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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545058/a-systematic-genomic-screen-implicates-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-and-membrane-growth-in-nuclear-size-control
#1
Kazunori Kume, Helena Cantwell, Frank R Neumann, Andrew W Jones, Ambrosius P Snijders, Paul Nurse
How cells control the overall size and growth of membrane-bound organelles is an important unanswered question of cell biology. Fission yeast cells maintain a nuclear size proportional to cellular size, resulting in a constant ratio between nuclear and cellular volumes (N/C ratio). We have conducted a genome-wide visual screen of a fission yeast gene deletion collection for viable mutants altered in their N/C ratio, and have found that defects in both nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport and lipid synthesis alter the N/C ratio...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544998/chronic-toxicity-of-five-metals-to-the-polar-marine-microalga-cryothecomonas-armigera-application-of-a-new-bioassay
#2
Darren J Koppel, Francesca Gissi, Merrin S Adams, Catherine K King, Dianne F Jolley
The paucity of ecotoxicological data for Antarctic organisms is impeding the development of region-specific water quality guidelines. To address this limitation, toxicity testing protocols need to be developed to account for the unique physiology of polar organisms, in particular their slow growth rates. In this study, a toxicity test protocol was developed to investigate the toxicities of five metals to the polar marine microalga Cryothecomonas armigera. The concentrations which reduced population growth rate by 10% (EC10) after 24-d for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni were 21...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544208/ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanistic-and-diagnostic-insights-of-energy-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-advanced-fibrosis
#3
Stefan Traussnigg, Christian Kienbacher, Martin Gajdošík, Ladislav Valkovič, Emina Halilbasic, Judith Stift, Christian Rechling, Harald Hofer, Petra Steindl-Munda, Peter Ferenci, Fritz Wrba, Siegfried Trattnig, Martin Krššák, Michael Trauner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: With the rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) non-invasive tools obtaining pathomechanistic insights to improve risk stratification are urgently needed. We therefore explored high- and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to obtain novel mechanistic and diagnostic insights into alterations of hepatic lipid, cell membrane and energy metabolism across the spectrum of NAFLD. METHODS: MRS and liver biopsy were performed in 30 NAFLD patients with NAFL (n=8) or NASH (n=22)...
April 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544137/phenotypic-identification-of-a-novel-autophagy-inhibitor-chemotype-targeting-lipid-kinase-vps34
#4
Herbert Waldmann, Lucas Robke, Luca Laraia, Marjorie A Carnero Corrales, Georgios Konstantinidis, Makoto Muroi, André Richters, Michael Winzker, Tobias Engbring, Stefano Tomassi, Nobumoto Watanabe, Hiroyuki Osada, Daniel Rauh, Yaowen Wu, Julian Engel
Autophagy is a critical regulator of cellular homeostasis and metabolism. Interference with this process is considered a new approach for the treatment of disease, in particular cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, novel small molecule autophagy modulators are in high demand. We describe the discovery of autophinib, a potent autophagy inhibitor with a novel chemotype. Autophinib was identified by means of a phenotypic assay monitoring formation of autophagy-induced puncta indicating accumulation of lipidated cytosolic protein LC3 on the autophagosomal membrane...
May 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543808/comparison-of-two-methods-of-seminal-plasma-removal-on-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-sperm-cryopreservation
#5
R S Albuquerque, R Morais, A N Reis, M S Miranda, Ear Dias, F M Monteiro, Ccp Paz, M Nichi, Gkv Kawai, Cpf Della'Aqua, F O Papa, R B Viana, L U Gimenes
Cryopreservation causes damage to spermatozoa, and methods minimizing this damage are therefore needed. Although much discussed, seminal plasma removal has become an alternative to improve sperm quality and viability after freezing and has been applied to different species in attempt to obtain good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate semen quality in buffaloes submitted to two methods for seminal plasma removal (filtration and centrifugation). Semen samples were collected from seven Murrah buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) once a week for 8 weeks...
