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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900540/treatment-of-diabetic-mice-with-the-sglt2-inhibitor-ta-1887-antagonizes-diabetic-cachexia-and-decreases-mortality
#1
Taichi Sugizaki, Shunshun Zhu, Ge Guo, Akiko Matsumoto, Jiabin Zhao, Motoyoshi Endo, Haruki Horiguchi, Jun Morinaga, Zhe Tian, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Keishi Miyata, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike
A favorable effect of an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2i) on mortality of diabetic patients was recently reported, although mechanisms underlying that effect remained unclear. Here, we examine SGLT2i effects on survival of diabetic mice and assess factors underlying these outcomes. To examine SGLT2i treatment effects in a model of severe diabetes, we fed genetically diabetic db/db mice a high-fat diet and then assessed outcomes including diabetic complications between SGLT2i TA-1887-treated and control mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#2
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880463/exploratory-and-descriptive-study-on-nutritional-characteristics-and-quality-of-eggs-from-chilean-partridge-nothoprocta-perdicaria
#3
José Luis Arias, Alberto Matthei, Carolina Valenzuela
This work aims to contribute more information on tinamou eggs by performing an exploratory and descriptive study of some of their nutritional and quality characteristics. The chemical composition of tinamou egg showed a high protein content in white (85% dry basis) and high lipid concentration in yolk (52% db). The iron (Fe) content in white was higher than hen egg (0.47 mg/100 g) and this could be associated with the observed pinkish color of the white. As in the hen egg, the major fatty acids in tinamou yolk were: oleic (39%), linoleic (23%) and palmitic (20%)...
September 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867757/visual-field-improvement-in-non-arteritic-posterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-a-patient-treated-with-intravenous-prostaglandin-e1-and-steroids
#4
Robert Davis Jr Steigerwalt, Paolo Giuseppe Limoli, Marcella Nebbioso
Non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-PION) is a disorder of reduced blood flow to the retrobulbar optic nerve. There is usually an acute loss of visual acuity and field. Previous studies have noted an improvement in visual acuity and in ocular and retrobulbar blood flow with the use of a potent vasodilator of the microcirculation, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and steroids. The current report describes immediate improvement in the visual fields and visual acuity in a patient with NA-PION treated with intravenous PGE1 and steroids 66 hours after onset...
2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863591/bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-auditory-brainstem-responses-to-frequency-modulated-chirp-stimuli
#5
James J Finneran, Jason Mulsow, Ryan Jones, Dorian S Houser, Robert F Burkard
Previous studies have demonstrated that increasing-frequency chirp stimuli (up-chirps) can enhance human auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes by compensating for temporal dispersion occurring along the cochlear partition. In this study, ABRs were measured in two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to spectrally white clicks, up-chirps, and decreasing-frequency chirps (down-chirps). Chirp durations varied from 125 to 2000 μs. For all stimuli, frequency bandwidth was constant (10-180 kHz) and peak-equivalent sound pressure levels (peSPLs) were 115, 125, and 135 dB re 1 μPa...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863034/the-effect-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-on-cortical-auditory-evoked-potentials-elicited-to-speech-stimuli-in-infants-and-adults-with-normal-hearing
#6
Susan A Small, Mridula Sharma, M Bradford, Pragati Rao Mandikal Vasuki
OBJECTIVES: Identification and discrimination of speech sounds in noisy environments is challenging for adults and even more so for infants and children. Behavioral studies consistently report maturational differences in the influence that signal to noise ratio (SNR) and masker type have on speech processing; however, few studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying these differences at the level of the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different SNRs on speech-evoked cortical auditory-evoked potentials (CAEPs) in infants and adults with normal hearing...
August 31, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817476/gamification-of-nursing-education-with-digital-badges
#7
Meagan White, Teresa Shellenbarger
Digital badges (DBs) serve as an innovative approach to gamifying nursing education by engaging socially connected, technologically savvy nursing students in learning. Because assessment and credentialing mechanisms are housed and managed online, DBs are designed as visible indicators of accomplishment and skill. This article describes important considerations for faculty when incorporating game-based pedagogies such as DB into nursing education and identifies potential pitfalls with DB use that faculty should consider...
