to further explore vestibular function. METHODS: Seventy patients with unilateral Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. Within 2weeks of diagnosis, all subjects underwent pure tone audiometry, cervical and ocular VEMP, and caloric test. The prevalence of abnormal tests and the VEMP characteristic parameters such as latencies and amplitudes were analyzed...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716503/effectiveness-of-otolith-repositioning-maneuvers-and-vestibular-rehabilitation-exercises-in-elderly-people-with-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-a-systematic-review
#2
Karyna Figueiredo Ribeiro, Bruna S Oliveira, Raysa V Freitas, Lidiane M Ferreira, Nandini Deshpande, Ricardo O Guerra
INTRODUCTION: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is highly prevalent in elderly people. This condition is related to vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, poor balance, gait disturbance, and an increase in risk of falls, leading to postural changes and quality of life decreasing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes obtained by clinical trials on the effectiveness of Otolith Repositioning Maneuver (ORM) and Vestibular Rehabilitation (VR) exercises in the treatment of BPPV in elderly...
June 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695384/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors-induce-developmental-toxicity-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis-especially-in-the-inner-ear
#3
Hiroko Matsumoto, Shoko Fujiwara, Hisako Miyagi, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Yasuhiro Shiga, Toshihiro Ohta, Mikio Tsuzuki
In vertebrates, carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play important roles in ion transport and pH regulation in many organs, including the eyes, kidneys, central nervous system, and inner ear. In aquatic organisms, the enzyme is inhibited by various chemicals present in the environment, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, the effects of CA inhibitors, i.e., sulfonamides [ethoxyzolamide (EZA), acetazolamide (AZA), and dorzolamide (DZA)], on zebrafish embryogenesis were investigated. In embryos treated with the sulfonamides, abnormal development, such as smaller otoliths, an enlarged heart, an irregular pectoral fin, and aberrant swimming behavior, was observed...
July 10, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676758/loss-of-peripheral-sensory-function-explains-much-of-the-increase-in-postural-sway-in-healthy-older-adults
#4
Eric Anson, Robin T Bigelow, Bonnielin Swenor, Nandini Deshpande, Stephanie Studenski, John J Jeka, Yuri Agrawal
Postural sway increases with age and peripheral sensory disease. Whether, peripheral sensory function is related to postural sway independent of age in healthy adults is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between tests of visual function (VISFIELD), vestibular function (CANAL or OTOLITH), proprioceptive function (PROP), and age, with center of mass sway area (COM) measured with eyes open then closed on firm and then a foam surface. A cross-sectional sample of 366 community dwelling healthy adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging was tested...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667933/contrasting-results-of-tests-of-peripheral-vestibular-function-in-patients-with-bilateral-large-vestibular-aqueduct-syndrome
#5
Yu-Juan Zhou, Yong-Zhen Wu, Ning Cong, Jing Yu, Jun Gu, Jing Wang, Fang-Lu Chi
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize the effect of bilateral large vestibular aqueducts in peripheral vestibular organ function. METHODS: Eighteen patients with bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS; Study Group) and 18 healthy volunteers (Control Group) were investigated using audiometry, caloric test, sensory organization test (SOT), and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests. RESULTS: All 18 patients (36 ears) exhibited sensorineural hearing loss...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658326/otolith-shape-variability-and-associated-body-growth-differences-in-giant-grenadier-albatrossia-pectoralis
#6
Cara J Rodgveller, Charles E Hutchinson, Jeremy P Harris, Scott C Vulstek, Charles M Guthrie