May 19, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543308/exocytic-trafficking-pathways-in-plants-why-and-how-they-are-redirected
#6
REVIEW
Takehiko Kanazawa, Takashi Ueda
The membrane trafficking system is responsible for precise transportation and localization of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides among single membrane-bound organelles, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular space. While the exocytic trafficking pathway is considered to be a default transport pathway in many organisms, including land plants, research has shown that evolutionary processes led to an increase in the number of machinery components involved in the plant exocytic pathway. This study provides an overview of the diversification of exocytic trafficking pathways in plants, which mediate the formation and maintenance of cell polarity, interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic microbes, and cytokinesis...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542832/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-adaptive-changes-of-hibernating-retinas
#7
Yizhao Luan, Jingxing Ou, Vincent P Kunze, Fengyu Qiao, Yan Wang, Lai Wei, Wei Li, Zhi Xie
Hibernation is a seasonally adaptive strategy that allows hibernators to live through extremely cold conditions. Despite the profound reduction of blood flow to the retinas, hibernation causes no lasting retinal injury. Instead, hibernators show an increased tolerance to ischemic insults during the hibernation period. To understand the molecular changes of the retinas in response to hibernation, we applied an integrative transcriptome and metabolome analysis to explore changes in gene expression and metabolites of 13-lined ground squirrel retinas during hibernation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542792/on-the-complexity-of-clinical-and-molecular-bases-of-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#8
REVIEW
Cristina Tello, Alejandra Darling, Vincenzo Lupo, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Carmen Espinós
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of inherited heterogeneous neurodegenerative rare disorders. These patients present with dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric disturbances, along with brain MRI evidence of iron accumulation. In sum, they are devastating disorders and to date, there is no specific treatment. Ten NBIA genes are accepted: PANK2, PLA2G6, C19orf12, COASY, FA2H, ATP13A2, WDR45, FTL, CP, and DCAF17, and. Nonetheless, a relevant percentage of patients remain without genetic diagnosis, suggesting that other novel NBIA genes remain to be discovered...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542493/the-in-vivo-structure-of-biological-membranes-and-evidence-for-lipid-domains
#9
Jonathan D Nickels, Sneha Chatterjee, Christopher B Stanley, Shuo Qian, Xiaolin Cheng, Dean A A Myles, Robert F Standaert, James G Elkins, John Katsaras
Examining the fundamental structure and processes of living cells at the nanoscale poses a unique analytical challenge, as cells are dynamic, chemically diverse, and fragile. A case in point is the cell membrane, which is too small to be seen directly with optical microscopy and provides little observational contrast for other methods. As a consequence, nanoscale characterization of the membrane has been performed ex vivo or in the presence of exogenous labels used to enhance contrast and impart specificity...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542212/proteome-dynamics-of-cold-acclimating-rhododendron-species-contrasting-in-their-freezing-tolerance-and-thermonasty-behavior
#10
Jose V Die, Rajeev Arora, Lisa J Rowland
To gain a better understanding of cold acclimation in rhododendron and in woody perennials in general, we used the 2D-DIGE technique to analyze the rhododendron proteome during the seasonal development of freezing tolerance. We selected two species varying in their cold acclimation ability as well as their thermonasty response (folding of leaves in response to low temperature). Proteins were extracted from leaves of non-acclimated (NA) and cold acclimated (CA) plants of the hardier thermonastic species, R. catawbiense (Cata...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541045/orally-absorbed-cyclic-peptides
#11
Daniel S Nielsen, Nicholas E Shepherd, Weijun Xu, Andrew J Lucke, Martin J Stoermer, David P Fairlie
Peptides and proteins are not orally bioavailable in mammals, although a few peptides are intestinally absorbed in small amounts. Polypeptides are generally too large and polar to passively diffuse through lipid membranes, while most known active transport mechanisms facilitate cell uptake of only very small peptides. Systematic evaluations of peptides with molecular weights above 500 Da are needed to identify parameters that influence oral bioavailability. Here we describe 125 cyclic peptides containing four to thirty-seven amino acids that are orally absorbed by mammals...
May 25, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540446/lipid-per-oxidation-in-mitochondria-an-emerging-target-in-the-ageing-process
#12
REVIEW
O S Ademowo, H K I Dias, D G A Burton, H R Griffiths
Lipids are essential for physiological processes such as maintaining membrane integrity, providing a source of energy and acting as signalling molecules to control processes including cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis. Disruption of lipid homeostasis can promote pathological changes that contribute towards biological ageing and age-related diseases. Several age-related diseases have been associated with altered lipid metabolism and an elevation in highly damaging lipid peroxidation products; the latter has been ascribed, at least in part, to mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated ROS formation...
May 24, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540421/yeast-env9-encodes-a-conserved-lipid-droplet-ld-short-chain-dehydrogenase-involved-in-ld-morphology
#13
Ikha M Siddiqah, Surya P Manandhar, Stephanie M Cocca, Teli Hsueh, Vanessa Cervantes, Editte Gharakhanian
Lipid droplets (LDs) have emerged as dynamic and interactive organelles with important roles in lipid metabolism and membrane biogenesis. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Env9 is a novel conserved oxidoreductase involved in LD morphology. Microscopic and biochemical studies confirm localization of tagged Env9 to LDs and implicate its C-terminal hydrophobic domain (aa241-265) in its membrane association and stability. Confocal studies reveal a role for Env9 in LD morphology. Env9 positively affects both formation of large LDs upon overexpression and LD proliferation under poor carbon source...
