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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530263/utricular-hypofunction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
K Jáuregui-Renaud, C Aranda-Moreno, A Herrera-Rangel
The aim of this study was to assess the function of the utricle and horizontal semicircular canals in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving primary health care, with/without a history of falls. 101 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 34 to 84 years old (26 with and 75 without a history of falls) and 51 healthy volunteers (40-83 years old) accepted to participate. They denied having a history of dizziness, vertigo, unsteadiness, hearing loss or neurological disorders. None of them were seeking care due to sensory or balance decline...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523740/new-data-about-semicircular-canal-morphology-and-locomotion-in-modern-hominoids
#2
Anne Le Maître, Philipp Schuetz, Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet
The labyrinth has two functional parts: the cochlea for audition and the vestibular system for equilibrioception. In the latter, the semicircular ducts and the otolithic organs are sensitive to rotational and linear accelerations of the head, respectively. The labyrinthine morphology influences perception accuracy, hence the adaptation to a specific locomotor pattern. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between locomotion and semicircular canal morphology using geometric morphometrics, and to explain these links with existing functional models...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501963/salinity-driven-decadal-changes-in-phytoplankton-community-in-the-nw-arabian-gulf-of-kuwait
#3
Turki Al-Said, Aws Al-Ghunaim, D V Subba Rao, Faiza Al-Yamani, Kholood Al-Rifaie, Ali Al-Baz
Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499299/-current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#4
Leif Erik Walther
Modern diagnostic methods such as video head impulse test and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials allow to measure canal and otolith function quantitatively and objectively. These methods contribute to a complex assessment of the functional integrity of all 5 sensory elements of the vestibular organ for the first time. Moreover, in combination with additional vestibular tests frequency specific and time depended changes of impairments of vestibular sensors and their pathways can be assessed...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496432/vestibular-loss-in-older-adults-is-associated-with-impaired-spatial-navigation-data-from-the-triangle-completion-task
#5
Yanjun Xie, Robin T Bigelow, Scott F Frankenthaler, Stephanie A Studenski, Scott D Moffat, Yuri Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Vestibular inputs have been shown to play a critical role in spatial navigation. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss due to aging contributes to impaired spatial navigation as measured by the triangle completion task (TCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited three types of participants: young controls <55 years of age, older controls ≥55 years of age, and older patients from a Neurotology Clinic with evidence of vestibular physiologic impairment but who did not have any known vestibular disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470420/numerical-modeling-of-the-cupular-displacement-and-motion-of-otoconia-particles-in-a-semicircular-canal
#6
Tijana Djukic, Nenad Filipovic
Balance is achieved and maintained by a balance system called a labyrinth that is composed of three semicircular canals and the otolith organs that sense linear gravity and acceleration. Within each semicircular canal, there is a gelatinous structure called the cupula, which is deformed under the influence of the surrounding endolymph. One of the balance disorders is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and one of the pathological conditions that have been identified as possible causes of this syndrome is canalithiasis-disturbance of the endolymph flow and cupular displacement caused by the free-moving otoconia particles within the lumen of the canal...
May 3, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457586/adaptation-of-the-vertical-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-cats-during-low-frequency-vertical-rotation
#7
Hiroaki Fushiki, Motoyoshi Maruyama, Hideo Shojaku
OBJECTIVE: We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. METHODS: For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. RESULTS: A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths...
April 27, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443004/assessing-somatosensory-utilization-during-unipedal-postural-control
#8
Rahul Goel, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Erin E Caldwell, Brian T Peters, Millard F Reschke, Jacob J Bloomberg, Lars I E Oddsson, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439459/preliminary-observations-on-the-age-and-growth-of-dog-snapper-lutjanus-jocu-and-mahogany-snapper-lutjanus-mahogoni-from-the-southeastern-u-s
#9
Jennifer C Potts, Michael L Burton
Dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu Bloch and Schneider 1801) and mahogany snapper (Lutjanus mahogoni Cuvier 1828) are infrequently caught snappers in the southeastern U.S. primarily occurring off of southern Florida. The species were opportunistically sampled from commercial and recreational fisheries in the southeastern U.S. from 1979 to 2015. Fish were aged (56 dog snapper and 54 mahogany snapper) by counting opaque zones on sectioned sagittal otoliths. Otoliths of both species were easily interpretable and agreement between readers was acceptable...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#10
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417834/adaptive-changes-in-the-perception-of-fast-and-slow-movement-at-different-head-positions
#11
Roberto Panichi, Chiara Occhigrossi, Aldo Ferraresi, Mario Faralli, Marco Lucertini, Vito E Pettorossi
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. METHODS: Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration)...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406968/the-sense-of-balance-in-humans-structural-features-of-otoconia-and-their-response-to-linear-acceleration
#12
Rüdiger Kniep, Dirk Zahn, Jana Wulfes, Leif Erik Walther
