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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230177/storage-of-passive-motion-pattern-in-hippocampal-ca1-region-depends-on-camkii-creb-signaling-pathway-in-a-motion-sickness-rodent-model
#1
Junqin Wang, Jiluo Liu, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Wei Zhou, Yiling Cai
Sensory mismatch between actual motion information and anticipated sensory patterns (internal model) is the etiology of motion sickness (MS). Some evidence supports that hippocampus might involve the neural storage of the "internal model". This study established an "internal model" acquisition-retention behavioral model using a repeated habituation rotation training protocol. We tried to identify the hippocampal subregion involved in "internal model" retention using chemical lesion methods. Hippocampal kinases (CaMK, CaMKIV, CREB and ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the target subregion was assayed and the effects of kinase inhibitors (KN93 or U0126) on "internal model" retention were investigated...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224454/effects-of-sustained-otolith-only-stimulation-on-post-rotational-nystagmus
#2
Aasef G Shaikh, David Solomon
Constant velocity rotations in darkness evoke vestibulo-ocular reflex in form of pre- and post-rotational nystagmus under cerebellar supervision. Reorientation of the head with respect to gravity, stimulating otolith and semicircular canal, during post-rotational phase rapidly suppresses the post-rotational nystagmus. We asked if pure otolith stimulation without semicircular canal signal is sufficient for the suppression of post-rotational nystagmus. The experimental paradigm comprised of on-axis rotations in the horizontal plane when the subject was sitting upright, followed by a novel stimulus that combined off-axis centrifugation in the horizontal plane with amplitude matched, yet out-of-phase, on-axis horizontal rotation-double centrifugation...
February 21, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220478/frontiers-in-otolith-chemistry-insights-advances-and-applications
#3
EDITORIAL
B D Walther, K E Limburg, C M Jones, J J Schaffler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214010/associations-between-metal-exposure-and-lesion-formation-in-offshore-gulf-of-mexico-fishes-collected-after-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#4
Jennifer E Granneman, David L Jones, Ernst B Peebles
The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine patterns of short- and long-term metal exposure within the otoliths of six offshore fish species in varying states of health, as indicated by the presence of external skin lesions, and (2) determine if there was a change in otolith metal concentrations concurrent with the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Otoliths collected from 2011 to 2013 in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) were analyzed for a suite of trace metals known to be associated with DWH oil. We found that lesioned fish often had elevated levels of otolith (60)Ni and (64)Zn before, during, and after the DWH oil spill...
February 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179477/perceptual-precision-of-passive-body-tilt-is-consistent-with-statistically-optimal-cue-integration
#5
Koeun Lim, Faisal Karmali, Keyvan Nicoucar, Daniel M Merfeld
When making perceptual decisions, humans have been shown to optimally integrate independent noisy multisensory information - matching maximum likelihood (ML) limits. Such ML estimators provide a theoretic limit to perceptual precision (i.e., minimal thresholds). However, how the brain combines two interacting (i.e., not independent) sensory cues remains an open question. To study the precision achieved when combining interacting sensory signals, we measured perceptual roll tilt and roll rotation thresholds between 0 and 5Hz in 6 normal human subjects...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176802/ocular-reflex-phase-during-off-vertical-axis-rotation-in-humans-is-modified-by-head-turn-on-trunk-position
#6
Samantha B Douglas, Gilles Clément, Pierre Denise, Scott J Wood
Constant velocity Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) imposes a continuously varying orientation of the head and body relative to gravity, which generates a modulation of horizontal (conjugate and vergence), vertical, and torsional eye movements. We introduced the head-turn-on-trunk paradigm during OVAR to examine the extent to whether the modulation of these ocular reflexes is mediated by graviceptors in the head, i.e., otoliths, versus other body graviceptors. Ten human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 20° off-vertical at a constant velocity of 45 and 180°/s, corresponding to 0...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165499/goliath-catfish-spawning-in-the-far-western-amazon-confirmed-by-the-distribution-of-mature-adults-drifting-larvae-and-migrating-juveniles
#7
Ronaldo B Barthem, Michael Goulding, Rosseval G Leite, Carlos Cañas, Bruce Forsberg, Eduardo Venticinque, Paulo Petry, Mauro L de B Ribeiro, Junior Chuctaya, Armando Mercado
We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species-B...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148642/gravity-dependence-of-the-effect-of-optokinetic-stimulation-on-the-subject-visual-vertical
#8
Bryan K Ward, Christopher J Bockisch, Nicoletta Caramia, Giovanni Bertolini, Alexander Andrea Tarnutzer
Accurate and precise estimates of direction of gravity are essential for spatial orientation. According to Bayesian theory, multisensory vestibular, visual and proprioceptive input is centrally integrated in a weighted fashion based on the reliability of the component sensory signals. For otolithic input, a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio was demonstrated with increasing roll-angle. We hypothesized that the weights of vestibular (otolithic) and extra-vestibular (visual/proprioceptive) sensors are roll-angle dependent and predicted an increased weight of extra-vestibular cues with increasing roll-angle, potentially following the Bayesian hypothesis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138961/el-ni%C3%A3-o-episodes-coincide-with-california-moray-gymnothorax-mordax-settlement-around-santa-catalina-island-california
#9
B A Higgins, D Pearson, R S Mehta
The hypothesis that El Niño events influence the settlement patterns of the California moray Gymnothorax mordax is tested. The pelagic larval duration (PLD) of larval G. mordax is unknown, but studies on leptocephalus of related species suggest that larvae are long-lived, up to 2 years. Gymnothorax mordax, an elusive predatory species and the only muraenid off the coast of California, is considered abundant in the waters around Catalina Island. Thirty-three individuals were collected from Two Harbors, Catalina Island, and otoliths were taken to provide estimates of their age...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130556/the-new-vestibular-stimuli-sound-and-vibration-anatomical-physiological-and-clinical-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys
The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127679/motion-illusion-evidence-towards-human-vestibulo-thalamic-projections
#11
Aasef G Shaikh, Dominik Straumann, Antonella Palla
Contemporary studies speculated that cerebellar network responsible for motion perception projects to the cerebral cortex via vestibulo-thalamus. Here, we sought for the physiological properties of vestibulo-thalamic pathway responsible for the motion perception. Healthy subjects and the patient with focal vestibulo-thalamic lacunar stroke spun a hand-held rheostat to approximate the value of perceived angular velocity during whole-body passive earth-vertical axis rotations in yaw plane. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was simultaneously measured with high-resolution search coils (paradigm 1)...
