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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753026/chronic-hyperinsulinemia-promotes-meta-inflammation-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition-in-adipose-tissue-implications-of-nitric-oxide
#1
Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Saraswati Patel, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Sanchita Gupta, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anil N Gaikwad
Various imperative studies support the notion that hyperinsulinemia (HI) itself serves as the common link between adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of HI mediated ATI and its metabolic consequences are yet to be explored. We induced chronic HI per se in mice by administration of exogenous insulin for 8 weeks through mini-osmotic pumps. For the reduction of circulating insulin in response to excess calorie intake, we have partially ablated β-cells by using streptozotocin (STZ) in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic mice models (db/db)...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746487/loss-of-malat1-does-not-modify-age-or-diet-induced-adipose-tissue-accretion-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#2
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Louise Boivin, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Frédéric Picard
Several studies have suggested that signals emerging from white adipose tissue can contribute to the control of longevity. In turn, aging is associated with perturbed regulation and partitioning of fat depots and insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanisms involved in these relationships remain undetermined. Using RAP-PCR on adipose tissue of young and old male mice coupled with qPCR validation, we have uncovered the long non-coding RNA Malat1 as a gene robustly downregulated in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) during normal aging in male mice and men...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744359/metamorphopsia-score-and-central-visual-field-outcomes-in-diabetic-cystoid-macular-edema
#3
Agnieszka Kalinowska, Katarzyna Nowomiejska, Agnieszka Brzozowska, Ryszard Maciejewski, Robert Rejdak
Aim: To detect abnormality of the visual function in naïve patients with cystoid diabetic macular edema (DME) using M-charts, Amsler test, and white on white (W/W) and blue on yellow (B/Y) perimetry. Methods: There were 64 eyes included in the study: 30 eyes with DME, 22 eyes with diabetes without DME, and 12 eyes of normal subjects. Conventional W/W perimetry and B/Y perimetry were performed within the central 10° of the visual field. To assess metamorphopsia, Amsler test and M-charts were used...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740969/peripheral-cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-mitigates-adipose-tissue-inflammation-via-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-mouse-models-of-obesity
#4
Ji Hye Han, Hanho Shin, Jun Gi Rho, Jung-Eun Kim, Dong Hwee Son, Juhwan Yoon, Yong Jae Lee, Jung-Hyuck Park, Byung Jeong Song, Chang-Sik Choi, Seul Gi Yoon, Il Yong Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Je Kyung Seong, Ki Woo Kim, Wook Kim
AIMS: Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists have been shown to improve insulin resistance and the associated metabolic abnormalities, but their therapeutic development was discontinued due to neuropsychiatric side effects. This study evaluated AJ5018 as the peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist, synthesized by modifying the structure of its brain-penetrant parent compound rimonabant, and analyzed the metabolic parameters and adipose tissue inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome following chronic treatment of mouse models of obesity with AJ5018...
May 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725848/breakdown-of-demarcated-opacities-related-to-molar-incisor-hypomineralization-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Aline Borburema Neves, Gabriela Caldeira Andrade Americano, Daniella Varela Soares, Vera Mendes Soviero
OBJECTIVES: This prospective longitudinal study aimed to evaluate if the occurrence of post-eruptive breakdown of demarcated opacities in hypomineralized teeth is influenced by the color or location of the opacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) between 2012 and 2014 were eligible. Two calibrated examiners performed the initial and follow-up evaluations according to European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716244/a-frame-selective-dynamic-programming-approach-for-noise-robust-pitch-estimation
#6
Chiranjeevi Yarra, Om D Deshmukh, Prasanta Kumar Ghosh
The principles of the existing pitch estimation techniques are often different and complementary in nature. In this work, a frame selective dynamic programming (FSDP) method is proposed which exploits the complementary characteristics of two existing methods, namely, sub-harmonic to harmonic ratio (SHR) and sawtooth-wave inspired pitch estimator (SWIPE). Using variants of SHR and SWIPE, the proposed FSDP method classifies all the voiced frames into two classes-the first class consists of the frames where a confidence score maximization criterion is used for pitch estimation, while for the second class, a dynamic programming (DP) based approach is proposed...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712667/restructuring-of-the-gut-microbiome-by-intermittent-fasting-prevents-retinopathy-and-prolongs-survival-in-db-db-mice
