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Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, Jung-Eun Sim, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Mi-Young Jeong, Woong Mo Yang, Seok-Geun Lee, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Energy expenditure is a target gaining recent interest for obesity treatment. The antiobesity effect of vanillic acid (VA), a well-known flavoring agent, was investigated in vivo and in vitro High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and genetically obese db/db mice showed significantly decreased body weights after VA administration. Two major adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), were reduced while the key factor of energy metabolism, AMPKα, was increased in the white adipose tissue and liver tissue of VA-treated mice...
November 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Toru Kawada, Michael J Turner, Shuji Shimizu, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
Although electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) is being explored as a device therapy for resistant hypertension, possible effects on baroreflex dynamic characteristics of interaction between electrical stimulation and pressure inputs are not fully elucidated. To examine whether the electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve impedes normal short-term arterial pressure (AP) regulation mediated by the stimulated nerve, we electrically stimulated the right aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the baroreflex dynamic characteristics by imposing pressure inputs to the isolated baroreceptor region of the right ADN in nine anesthetized rats...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Tyson S Barrett, Karl R White
OBJECTIVES: Our aim with this article is to evaluate whether the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing among adolescents living in the United States. METHODS: All available data about hearing loss among adolescents from the large, federally funded National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. By using the 4 data releases between 1994 and 2010 (a total of 6891 adolescents), the prevalence of adolescent hearing loss >15 and ≥25 dB at low frequencies (0...
November 8, 2017: Pediatrics
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Yonggui Yuan, Yongqing Cheng, Jun Yang, Haoliang Zhang, Dongchuan Lu, Yan Lv, Feng Peng, Hanyang Li, Xiaojun Zhang, Fuqiang Jiang, Libo Yuan
We propose methods to suppress the interference noise (IN) of an all-fiber white-light interferometer (WLI), which is caused by the residual Fresnel reflective beam. The methods are proposed to ensure a wide dynamic range and enhance the accuracy of measurement. IN can cause misjudgment of the realistic optical characteristic parameters, such as the fault diagnosis and polarization coupling of the optical devices under test. In addition, IN can reduce the dynamic range of the WLI. The optical path mismatch (OPM) method and the intensity suppression (IS) method by changing the positions and intensity of the IN are presented...
November 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Sezer Ulukaya, Gorkem Serbes, Yasemin P Kahya
Crackles and their time-domain characteristics provide important clues about different lung diseases. In this paper, we aim to de-noise synthetically produced crackles under various noise levels while preserving their information bearing parts which significantly affect crackle parameters. Classical wavelet based de-noising algorithms are deteriorated by sharp-sudden noise changes and produce Gibbs like fluctuations. On the other hand, total variation based algorithms, which are capable of alleviating the drawbacks of the classical wavelet based algorithms, are failed when dealing with piecewise-smooth signals like crackles and generate unwanted flat regions on the de-noised signals...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Haoliang Zhang, Jun Yang, Chuang Li, Zhangjun Yu, Zhe Yang, Yonggui Yuan, Feng Peng, Hanyang Li, Changbo Hou, Jianzhong Zhang, Libo Yuan, Jianming Xu, Chao Zhang, Quanfu Yu
Measurement error for the polarization extinction ratio (PER) of a multifunctional integrated optic chip (MFIOC) utilizing white light interferometry was analyzed. Three influence factors derived from the all-fiber device (or optical circuit) under test were demonstrated to be the main error sources, including: 1) the axis-alignment angle (AA) of the connection point between the extended polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) and the chip PMF pigtail; 2) the oriented angle (OA) of the linear polarizer; and 3) the birefringence dispersion of PMF and the MFIOC chip...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yonggui Yuan, Dongchuan Lu, Jun Yang, Jianguo Wang, Hanyang Li, Zhangjun Yu, Haoliang Zhang, Feng Peng, Zhihai Liu, Libo Yuan
We propose an effective and promising method to extend the continuous range of the optical delay line in white light interferometry. The method adopts the combination of switchable fixed delays and a continuous-scanning stage laid in one arm of the interferometer. Moreover, a fiber ring constructed by a fiber coupler is employed in the other arm to achieve self-calibration and improve the delay precision, voiding the use of a specialized measurement instrument. The range-extension method maintains the original performances of the stage just through the process of orderly copying and jointing...