Fish stocks can be defined by differences in their distribution, life history, and genetics. Managing fish based on stock structure is integral to successful management of a species because fishing may affect stocks disproportionately. Genetic and environmental differences can affect the shape and growth of otoliths and these differences may be indicative of stock structure. To investigate the potential for speciation or stock structure in giant grenadier, Albatrossia pectoralis, we quantified the shape of female giant grenadier otoliths and compared body growth rates for fish with three otolith shapes; shape types were classified visually by an experienced giant grenadier age reader, and were not defined by known distribution or life history differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631586/benign-positional-vertigo-and-endolymphatic-hydrops-what-is-the-connection
#7
A F Jahn
BACKGROUND: Although benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and endolymphatic hydrops are considered to be distinct diagnoses, a minority of vertiginous patients exhibit features of both conditions. This coincidence has been reported previously in the literature, and is reviewed here in terms of possible aetiology. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A new hypothesis to account for both conditions is offered, implicating free-floating degenerating debris from the otolithic apparatus...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620203/prehistoric-cooking-versus-accurate-palaeotemperature-records-in-shell%C3%A2-midden-constituents
#8
Peter Müller, Philip T Staudigel, Sean T Murray, Robert Vernet, Jean-Paul Barusseau, Hildegard Westphal, Peter K Swart
The reconstruction of pre-depositional cooking treatments used by prehistoric coastal populations for processing aquatic faunal resources is often difficult in archaeological shell midden assemblages. Besides limiting our knowledge of various social, cultural, economic and technological aspects of shell midden formation, unknown pre-depositional cooking techniques can also introduce large errors in palaeoclimate reconstructions as they can considerably alter the geochemical proxy signatures in calcareous skeletal structures such as bivalve shells or fish otoliths...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#9
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609892/reappraisal-of-i-synagrops-i-g%C3%A3-nther-1887-with-rehabilitation-and-revision-of-i-parascombrops-i-alcock-1889-including-description-of-seven-new-species-and-two-new-genera-perciformes-acropomatidae
#10
Werner W Schwarzhans, Artem M Prokofiev
An ongoing review of the fishes of the basal percoid family Acropomatidae has revealed that the genus Synagrops Günther, 1887 as it is currently understood is not a natural group. Species with a serrated pelvic-fin spine are here placed in the resurrected genus Parascombrops Alcock, 1889 (type-species: Parascombrops pellucidus Alcock, 1889), and the new, monospecific genus Caraibops n. gen. (type-species: Synagrops trispinosus Mochizuki & Sano, 1984). Parascombrops is unique amongst Acropomatidae in the combination of the presence of vacant 8th interneural space, a predorsal formula /0+0/0+2/ and an epaxialis attachment type 1...
May 4, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603599/residual-dizziness-after-successful-repositioning-maneuver-for-idiopathic-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Giorgia Giommetti, Ruggero Lapenna, Roberto Panichi, Puya Dehgani Mobaraki, Fabrizio Longari, Giampietro Ricci, Mario Faralli
The benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a vestibular disorder cause of vertigo. The BPPV may be corrected mechanically by repositioning maneuvers but even after successful maneuvers, some patients report residual dizziness for a certain period afterward. Early recognition and treatment might decrease the incidence of residual dizziness in patients with BPPV, especially in those patients with psychiatric comorbidities and in the elderly, lowering the risk of falling. Many pathogenetic hypotheses for residual dizziness are under debate...
February 1, 2017: Audiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598949/subjective-visual-vertical-in-idiopathic-bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-enhanced-role-of-vision-neck-and-body-proprioception
#12
Michel Toupet, Christian Van Nechel, Charlotte Hautefort, Ulla Duquesne, Sylvie Heuschen, Alexis Bozorg Grayeli
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study the participation of proprioceptive and visual inputs in subjective visual vertical (SVV) in bilateral vestibular hypofunction and in normal subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SVV (six replicates) was measured on a tiltable rehabilitation seat in 26 adult patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular hypofunction (IBVH) and 33 adult controls...