#7
Eleni Beli, Yuanqing Yan, Leni Moldovan, Cristiano P Vieira, Ruli Gao, Yaqian Duan, Ram Prasad, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Fletcher A White, Steven Townsend, Luisa Chan, Caitlin N Ryan, Daniel Morton, Emil G Moldovan, Fang-I Chu, Gavin Y Oudit, Hartmut Derendorf, Luciano Adorini, Xiaoxin X Wang, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Michael E Boulton, Mervin C Yoder, Qiuhong Li, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Intermittent fasting (IF) protects against the development of metabolic diseases and cancer, but whether it can prevent diabetic microvascular complications is not known. In db/db mice, we examined the impact of long-term IF on diabetic retinopathy (DR). Despite no change in glycated hemoglobin, db/db mice on the IF regimen displayed significantly longer survival and a reduction in DR endpoints, including acellular capillaries and leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesized that IF mediated changes in the gut microbiota would produce beneficial metabolites and prevent the development of DR...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676547/morphologic-comparison-of-peripheral-nerves-in-adipocyte-tissue-from-db-db-diabetic-versus-normal-mice
#8
Kyung Ae Lee, Na Young Lee, Tae Sun Park, Heung Yong Jin
Present study investigated the morphologic changes of autonomic nerves in the adipose tissue in diabetic animal model. Male obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice and age matched non-diabetic db/m control mice were used. Epididymal adipose tissue from diabetic db/db mice with that from control heterozygous db/m mice was compared using confocal microscopy-based method to visualize intact whole adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase for sympathetic (SP), choline acetyltransferase for parasympathetic (PSP), and protein gene product 9...
April 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#9
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628262/chitosan-oligosaccharides-improve-the-disturbance-in-glucose-metabolism-and-reverse-the-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-diabetic-mice
#10
Junping Zheng, Xubing Yuan, Gong Cheng, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Xiaoming Zhao, Heng Yin, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wild type C57BL/6J mice or diabetic db/db mice were treated with vehicle or COS for three months. COS treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose (P < 0.01) and reversed the insulin resistance (P < 0.05) in db/db mice, which was accompanied by suppressing the inflammation mediators (P < 0.05), down-regulating the lipogenesis (P < 0.01) and inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation (P < 0...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600911/intraoperative-monitoring-with-visual-evoked-potentials-for-brain-surgeries
#11
Eveline M Gutzwiller, Ivan Cabrilo, Ivan Radovanovic, Karl Schaller, Colette Boëx
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the performance of intraoperative visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in detecting visual field changes. METHODS Assessments of VEPs were performed with simultaneous retinal responses by using white light-emitting diodes protected from scialytic microscope lights. The alarm criterion was a reproducible decrease in amplitude of the VEP P100 wave of 20% or more. Visual fields were assessed preoperatively and 1 month postsurgery (Goldmann perimetry). RESULTS The VEPs were analyzed for 29 patients undergoing resection of a brain lesion...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574398/heterogeneous-multifrequency-direct-inversion-hmdi-for-magnetic-resonance-elastography-with-application-to-a-clinical-brain-exam
#12
Eric Barnhill, Penny J Davies, Cemre Ariyurek, Andreas Fehlner, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack
A new viscoelastic wave inversion method for MRE, called Heterogeneous Multifrequency Direct Inversion (HMDI), was developed which accommodates heterogeneous elasticity within a direct inversion (DI) by incorporating first-order gradients and combining results from a narrow band of multiple frequencies. The method is compared with a Helmholtz-type DI, Multifrequency Dual Elasto-Visco inversion (MDEV), both on ground-truth Finite Element Method simulations at varied noise levels and a prospective in vivo brain cohort of 48 subjects ages 18-65...
March 17, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574337/socioeconomic-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-exposure-to-air-and-noise-pollution-in-london
#13
Cathryn Tonne, Carles Milà, Daniela Fecht, Mar Alvarez, John Gulliver, James Smith, Sean Beevers, H Ross Anderson, Frank Kelly
BACKGROUND: Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources...