January 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119230/change-in-the-natural-head-neck-orientation-momentarily-altered-sensorimotor-control-during-sensory-transition
#12
Isabelle Xu, Simon Laurendeau, Normand Teasdale, Martin Simoneau
Achilles tendon vibration generates proprioceptive information that is incongruent with the actual body position; it alters the perception of body orientation leading to a vibration-induced postural response. When a person is standing freely, vibration of the Achilles tendon shifts the internal representation of the verticality backward thus the vibration-induced postural response realigned the whole body orientation with the shifted subjective vertical. Because utricular otoliths information participates in the creation of the internal representation of the verticality, changing the natural orientation of the head-neck system during Achilles tendon vibration could alter the internal representation of the earth vertical to a greater extent...
January 17, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116960/proposed-synonymy-for-micropogonias-altipinnis-g%C3%A3-nther-1864-micropogonias-ectenes-jordan-gilbert-1882-and-micropogonias-megalops-gilbert-1890
#13
Geremías Sánchez-Pinedo, Noé Díaz-Viloria, José L Ortiz-Galindo, Nelson Ferreira-Fontoura, Ricardo Perez-Enriquez, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, José De La Cruz-Agüero
Within the Sciaenidae family, the genus Micropogonias is composed of three recognized species along the Pacific coast of Mexico: Micropogonias altipinnis, M. ectenes, and M. megalops. These species exhibit overlapping diagnostic characters, which make species identification difficult. This study ties morphological differences (meristic, morphometry of body, and otolith) with DNA sequences (CO1 and 16S fractions of mtDNA and 28S of nDNA) among Micropogonias species in the Pacific. Meristic analysis showed a latitudinal variation among the three species in the number of rays, the number of gill rakers, and length of the longest spine of the dorsal fin...
January 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105739/validation-of-daily-increment-deposition-and-early-growth-of-mud-carp-cirrhinus-molitorella
#14
Y Huang, F Chen, W Tang, Z Lai, X Li
In this study, laboratory reared Cirrhinus molitorella from hatching through to the juvenile stage were used to validate daily increment deposition. Lapilli were suitable for ageing C. molitorella. The slope of the linear relationships between increment counts and age was not significantly different from 1 (n = 258, P > 0·05), indicating that growth increments are deposited daily. The first increment following the first-feeding check formed 3 days post hatch (dph). One hundred and twenty-three juveniles, ranging from 36·4 to 84·7 mm in body length (LB ), were collected in the Pear River estuary from July to January in both 2014 and 2015 and used to estimate growth rate...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105691/the-alcohol-sensitive-period-during-early-octavolateral-organ-development-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Lilliann Y Zamora, Kayla C Miguel, Zhongmin Lu
Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104018/-the-ultrastructure-of-utricular-maculae-of-mouse
#16
L J Yang, L J Li, T Liu, L W Wang, P Shen
Objective: Using scanning electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of utricular maculae of mouse. Methods: Ten young (6 to 8 weeks) and ten old (>12 months) mice were executed, and their utricles were harvested and the specimens were processed, using scanning electron microscope to observe the structures of the utricles from the surface of otoconia layer to the roots of hair cell cilia. Results: Under the scanning electron microscope, several ultrastructures were observed, including otoconia layer, unstructured gelatinous extracellular matrix layer, honeycomb-like gelatinous extracellular matrix layer, inter-cilia otoconia and hair cell cilia associated with these structures...
January 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091665/trace-element-protein-interactions-in-endolymph-from-the-inner-ear-of-fish-implications-for-environmental-reconstructions-using-fish-otolith-chemistry
#17
Oliver R B Thomas, Katherine Ganio, Blaine R Roberts, Stephen E Swearer
Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change...
January 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077930/before-the-freeze-otoliths-from-the-eocene-of-seymour-island-antarctica-reveal-dominance-of-gadiform-fishes-teleostei
#18
Werner Schwarzhans, Thomas Mörs, Andrea Engelbrecht, Marcelo Reguero, Jürgen Kriwet
The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp...
2017: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075326/transformation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-macaque-vestibular-system-from-otolith-afferents-to-cortex
#19
Jean Laurens, Sheng Liu, Xiong-Jie Yu, Raymond Chan, David Dickman, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals...
January 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061922/respiratory-and-pulse-changes-due-to-vestibular-stimulations-in-a-motion-based-simulator
#20
Savas Ilbasmis, Safak Yildiz
INTRODUCTION: One of the mechanisms leading to spatial disorientation (SD) is overstimulation of the vestibular system by various aircraft maneuvers. The objective of this study was to observe respiratory rate and pulse changes during vestibular system stimulations with the help of two selected SD training profiles. METHODS: The respiration and pulse rates of 15 subjects were recorded in response to 2 sequential SD training profiles on a motion-based simulator. The session started with a motionless instruction period (IP), continued with a Coriolis profile (CP) which stimulated the semicircular canals, and ended with a Dark Takeoff profile (DP) which stimulated the otolith organs...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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