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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331066/strong-evidence-for-changing-fish-reproductive-phenology-under-climate-warming-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#1
Juan Tao, Dekui He, Mark J Kennard, Chengzhi Ding, Stuart E Bunn, Chunlong Liu, Yintao Jia, Rongxiao Che, Yifeng Chen
Phenological responses to climate change have been widely observed and have profound and lasting effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. However, compared to terrestrial ecosystems, the long-term effects of climate change on species' phenology are poorly understood in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the long-term changes in fish reproductive phenology is essential for predicting population dynamics and for informing management strategies, but is currently hampered by the requirement for intensive field observations and larval identification...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324892/genetic-factors-have-a-major-effect-on-growth-number-of-vertebrae-and-otolith-shape-in-atlantic-herring-clupea-harengus
#2
Florian Berg, Oda W Almeland, Julie Skadal, Aril Slotte, Leif Andersson, Arild Folkvord
Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35) into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12). Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321511/enhancing-vestibular-function-in-the-elderly-with-imperceptible-electrical-stimulation
#3
Jorge M Serrador, Brian M Deegan, Maria C Geraghty, Scott J Wood
Age-related loss of vestibular function can result in decrements in gaze stabilization and increased fall risk in the elderly. This study was designed to see if low levels of electrical stochastic noise applied transcutaneously to the vestibular system can improve a gaze stabilization reflex in young and elderly subject groups. Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) using a video-based technique was obtained in 16 subjects during low frequency passive roll tilts. Consistent with previous studies, there was a significant reduction in OCR gains in the elderly compared to the young group...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314006/spatio-temporal-dynamics-in-maturation-and-spawning-of-patagonian-toothfish-dissostichus-eleginoides-on-the-sub-antarctic-kerguelen-plateau
#4
P Yates, P Ziegler, D Welsford, J McIvor, B Farmer, E Woodcock
This study investigated maturation and spawning of Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides in the Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HIMI) fishery on the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean based on gonads and otoliths collected between 2004 and 2015 and using histological analyses and calibration of macroscopic staging criteria. Dissostichus eleginoides at HIMI spawn throughout the austral late autumn and winter months of May-August and spawning activity is concentrated on slopes along the west and south of the plateau around HIMI at depths of 1500-1900 m...
January 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305208/vestibulo-cochlear-function-in-inflammatory-neuropathies
#5
Marisa Blanquet, Jens A Petersen, Antonella Palla, Dorothe Veraguth, Konrad P Weber, Dominik Straumann, Alexander A Tarnutzer, Hans H Jung
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify peripheral-vestibular deficits that may contribute to imbalanced stance/gait in patients with inflammatory neuropathies. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (58 ± 15 y [mean age ± 1SD]; chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy = 10, Guillain-Barré Syndrome = 5, Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy = 2, multifocal-motor-neuropathy = 4) were compared with 26 healthy controls. All subjects received video-head-impulse testing (vHIT), caloric irrigation and cervical/ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic-potentials (VEMPs)...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298211/clinical-evaluation-of-the-vestibular-nerve-using-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#6
Jamie M Bogle
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are currently the most clinically accessible method to evaluate the otolith reflex pathways. These responses provide unique information regarding the status of the utriculo-ocular and sacculo-collic reflex pathways, information that has previously been unavailable. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are recorded from tonically contracted target muscles known to be innervated by these respective otolith organs. Diagnosticians can use vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to better evaluate the overall integrity of the inner ear and neural pathways; however, there are specific considerations for each otolith reflex protocol...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287615/use-of-lagrangian-simulations-to-hindcast-the-geographical-position-of-propagule-release-zones-in-a-mediterranean-coastal-fish
#7
Antonio Calò, Christophe Lett, Baptiste Mourre, Ángel Pérez-Ruzafa, José Antonio García-Charton
The study of organism dispersal is fundamental for elucidating patterns of connectivity between populations, thus crucial for the design of effective protection and management strategies. This is especially challenging in the case of coastal fish, for which information on egg release zones (i.e. spawning grounds) is often lacking. Here we assessed the putative location of egg release zones of the saddled sea bream (Oblada melanura) along the south-eastern coast of Spain in 2013. To this aim, we hindcasted propagule (egg and larva) dispersal using Lagrangian simulations, fed with species-specific information on early life history traits (ELTs), with two approaches: 1) back-tracking and 2) comparing settler distribution obtained from simulations to the analogous distribution resulting from otolith chemical analysis...