March 22, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557857/private-versus-medicaid-patients-referred-to-developmental-behavioral-pediatricians-do-they-differ-a-dbpnet-study
#14
Ruth E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Marilyn C Augustyn, Nathan J Blum, Pamela High, Nancy J Roizen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how insurance status affects elements of evaluation at developmental behavioral (DB) pediatric sites. OBJECTIVE: To compare DB referrals, evaluation, and treatment for children with Medicaid and private insurance. DESIGN/METHODS: Fifty-six developmental behavioral pediatricians at 12 sites recorded anonymous data on structured forms for ≤15 consecutive referrals. Children with Medicaid (n = 309) and private insurance (n = 393) were compared on sociodemographic factors, referral concerns, evaluation elements, and resulting diagnoses...
May 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557247/hearing-trajectory-in-children-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#15
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Winnie Chung, Jessica Leung, A Chantal Caviness, Jason L Baumgardner, Peggy Blum, Stephanie R Bialek, Gail Demmler-Harrison
Objectives To compare hearing trajectories among children with symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection through age 18 years and to identify brain abnormalities associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in asymptomatic case patients. Study Design Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods The study included 96 case patients (4 symptomatic and 92 asymptomatic) identified through hospital-based newborn cytomegalovirus screening from 1982 to 1992 and 72 symptomatic case patients identified through referrals from 1993 to 2005...
April 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534887/antibacterial-and-remineralizing-orthodontic-adhesive-containing-quaternary-ammonium-resin-monomer-and-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles
#16
Yan Liu, Ling Zhang, Li-Na Niu, Tao Yu, Hockin H K Xu, Michael D Weir, Thomas W Oates, Franklin R Tay, Ji-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the bonding performance, antibacterial activity, and remineralization effect on enamel of the orthodontic adhesive containing MAE-DB and NACP. METHODS: Eighty non-carious human premolars were divided into 3 groups: Transbond XT (TB), PEHB + 5% MAE-DB (PD), and PEHB + 40% NACP + 5% MAE-DB (PND). Premolars were bonded with orthodontic brackets, the first subgroup (n = 10) and the second subgroup (n = 10) were subjected to shear bond strength testing after immersed in water for 1 day and in demineralization solution for 28 days respectively and then tested surface roughness, while the third subgroup (n = 6) was used for microhardness evaluation after aged in demineralization solution for 28 days...
May 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492559/multi-scale-peak-and-trough-detection-optimised-for-periodic-and-quasi-periodic-neuroscience-data
#17
Steven M Bishop, Ari Ercole
OBJECTIVES: The reliable detection of peaks and troughs in physiological signals is essential to many investigative techniques in medicine and computational biology. Analysis of the intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform is a particular challenge due to multi-scale features, a changing morphology over time and signal-to-noise limitations. Here we present an efficient peak and trough detection algorithm that extends the scalogram approach of Scholkmann et al., and results in greatly improved algorithm runtime performance...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470573/factors-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-in-medically-and-surgically-treated-patients-with-glaucoma
#18
Cheryl L Khanna, David A Leske, Jonathan M Holmes
Importance: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is often reduced with glaucoma, but associated factors are poorly understood. Objective: To determine factors associated with reduced HRQOL in medically and surgically treated patients with glaucoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral glaucoma practice, with 160 consecutive, prospectively enrolled medically or surgically treated adult patients with glaucoma...
April 1, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451220/critical-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-signaling-pathway-in-stem-cell-homing-in-the-deafened-rat-cochlea-after-acoustic-trauma
#19
Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Navid Ahmady Roozbahany, Hassan Peyvandi, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Niloofar Majdinasab, Mohammad Faridan, Somayeh Niknazar
Previous animal studies have shown that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) signaling pathway plays an important role in the targeted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to the injured area. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of chemotactic SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway in the homing of transplanted BMSCs to the injured cochlea after noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a rat model. White noise exposure (110 dB) paradigm was used for hearing loss induction in male rats for 6 hours in 5 days...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433422/the-effect-of-noise-exposure-on-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-may-be-mediated-by-the-jnk-irs1-pathway
#20
Lijie Liu, Cong Fang, Jing Yang, Hongyu Zhang, Yi Huang, Chuanying Xuan, Yongfang Wang, Shengwei Li, Jun Sha, Mingming Zha, Min Guo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that noise exposure may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and experimental studies have demonstrated that noise exposure can induce insulin resistance in rodents. The aim of the present study was to explore noise-induced processes underlying impaired insulin sensitivity in mice. METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group without noise exposure and three noise groups exposed to white noise at a 95-dB sound pressure level for 4 h/day for 1, 10, or 20 days (N1D, N10D, and N20D, respectively)...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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