We explored the functional role of individual otoconia within the otolith system of mammalians responsible for the detection of linear accelerations and head tilts in relation to the gravity vector. Details of the inner structure and the shape of intact human and artificial otoconia were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), including decalcification by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to discriminate local calcium carbonate density. Considerable differences between the rhombohedral faces of human and artificial otoconia already indicate that the inner architecture of otoconia is not consistent with the point group -3m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405289/oxygen-and-carbon-isoscapes-for-the-baltic-sea-testing-their-applicability-in-fish-migration-studies
#13
Jyrki Torniainen, Anssi Lensu, Pekka J Vuorinen, Eloni Sonninen, Marja Keinänen, Roger I Jones, William P Patterson, Mikko Kiljunen
Conventional tags applied to individuals have been used to investigate animal movement, but these methods require tagged individuals be recaptured. Maps of regional isotopic variability known as "isoscapes" offer potential for various applications in migration research without tagging wherein isotope values of tissues are compared to environmental isotope values. In this study, we present the spatial variability in oxygen (δ18OH2O) and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13) CDIC) isotope values of Baltic Sea water...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395490/-pilot-study-on-the-functional-evaluation-of-vestibular-otolith-organ-pathway-in-the-stage-of-patients-with-meniere-disease
#14
X R Niu, P Han, Z C Chen, Y Z Zhang, Y Gao, Y Cheng, J Hu, Y Xu, Q Zhang, M Xu
Objective: To observe the features of air-conducted sound elicited ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential(ACS-oVEMP) and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential(ACS-cVEMP) in patients with Meniere disease (MD). To analyze the relationship between air-conducted sound elicited vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (ACS-VEMP) responses and clinical stages of disease, as well as its clinical application of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in MD. Method: Fifty six patients with MD and 50 normal subjects (100 ears) were recruited for conventional cVEMP and oVEMP examinations...
March 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348547/altered-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-in-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Valeria Isaac, Diego Olmedo, Francisco Aboitiz, Paul H Delano
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present more difficulties in standing and walking balance than typically developing children. Most of previous studies have assessed these functions using postural and sensory organization tests showing differences in balance performance between control and ADHD children. However, to date, it is unknown whether these balance alterations are accompanied with vestibular dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#16
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321563/do-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-have-attacks-of-syncope
#17
Ilmari Pyykkö, Vinaya Manchaiah, Jing Zou, Hilla Levo, Erna Kentala
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors for syncope among patients with Ménière's disease (MD). An attack of syncope was defined as a sudden and transient loss of consciousness, which subsides spontaneously and without a localizing neurological deficit. The study used an across-sectional survey design. Information from a database consisting of 961 individuals was collected from the Finnish Ménière Association. The data contained case histories, general health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and impact measurements of the complaints...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300605/a-rapid-quantification-of-binocular-misalignment-without-recording-eye-movements-vertical-and-torsional-alignment-nulling
#18
Kara H Beaton, Mark J Shelhamer, Dale C Roberts, Michael C Schubert
BACKGROUND: Small, innate asymmetries between the left and right otolith organs can cause ocular misalignment with symptoms that include double vision and motion sickness. Additionally, ocular misalignment affects nearly 5% of the US population. We have developed a portable, non-invasive technology that uses subjective perception of binocular visual signals to estimate relative binocular alignment. NEW METHOD AND RESULTS: The Vertical Alignment Nulling (VAN) and Torsional Alignment Nulling (TAN) tests ask subjects to view one red and one blue line on a tablet computer while looking through color-matched red and blue filters so that each eye sees only one of the lines...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299778/the-short-lived-neon-damsel-pomacentrus-coelestis-implications-for-population-dynamics
#19
M J Kingsford, M D O'Callaghan, L Liggins, G Gerlach
Daily increments of Pomacentrus coelestis, an abundant and well-studied fish, were validated for the life of the fish and depending on the location, age-maxima were estimated to be 127-160 days on reefs separated by tens to hundreds of kilometres on the Great Barrier Reef. This contrasts with congeners and other damselfishes that live for 5 years or more. Otoliths of P. coelestis were thinner and had different patterns of banding when compared with relatively long-lived congeners. It is suggested that banding patterns in P...
May 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254458/the-cortical-spatiotemporal-correlate-of-otolith-stimulation-vestibular-evoked-potentials-by-body-translations
#20
M Ertl, M Moser, R Boegle, J Conrad, P Zu Eulenburg, M Dieterich
The vestibular organ senses linear and rotational acceleration of the head during active and passive motion. These signals are necessary for bipedal locomotion, navigation, the coordination of eye and head movements in 3D space. The temporal dynamics of vestibular processing in cortical structures have hardly been studied in humans, let alone with natural stimulation. The aim was to investigate the cortical vestibular network related to natural otolith stimulation using a hexapod motion platform. We conducted two experiments, 1...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
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