August 16, 2017: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810973/the-influence-of-combat-experience-on-psychologically-healthy-soldiers-attentiveness-to-environmental-threats
#8
Bethany Ranes, Chris P Long, Stephanie Traynham, Amanda Hayes
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791082/protective-effect-of-nigella-sativa-oil-on-acoustic-trauma-induced-hearing-loss-in-rats
#9
Belde Culhaoglu, Selim S Erbek, Seyra Erbek, Evren Hizal
Acoustic trauma is a common reason for hearing loss. Different agents are used to prevent the harmful effect of acoustic trauma on hearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential preventive effect of Nigella sativa (black cumin) oil in acoustic trauma. Our experimental study was conducted with 20 Sprague Downey female rats (mean age, 12 months; mean weight 250 g). All of the procedures were held under general anesthesia. Following otoscopic examinations, baseline-hearing thresholds were obtained using auditory brainstem responses (ABR)...
July 18, 2017: Audiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750130/prevalence-of-hearing-loss-among-children-9-to-11-years-old-the-generation-r-study
#10
Carlijn M P le Clercq, Gijs van Ingen, Liesbet Ruytjens, André Goedegebure, Henriette A Moll, Hein Raat, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Rob J Baatenburg de Jong, Marc P van der Schroeff
Importance: Hearing loss (HL), a major cause of disability globally, negatively affects both personal and professional life. Objective: To describe the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) among a population-based cohort of 9- to 11-year-old children, and to examine potential associations between purported risk factors and SNHL in early childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was among the general, nonclinical, pediatric community within the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and was conducted between 2012 and 2015 as a cross-sectional assessment within the Generation R Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort study from fetal life until adulthood...
July 27, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712816/enhanced-startle-reflexivity-during-presentation-of-visual-nurture-cues-in-young-adults-who-experienced-parental-divorce-in-early-childhood
#11
Xenia Hengesch, Mauro F Larra, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712022/effects-of-dietary-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-growth-performance-digestive-enzymes-and-gut-morphology-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#12
Xiaoting Zheng, Yafei Duan, Hongbiao Dong, Jiasong Zhang
A 15-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and gut morphology of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (initial body weight = 7.96 ± 0.59 g). Four microbound diets were formulated to contain fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB), and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum. Results indicated that final weight was significantly higher in FS, DB, and CE group in comparison to the control group (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691397/cyanidin-3-glucoside-increases-whole-body-energy-metabolism-by-upregulating-brown-adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-function
#13
Yilin You, Xiaoxue Yuan, Xiaomeng Liu, Chen Liang, Minghui Meng, Yuanyuan Huang, Xue Han, Jielong Guo, Yu Guo, Chenglong Ren, Qianwen Zhang, Xiangyu Sun, Tingting Ma, Guojie Liu, Wanzhu Jin, Weidong Huang, Jicheng Zhan
SCOPE: Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and function increases energy expenditure and may protect against obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is an anthocyanin compound which occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of C3G on the prevention of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Db/db mice received C3G dissolved in drinking water for 16 weeks; Drinking water served as the vehicle treatment...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623279/divergent-regulation-of-actin-dynamics-and-megakaryoblastic-leukemia-1-and-2-mkl1-2-by-camp-in-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
Madeleine C Smith, Claire A Hudson, Tomomi E Kimura, Stephen J White, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Andrew C Newby, Mark Bond
Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or endothelial cell (ECs) promote or inhibit, respectively, restenosis after angioplasty, vein graft intimal thickening and atherogenesis. Here we investigated the effects of cAMP-induced cytoskeletal remodelling on the serum response factor (SRF) co-factors Megakaryoblastic Leukemia-1 and -2 (MKL1 and MKL2) and their role in controlling VSMC and EC proliferation and migration. Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), BAY60-6583 or Cicaprost induced rapid cytoskeleton remodelling and inhibited proliferation and migration in VSMCs but not EC...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611668/selective-tissue-distribution-mediates-tissue-dependent-ppar%C3%AE-activation-and-insulin-sensitization-by-int131-a-selective-ppar%C3%AE-modulator