May 24, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539484/variation-of-thermal-conductivity-of-dppc-lipid-bilayer-membranes-around-the-phase-transition-temperature
#14
Sina Youssefian, Nima Rahbar, Christopher R Lambert, Steven Van Dessel
Given their amphiphilic nature and chemical structure, phospholipids exhibit a strong thermotropic and lyotropic phase behaviour in an aqueous environment. Around the phase transition temperature, phospholipids transform from a gel-like state to a fluid crystalline structure. In this transition, many key characteristics of the lipid bilayers such as structure and thermal properties alter. In this study, we employed atomistic simulation techniques to study the structure and underlying mechanisms of heat transfer in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers around the fluid-gel phase transformation...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539454/ebola-virus-delta-peptide-is-a-viroporin
#15
Jing He, Lilia I Melnik, Alexander Komin, Gregory Wiedman, Taylor Fuselier, Cameron F Morris, Charles G Starr, Peter C Searson, William R Gallaher, Kalina Hristova, Robert F Garry, William C Wimley
The Ebola virus (EBOV) genome encodes for a partly conserved, 40-residue, nonstructural polypeptide, called the delta peptide, which is produced in abundance during Ebola virus disease. The function of the delta peptide is unknown, but sequence analysis has suggested that delta peptide could be a viroporin, belonging to a diverse family of membrane-permeabilizing small polypeptides involved in replication and pathogenesis of numerous viruses. Full length and conserved C-terminal delta peptide fragments permeabilize the plasma membranes of nucleated cells of rodent, dog, monkey and human origin, increase ion permeability across confluent cell monolayers and permeabilize synthetic lipid bilayers...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538724/applying-systems-level-spectral-imaging-and-analysis-to-reveal-the-organelle-interactome
#16
Alex M Valm, Sarah Cohen, Wesley R Legant, Justin Melunis, Uri Hershberg, Eric Wait, Andrew R Cohen, Michael W Davidson, Eric Betzig, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538154/effect-of-ca-2-to-sphingomyelin-investigated-by-sum-frequency-generation-vibrational-spectroscopy
#17
Rong-Juan Feng, Lu Lin, Yi-Yi Li, Ming-Hua Liu, Yuan Guo, Zhen Zhang
The interactions between Ca(2+) ions and sphingomyelin play crucial roles in a wide range of cellular activities. However, little is known about the molecular details of the interactions at interfaces. In this work, we investigated the interactions between Ca(2+) ions and egg sphingomyelin (ESM) Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface by subwavenumber high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). We show that Ca(2+) ions can induce ordering of the acyl chains in the ESM monolayer...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538152/apoptotic-bax-at-oxidatively-stressed-mitochondrial-membranes-lipid-dynamics-and-permeabilization
#18
Artur Peter Günther Dingeldein, Šárka Pokorná, Martin Lidman, Tobias Sparrman, Radek Šachl, Martin Hof, Gerhard Gröbner
Mitochondria are crucial compartments of eukaryotic cells because they function as the cellular power plant and play a central role in the early stages of programmed cell death (apoptosis). To avoid undesired cell death, this apoptotic pathway is tightly regulated by members of the Bcl-2 protein family, which interact on the external surface of the mitochondria, i.e., the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and modulate its permeability to apoptotic factors, controlling their release into the cytosol. A growing body of evidence suggests that the MOM lipids play active roles in this permeabilization process...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538099/iodide-selective-synthetic-ion-channels-based-on-shape-persistent-organic-cages
#19
Bahiru Punja Benke, Pulakesh Aich, Younghoon Kim, Kyung Lock Kim, Md Rumum Rohman, Soonsang Hong, In-Chul Hwang, Eun Hui Lee, Joon Ho Roh, Kimoon Kim
We report here a synthetic ion channel developed from a shape-persistent porphyrin-based covalent organic cage. The cage was synthesized by employing a synthetically economical dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) approach. The organic cage selectively transports biologically relevant iodide ions over other inorganic anions by a dehydration-driven, channel mechanism as evidenced by vesicle-based fluorescence assays and planar lipid bilayer-based single channel recordings. Furthermore, the organic cage appears to facilitate iodide transport across the membrane of a living cell, suggesting that the cage could be useful as a biological tool that may replace defective iodide channels in living systems...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537816/effect-of-vitamin-e-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-cryopreserved-sperm-quality-in-bos-taurus-bulls-under-testicular-heat-stress
#20
João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Andressa Dalmazzo, Carolina C Rocha, Maíra M Brito, Eduardo G A Perez, Roberta H Tsunoda, Paola A A Góes, Camilla M Mendes, Mayra E O A Assumpção, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality...
May 24, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
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