June 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yakun Liu, Rongtao Su, Pengfei Ma, Xiaolin Wang, Hanwei Zhang, Pu Zhou, Lei Si
We demonstrate all-fiberized, kilowatt-level, narrow-linewidth, Yb-doped and polarization-maintained (PM) amplifiers with a central wavelength spanning from 1065 to 1090 nm. The laser system consists of a tunable single-frequency laser seed and multistage PM fiber amplifiers in the master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The stimulated Brillouin scattering effect is suppressed by phase modulation based on a white noise source. The linewidth (Δλ∼0.12  nm at 1 kW), polarization extinction ratio (PER>13  dB) and beam quality (M(2)∼1...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Heike Christopher, Evgeny V Kovalchuk, Hans Wenzel, Frank Bugge, Markus Weyers, Andreas Wicht, Achim Peters, Günther Tränkle
We present a compact, mode-locked diode laser system designed to emit a frequency comb in the wavelength range around 780 nm. We compare the mode-locking performance of symmetric and asymmetric double quantum well ridge-waveguide diode laser chips in an extended-cavity diode laser configuration. By reverse biasing a short section of the diode laser chip, passive mode-locking at 3.4 GHz is achieved. Employing an asymmetric double quantum well allows for generation of a mode-locked optical spectrum spanning more than 15 nm (full width at -20  dB) while the symmetric double quantum well device only provides a bandwidth of ∼2...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Kaijun Zhou, Qilai Zhao, Xiang Huang, Changsheng Yang, Can Li, Enbo Zhou, Xiaogeng Xu, Kenneth K Y Wong, Huihui Cheng, Jiulin Gan, Zhouming Feng, Mingying Peng, Zhongmin Yang, Shanhui Xu
A kHz-order linewidth controllable 1550 nm single-frequency fiber laser (SFFL) is demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge. The control of the linewidth is realized by using a low-pass filtered white Gaussian noise (WGN) signal applied on a fiber stretcher in an optical feedback loop. Utilizing WGN signals with different signal amplitudes An and different cutoff frequencies fc, the linewidths are availably controlled in a wide range from 0.8 to 353 kHz. The obtained optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is more than 72...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Keisuke Kasai, Masataka Nakazawa, Yasunori Tomomatsu, Takashi Endo
We demonstrate a narrow-linewidth, low-intensity noise, widely wavelength-tunable LD for which we adopted a long external cavity configuration (ECLD) with a tunable optical filter. By employing a simultaneous tuning circuit between the optical filter and the Fabry-Perot mode caused by the external cavity, the oscillation wavelength was successfully tuned over the full C-band without mode hopping. The tunable optical filter bandwidth was 0.55 nm (1530~1570 nm). We achieved a linewidth of less than 8 kHz obtained with a delayed self-heterodyne method...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Evgenia Konstantakopoulou, Gus Gazzard, Victoria Vickerstaff, Yuzhen Jiang, Neil Nathwani, Rachael Hunter, Gareth Ambler, Catey Bunce
PURPOSE: The laser in glaucoma and ocular hypertension (LiGHT) trial aims to establish whether initial treatment with selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is superior to initial treatment with topical medication for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). DESIGN: LiGHT is a prospective unmasked, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT). PARTICIPANTS: 718 previously untreated patients with POAG or OHT were recruited at 6 UK centres between 2012 and 2014...
October 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Antonia Katsouda, Csaba Szabo, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced signaling molecule synthesized by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). Given that H2S exerts significant effects on bioenergetics and metabolism, the goal of the current study was to determine the expression of H2S-producing enzymes in adipose tissues in models of obesity and metabolic disruption. Mice fed a western diet expressed lower mRNA levels of all three enzymes in epididymal fat (EWAT), while only CSE and 3-MST were reduced in brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
October 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Shengjie Li, Wenjun Cao, Jianping Han, Binghua Tang, Xinghuai Sun
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory mechanisms may have a role in the pathogenesis of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in patients with PACG and its association with glaucoma severity. METHOD: The study was retrospectively assessed in 771 consecutive PACG patients and 770 control subjects, laboratory parameters and clinical parameters were obtained from a medical data platform...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Zainab A S Abdelatti, Manfred Hartbauer
In forest clearings of the Malaysian rainforest, chirping and trilling Mecopoda species often live in sympatry. We investigated whether a phenomenon known as stochastic resonance (SR) improved the ability of individuals to detect a low-frequent signal component typical of chirps when members of the heterospecific trilling species were simultaneously active. This phenomenon may explain the fact that the chirping species upholds entrainment to the conspecific song in the presence of the trill. Therefore, we evaluated the response probability of an ascending auditory neuron (TN-1) in individuals of the chirping Mecopoda species to triple-pulsed 2, 8 and 20 kHz signals that were broadcast 1 dB below the hearing threshold while increasing the intensity of either white noise or a typical triller song...
September 21, 2017: Hearing Research
Kenji Fujitani, Daniel Su, Mark P Ghassibi, Joseph L Simonson, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Robert Ritch, Sung Chul Park
PURPOSE: To investigate patients' perception of glaucomatous VF loss and its association with glaucoma severity using the Amsler grid test. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, glaucoma patients with abnormal 10-2 Humphrey Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm-standard VF tests were enrolled consecutively. All patients underwent a black-on-white Amsler grid test for each eligible eye. They were asked to outline any perceived scotomas (areas with abnormal grid lines) on the grid and then describe verbally their perception of the scotomas...
2017: PloS One
Taichi Sugizaki, Shunshun Zhu, Ge Guo, Akiko Matsumoto, Jiabin Zhao, Motoyoshi Endo, Haruki Horiguchi, Jun Morinaga, Zhe Tian, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Keishi Miyata, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike
A favorable effect of an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2i) on mortality of diabetic patients was recently reported, although mechanisms underlying that effect remained unclear. Here, we examine SGLT2i effects on survival of diabetic mice and assess factors underlying these outcomes. To examine SGLT2i treatment effects in a model of severe diabetes, we fed genetically diabetic db/db mice a high-fat diet and then assessed outcomes including diabetic complications between SGLT2i TA-1887-treated and control mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
José Luis Arias, Alberto Matthei, Carolina Valenzuela
This work aims to contribute more information on tinamou eggs by performing an exploratory and descriptive study of some of their nutritional and quality characteristics. The chemical composition of tinamou egg showed a high protein content in white (85% dry basis) and high lipid concentration in yolk (52% db). The iron (Fe) content in white was higher than hen egg (0.47 mg/100 g) and this could be associated with the observed pinkish color of the white. As in the hen egg, the major fatty acids in tinamou yolk were: oleic (39%), linoleic (23%) and palmitic (20%)...
September 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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