December 19, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274769/comparison-of-video-head-impulse-test-and-caloric-reflex-test-in-advanced-unilateral-definite-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#8
F Rubin, F Simon, B Verillaud, P Herman, R Kania, C Hautefort
AIMS: There have been very few studies of the Video Head Impulse Test (VHIT) in patients with Menière's Disease (MD). Some reported 100% normal VHIT results, others not. These discrepancies may be due to differences in severity. The present study compared VHIT and caloric reflex test results in advanced unilateral definite MD. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective study included 37 consecutive patients, with a mean age of 56±12 years. Mean hearing loss was 59±18dB HL; 12 patients were subject to Tumarkin's otolithic crises...
December 20, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245681/philometrid-nematodes-philometridae-of-marine-teleosts-from-balinese-waters-indonesia-including-the-description-of-i-philometra-i-i-damriyasai-i-sp-nov
#9
Kartika Dewi, Harry W Palm
Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, one new species of philometrid nematodes, Philometra damriyasai sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) from the body cavity of Tylerius spinosissimus (Regan, 1908) (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae), and five known species are reported in different marine teleosts from South Bali, Indonesia. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related P. javensis Moravec, Walter & Juniar, 2012 by the absence of sclerotized denticles on the cuticle of the anterior oesophageal lobes of the mouth and smaller larvae...
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232384/first-evidence-of-bighead-carp-wild-recruitment-in-western-europe-and-its-relation-to-hydrology-and-temperature
#10
Marco Milardi, Duane Chapman, Mattia Lanzoni, James M Long, Giuseppe Castaldelli
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been introduced throughout Europe, mostly unintentionally, and little attention has been given to their potential for natural reproduction. We investigated the presence of young-of-the-year bighead carp in an irrigation canal network of Northern Italy and the environmental conditions associated with spawning in 2011-2015. The adult bighead carp population of the canal network was composed by large, likely mature, individuals with an average density of 45.2 kg/ha (over 10 fold more than in the main river)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230371/mass-marking-of-juvenile-schizothorax-wangchiachii-fang-with-alizarin-red-s-and-evaluation-of-stock-enhancement-in-the-jinping-area-of-the-yalong-river
#11
Kun Yang, Shu Li, Xiaoshuai Liu, Weixiong Gan, Longjun Deng, Yezhong Tang, Zhaobin Song
Schizothorax wangchiachii is a key fish species in the stock enhancement program of the Yalong River hydropower project, China. Alizarin red S (ARS) was used to mark large numbers of juvenile S. wangchiachii in the Jinping Hatchery and later used to evaluate stock enhancement in the Jinping area of the Yalong River. In a small-scale pilot study, 7,000 juveniles of the 2014 cohort were successfully marked by immersion in ARS solution, and no mortality was recorded during the marking process. The ARS mark in the fish otoliths remained visible 20 months later...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227983/bone-conducted-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-before-and-after-stapes-surgery
#12
Kazuyuki Akazawa, Shigeto Ohta, Kenzo Tsuzuki, Masafumi Sakagami
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether stapes surgery causes otolith dysfunction using bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty primary ears (19 otosclerosis, 1 congenital stapes fixation) in 17 patients (2 men, 15 women; mean age 51 yr, range 20-68 yr) who had normal cervical VEMP (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) results with bone-conducted stimulation were included...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220379/zebrafish-skeleton-development-high-resolution-micro-ct-and-fib-sem-block-surface-serial-imaging-for-phenotype-identification
#13
Jeremie Silvent, Anat Akiva, Vlad Brumfeld, Natalie Reznikov, Katya Rechav, Karina Yaniv, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner
Although bone is one of the most studied living materials, many questions about the manner in which bones form remain unresolved, including fine details of the skeletal structure during development. In this study, we monitored skeleton development of zebrafish larvae, using calcein fluorescence, high-resolution micro-CT 3D images and FIB-SEM in the block surface serial imaging mode. We compared calcein staining of the skeletons of the wild type and nacre mutants, which are transparent zebrafish, with micro-CT for the first 30 days post fertilization embryos, and identified significant differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207275/clinical-features-of-otolith-organ-specific-vestibular-dysfunction
#14
Chisato Fujimoto, Sayaka Suzuki, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the clinical features and vestibular symptoms of patients with otolith organ dysfunction in the presence of normal function of the semicircular canals. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of 277 consecutive new patients with balance disorders who underwent testing of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and oVEMPs) as well as caloric testing and video head impulse testing (vHIT). RESULTS: We identified 76 patients who showed normal caloric responses and normal vHIT findings in each SCC plane, but abnormal responses in cVEMP and/or oVEMP testing...
