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Jennifer C Potts, Michael L Burton, Amanda R Myers
Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136) from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981-2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March-July (peaking in May-June). Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1-42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL) and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10(-6)TL(3.11) (n = 256, r(2) = 0.95); W = 2.13 × 10(-5)FL(2.99) (n = 161, r(2) = 0.95); TL = 1...
2016: PeerJ
Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
Edwin J Niklitschek, Audrey M Darnaude
BACKGROUND: Mixture models (MM) can be used to describe mixed stocks considering three sets of parameters: the total number of contributing sources, their chemical baseline signatures and their mixing proportions. When all nursery sources have been previously identified and sampled for juvenile fish to produce baseline nursery-signatures, mixing proportions are the only unknown set of parameters to be estimated from the mixed-stock data. Otherwise, the number of sources, as well as some/all nursery-signatures may need to be also estimated from the mixed-stock data...
2016: PeerJ
Maristela Mian Ferreira, Maurício Malavasi Ganança, Heloisa Helena Caovilla
INTRODUCTION: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. OBJECTIVE: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo...
September 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Hugo Chauvet, Olivier Pouliquen, Yoël Forterre, Valérie Legué, Bruno Moulia
Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four representative angiosperm species is independent of gravity intensity. All gravitropic responses tested are dependent only on the angle of inclination from the direction of gravity...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wee Tin K Kao, Lorne S Parnes, Richard A Chole
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common vestibular disorder with an incidence between 10.7 and 17.3 per 100,000 persons per year. The mechanism for BPPV has been postulated to involve displaced otoconia resulting in canalithiasis. Although particulate matter has been observed in the endolymph of affected patients undergoing posterior canal occlusion surgery, an otoconial origin for the disease is still questioned. STUDY DESIGN: In this study, particulate matter was extracted from the posterior semicircular canal of two patients and examined with scanning electron microscopy...
October 11, 2016: Laryngoscope
A K Carlson, Q E Phelps, B D S Graeb
Otolith chemistry is an effective technique for evaluating fish environmental history, but its utility in fisheries management has not been comprehensively examined. Thus, a review of otolith chemistry with emphasis on management applicability is presented. More than 1500 otolith chemistry manuscripts published from 1967 to 2015 are reviewed and descriptive case studies are used to illustrate the utility of otolith chemistry as a fisheries management tool. Otolith chemistry publications span a wide variety of topics (e...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Pascale A L Goertler, Mark D Scheuerell, Charles A Simenstad, Daniel L Bottom
Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O...
2016: PloS One
Rachael L Taylor, Leigh A McGarvie, Nicole Reid, Allison S Young, G Michael Halmagyi, Miriam S Welgampola
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the profiles of afferent dysfunction in a cross section of patients with acute vestibular neuritis using tests of otolith and semicircular canal function sensitive to each of the 5 vestibular end organs. METHODS: Forty-three patients fulfilling clinical criteria for acute vestibular neuritis were recruited between 2010 and 2016 and studied within 10 days of symptom onset. Otolith function was evaluated with air-conducted cervical and bone-conducted ocular/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the subjective visual horizontal test...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Joshua Hatch, Yan Jiao
Inferring growth for aquatic species is dependent upon accurate descriptions of age-length relationships, which may be degraded by measurement error in observed ages. Ageing error arises from biased and/or imprecise age determinations as a consequence of misinterpretation by readers or inability of ageing structures to accurately reflect true age. A Bayesian errors-in-variables (EIV) approach (i.e., measurement-error modeling) can account for ageing uncertainty during nonlinear growth curve estimation by allowing observed ages to be parametrically modeled as random deviates...
2016: PeerJ
Paola C López-Duarte, F Joel Fodrie, Olaf P Jensen, Andrew Whitehead, Fernando Galvez, Benjamin Dubansky, Kenneth W Able
Genomic and physiological responses in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have confirmed oil exposure of resident marsh fish following the Macondo blowout in 2010. Using these same fish, we evaluated otolith microchemistry as a method for assessing oil exposure history. Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the chemical composition of sagittal otoliths to assess whether a trace metal signature could be detected in the otoliths of F. grandis collected from a Macondo-oil impacted site in 2010, post-spill relative to pre-spill, as well as versus fish from areas not impacted by the spill...
2016: PloS One
O E Tzadik, E B Peebles, C D Stallings
Chemical properties of fin rays were investigated in nine fish species to test whether life-history characteristics can be analysed using a non-lethal and minimally invasive methodology. Fish specimens from public aquariums were acquired after fishes died in captivity. Analyses concentrated on exploring the differences between the wild and captive life periods of each fish, which were known from aquarium records. Differences between the two life periods were observed in both the trace-element and stable-isotope compositions of the chemical matrix of the fin ray...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Joshua J Gnanasegaram, William J Parkes, Sharon L Cushing, Carmen L McKnight, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs). As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Esther D Goldstein, Evan K D'Alessandro, Su Sponaugle
As humans expand into natural environments, populations of wild organisms may become relegated to marginal habitats at the boundaries of their distributions. In the ocean, mesophotic coral ecosystems (30-150 m) at the depth limit of photosynthetic reefs are hypothesized to act as refuges that are buffered from anthropogenic and natural disturbances, yet the viability and persistence of subpopulations in these peripheral habitats remains poorly understood. To assess the potential for mesophotic reefs to support robust coral reef fish populations, we compared population density and structure, growth, size, and reproductive output of the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) from shallow (<10 m), deep shelf (20-30 m), and mesophotic reefs (60-70 m) across the Florida Platform...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dominic Pérennou, Céline Piscicelli
OBJECTIVE: Visual vertical (VV) measurements are being increasingly used for routine clinical assessment of spatial cognition, to investigate otolithic vestibular function and identify altered verticality perception as a possible cause of postural disorders after stroke. The objective of this paper was to synthesize knowledge of assessment methods for testing VV after stroke. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: This systematic review, following the PRISMA statement, involved a search for articles in Medline via PubMed published up to November 2015 by using the search terms "visual vertical", "verticality perception" and "stroke"...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Salma Jeribi, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Imen Achour, Bouthaina Hammemi, Abdelmoneem Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Sameh Ghroubi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of completing a vestibular rehabilitation treatment protocol on postural balance, dizziness and quality of life in patients with peripheral vertigo. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study concerning patients with instability due to unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder. The patients were evaluated with a clinical examination and a test of static and dynamic balance on the Satel(®) platform in which length, mediolateral (LongX) and anterior-posterior deviations (long Y) were monitored...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Arne Tribukait, Eddie Bergsten, Ola Eiken
BACKGROUND: During hovering with a helicopter, an involuntary change in attitude (during brownout) results in reduced lifting force and a horizontal acceleration component. This movement pattern is difficult to perceive via the otolith organs. If the angular displacement occurs rapidly, it will, however, activate the semicircular canals. The major aim of this study was to establish to what extent pitch-plane angular displacements can be perceived based on canal information when there is no tilt stimulus to the otoliths...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
M Strupp, K Feil, M Dieterich, T Brandt
The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
J M Furman
The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
J G Colebatch, S M Rosengren, M S Welgampola
The vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is a short-latency potential evoked through activation of vestibular receptors using sound or vibration. It is generated by modulated electromyographic signals either from the sternocleidomastoid muscle for the cervical VEMP (cVEMP) or the inferior oblique muscle for the ocular VEMP (oVEMP). These reflexes appear to originate from the otolith organs and thus complement existing methods of vestibular assessment, which are mainly based upon canal function. This review considers the basis, methodology, and current applications of the cVEMP and oVEMP in the assessment and diagnosis of vestibular disorders, both peripheral and central...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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