#15
Xinni Xie, Wei Chen, Ning Zhang, Mei Yuan, Cheng Xu, Zhibing Zheng, Hua Li, Lili Wang
The mechanisms underlying the enhancement of insulin sensitivity by selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulators (sPPARγMs) are still not completely known. Here, the representative sPPARγM, INT131, was used as a probe to investigate the insulin-sensitizing mechanisms of sPPARγM in the context of tissue selective compound distribution and PPARγ regulation. First, 30 mg kg(-1) INT131 was observed to produce an insulin-sensitizing effect comparable to that of 10 mg kg(-1) rosiglitazone (RSG) in both db/db and DIO mice using the oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595255/pilot-electroacoustic-analyses-of-a-sample-of-direct-to-consumer-amplification-products
#16
Nicholas S Reed, Joshua Betz, Frank R Lin, Sara K Mamo
OBJECTIVE: Recent national initiatives from the White House and Institute of Medicine have focused on strategies to increase the accessibility and affordability of hearing loss treatment given the average cost of $4700 for bilateral hearing aids. More affordable direct-to-consumer hearing technologies are increasingly gaining recognition, but the performance of these devices has been poorly studied. We investigated the technical and electroacoustic capabilities of several direct-to-consumer hearing devices to inform otolaryngologists who may be asked by patients to comment on these devices...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594978/association-of-gel-forming-mucins-and-aquaporin-gene-expression-with-hearing-loss-effusion-viscosity-and-inflammation-in-otitis-media-with-effusion
#17
Tina L Samuels, Justin C Yan, Pawjai Khampang, Peter W Dettmar, Alexander MacKinnon, Wenzhou Hong, Nikki Johnston, Blake C Papsin, Robert H Chun, Michael E McCormick, Joseph E Kerschner
Importance: Persistent, viscous middle ear effusion in pediatric otitis media (OM) contributes to increased likelihood of anesthesia and surgery, conductive hearing loss, and subsequent developmental delays. Biomarkers of effusion viscosity and hearing loss have not yet been identified despite the potential that such markers hold for targeted therapy and screening. Objective: To investigate the association of gel-forming mucins and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) gene expression with inflammation, effusion viscosity, and hearing loss in pediatric OM with effusion (OME)...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583918/gpr120-suppresses-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-synergizes-with-gpr40-in-antidiabetic-efficacy
#18
Santhosh Satapati, Ying Qian, Margaret S Wu, Aleksandr Petrov, Ge Dai, Sheng-Ping Wang, Yonghua Zhu, Xiaolan Shen, Eric S Muise, Ying Chen, Emanuel Zycband, Adam Weinglass, Jerry Di Salvo, John S Debenham, Jason M Cox, Ping Lan, Vinit Shah, Stephen F Previs, Mark Erion, David E Kelley, Liangsu Wang, Andrew D Howard, Jin Shang
GPR40 and GPR120 are fatty acid sensors that play important roles in glucose and energy homeostasis. GPR40 potentiates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and demonstrated in clinical studies robust glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. GPR120 improves insulin sensitivity in rodents, albeit its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we postulated that the antidiabetic efficacy of GPR40 could be enhanced by coactivating GPR120. A combination of GPR40 and GPR120 agonists in db/db mice, as well as a single molecule with dual agonist activities, achieved superior glycemic control compared with either monotherapy...
August 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570373/effects-of-white-noise-on-event-related-potentials-in-somatosensory-go-no-go-paradigms
#19
Wakana Ohbayashi, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hiroki Nakata
Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate human cognitive function. This phenomenon is termed stochastic resonance, and a moderate amount of auditory noise has been suggested to benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. The present study investigated the effects of white noise on the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550279/cinnamon-induces-browning-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes
#20
Hiu Yee Kwan, Jiahui Wu, Tao Su, Xiao-Juan Chao, Bin Liu, Xiuqiong Fu, Chi Leung Chan, Rebecca Hiu Ying Lau, Anfernee Kai Wing Tse, Quan Bin Han, Wang Fun Fong, Zhi-Ling Yu
Browning is the process of increasing the number of brite cells, which helps to increase energy expenditure and reduce obesity. Consumption of natural and non-toxic herbal extracts that possess the browning effect is an attractive anti-obesity strategy. In this study, we examined the browning effect of cinnamon extract. We found that cinnamon extract (CE) induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes markers and reduced white adipocytes markers in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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