January 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176818/effects-of-the-blob-on-settlement-of-spotted-sand-bass-paralabrax-maculatofasciatus-to-mission-bay-san-diego-ca
#15
Anthony Basilio, Steven Searcy, Andrew R Thompson
The West Coast of the United States experienced variable and sometimes highly unusual oceanographic conditions between 2012 and 2015. In particular, a warm mass of surface water known as the Pacific Warm Anomaly (popularly as "The Blob") impinged on southern California in 2014, and warm-water conditions remained during the 2015 El Niño. We examine how this oceanographic variability affected delivery and individual characteristics of larval spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) to an estuarine nursery habitat in southern California...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163348/intermediate-latency-evoked-potentials-of-multimodal-cortical-vestibular-areas-galvanic-stimulation
#16
Stefan Kammermeier, Arun Singh, Kai Bötzel
Introduction: Human multimodal vestibular cortical regions are bilaterally anterior insulae and posterior opercula, where characteristic vestibular-related cortical potentials were previously reported under acoustic otolith stimulation. Galvanic vestibular stimulation likely influences semicircular canals preferentially. Galvanic stimulation was compared to previously established data under acoustic stimulation. Methods: 14 healthy right-handed subjects, who were also included in the previous acoustic potential study, showed normal acoustic and galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151854/strong-population-structure-deduced-from-genetics-otolith-chemistry-and-parasite-abundances-explains-vulnerability-to-localized-fishery-collapse-in-a-large-sciaenid-fish-protonibea%C3%A2-diacanthus
#17
Laura Taillebois, Diane P Barton, David A Crook, Thor Saunders, Jonathan Taylor, Mark Hearnden, Richard J Saunders, Stephen J Newman, Michael J Travers, David J Welch, Alan Greig, Christine Dudgeon, Safia Maher, Jennifer R Ovenden
As pressure on coastal marine resources is increasing globally, the need to quantitatively assess vulnerable fish stocks is crucial in order to avoid the ecological consequences of stock depletions. Species of Sciaenidae (croakers, drums) are important components of tropical and temperate fisheries and are especially vulnerable to exploitation. The black-spotted croaker, Protonibea diacanthus, is the only large sciaenid in coastal waters of northern Australia where it is targeted by commercial, recreational and indigenous fishers due to its food value and predictable aggregating behaviour...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#18
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135871/ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-where-are-we-now
#19
Julia Dlugaiczyk
OBJECTIVE: Over the last decade, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) have evolved as a new clinical test for dynamic otolith (predominantly utricular) function. The aim of this review is to give an update on the neurophysiological foundations of oVEMPs and their implications for recording and interpreting oVEMP responses in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: Different lines of anatomical, neurophysiological, and clinical evidence support the notion that oVEMPs measure predominantly contralateral utricular function, while cervical cVEMPs are an indicator of ipsilateral saccular function...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118200/vestibular-short-latency-evoked-potential-vsep-is-abolished-by-low-frequency-noise-exposure-in-rats
#20
Courtney Elaine Stewart, Ariane C Kanicki, Richard A Altschuler, W Michael King
The vestibular system plays a critical role in detection of head movements and is essential for normal postural control. Because of their anatomical proximity to the cochlea, the otolith organs are selectively exposed to sound pressure and are at risk for noise overstimulation. Clinical reports suggest a link between noise exposure and balance problems, but the structural and physiological basis for this linkage is not well understood. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of low frequency noise (LFN), on the otolith organs by correlating changes in vestibular short latency evoked potentials, (VsEPs), with changes in saccular afferent endings following noise exposure...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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