August 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596212/rapid-growth-causes-abnormal-vaterite-formation-in-farmed-fish-otoliths
#13
T Reimer, T Dempster, A Wargelius, P G Fjelldal, T Hansen, K A Glover, M F Solberg, S E Swearer
Sagittal otoliths are essential components of the sensory organs that enable all teleost fish to hear and maintain balance, and are primarily composed of calcium carbonate. A deformity, where aragonite (the normal crystal form) is replaced with vaterite, was first noted over 50 years ago but its underlying cause is unresolved. We evaluated the prevalence of vateritic otoliths from two captive rearing studies which suggested that fast growth, due to environmental rather than genetic control, led to vaterite development...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556094/reduced-growth-in-wild-juvenile-sockeye-salmon-oncorhynchus-nerka-infected-with-sea-lice
#14
S C Godwin, L M Dill, M Krkošek, M H H Price, J D Reynolds
Daily growth rings were examined in the otoliths of wild juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to determine whether infection by ectoparasitic sea lice Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis was associated with reduced host body growth, an important determinant of survival. Over 98% of the sea lice proved to be C. clemensi and the fish that were highly infected grew more slowly than uninfected individuals. Larger fish also grew faster than smaller fish. Finally, there was evidence of an interaction between body size and infection status, indicating the potential for parasite-mediated growth divergence...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536922/head-shaking-tilt-suppression-a-clinical-test-to-discern-central-from-peripheral-causes-of-vertigo
#15
F C Zuma E Maia, Renato Cal, Ricardo D'Albora, Sergio Carmona, Michael C Schubert
Tilt suppression refers to both tilting the head away from an Earth vertical axis and a reduction of an induced horizontal nystagmus. This phenomenon of reducing an induced horizontal nystagmus involves a circuitry of neurons within the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum (collectively referred to as velocity storage) and signals from the otolith end organs. Lesions involving this circuitry can disrupt tilt suppression of induced horizontal nystagmus. We investigated the clinical value of combining the horizontal head-shaking nystagmus test with tilt suppression in 28 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction and 11 patients with lesions affecting the central nervous system...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530263/utricular-hypofunction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
K Jáuregui-Renaud, C Aranda-Moreno, A Herrera-Rangel
The aim of this study was to assess the function of the utricle and horizontal semicircular canals in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving primary health care, with/without a history of falls. 101 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 34 to 84 years old (26 with and 75 without a history of falls) and 51 healthy volunteers (40-83 years old) accepted to participate. They denied having a history of dizziness, vertigo, unsteadiness, hearing loss or neurological disorders. None of them were seeking care due to sensory or balance decline...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523740/new-data-about-semicircular-canal-morphology-and-locomotion-in-modern-hominoids
#17
Anne Le Maître, Philipp Schuetz, Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet
The labyrinth has two functional parts: the cochlea for audition and the vestibular system for equilibrioception. In the latter, the semicircular ducts and the otolithic organs are sensitive to rotational and linear accelerations of the head, respectively. The labyrinthine morphology influences perception accuracy, hence the adaptation to a specific locomotor pattern. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between locomotion and semicircular canal morphology using geometric morphometrics, and to explain these links with existing functional models...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501963/salinity-driven-decadal-changes-in-phytoplankton-community-in-the-nw-arabian-gulf-of-kuwait
#18
Turki Al-Said, Aws Al-Ghunaim, D V Subba Rao, Faiza Al-Yamani, Kholood Al-Rifaie, Ali Al-Baz
Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499299/-current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#19
Leif Erik Walther
Modern diagnostic methods such as video head impulse test and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials allow to measure canal and otolith function quantitatively and objectively. These methods contribute to a complex assessment of the functional integrity of all 5 sensory elements of the vestibular organ for the first time. Moreover, in combination with additional vestibular tests frequency specific and time depended changes of impairments of vestibular sensors and their pathways can be assessed...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496432/vestibular-loss-in-older-adults-is-associated-with-impaired-spatial-navigation-data-from-the-triangle-completion-task
#20
Yanjun Xie, Robin T Bigelow, Scott F Frankenthaler, Stephanie A Studenski, Scott D Moffat, Yuri Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Vestibular inputs have been shown to play a critical role in spatial navigation. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss due to aging contributes to impaired spatial navigation as measured by the triangle completion task (TCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited three types of participants: young controls <55 years of age, older controls ≥55 years of age, and older patients from a Neurotology Clinic with evidence of vestibular physiologic impairment but who did not have any known vestibular disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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