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brain, emotion, behavior, neurotransmitter, receptor, pharmacology,

Marco Bocchio, Stephen B McHugh, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic and pharmacological alterations of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) affect amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Philippe Nuss
Lines of evidence coming from many branches of neuroscience indicate that anxiety disorders arise from a dysfunction in the modulation of brain circuits which regulate emotional responses to potentially threatening stimuli. The concept of anxiety disorders as a disturbance of emotional response regulation is a useful one as it allows anxiety to be explained in terms of a more general model of aberrant salience and also because it identifies avenues for developing psychological, behavioral, and pharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety disorder...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Mallory E Bowers, Kerry J Ressler
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is thought to develop, in part, from improper inhibition of fear. Accordingly, one of the most effective treatment strategies for PTSD is exposure-based psychotherapy. Ideally, neuroscience would inform adjunct therapies that target the neurotransmitter systems involved in extinction processes. Separate studies have implicated the cholecystokinin (CCK) and endocannabinoid systems in fear; however, there is a high degree of anatomical colocalization between the cannabinoid 1 receptor (Cnr1) and CCK in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region critical for emotion regulation...
February 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Julian Macoveanu
Until recently, the bulk of research on the human reward system was focused on studying the dopaminergic and opioid neurotransmitter systems. However, extending the initial data from animal studies on reward, recent pharmacological brain imaging studies on human participants bring a new line of evidence on the key role serotonin plays in reward processing. The reviewed research has revealed how central serotonin availability and receptor specific transmission modulates the neural response to both appetitive (rewarding) and aversive (punishing) stimuli in putative reward-related brain regions...
March 27, 2014: Brain Research
Jesper T Andreasen, John P Redrobe, Elsebet Ø Nielsen, Jeppe K Christensen, Gunnar M Olsen, Dan Peters
As affective and cognitive disturbances frequently co-occur in psychiatric disorders, research into opportunities to simultaneously target both entities is warranted. These disorders are typically treated with monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MRIs), whereas ongoing research suggests that symptoms also improve by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation. Preclinical studies have corroborated this and also demonstrated a synergistic antidepressant-like action when nAChR agonists and MRIs are combined...
October 2013: Neuropharmacology
Gerhard Gross, Karla Drescher
Dopamine D(3) receptors have a pre- and postsynaptic localization in brain stem nuclei, limbic parts of the striatum, and cortex. Their widespread influence on dopamine release, on dopaminergic function, and on several other neurotransmitters makes them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. The signaling pathways of D(3) receptors are distinct from those of other members of the D(2)-like receptor family. There is increasing evidence that D(3) receptors can form heteromers with dopamine D(1), D(2), and probably other G-protein-coupled receptors...
2012: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Norelle C Wildburger, Fernanda Laezza
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is an evolutionarily conserved multifaceted ubiquitous enzyme. In the central nervous system (CNS), GSK-3 acts through an intricate network of intracellular signaling pathways culminating in a highly divergent cascade of phosphorylations that control neuronal function during development and adulthood. Accumulated evidence indicates that altered levels of GSK-3 correlate with maladaptive plasticity of neuronal circuitries in psychiatric disorders, addictive behaviors, and neurodegenerative diseases, and pharmacological interventions known to limit GSK-3 can counteract some of these deficits...
2012: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
En-Ju D Lin
In addition to the classical neurotransmitters, neuropeptides represent an important class of modulators for affective behaviors and associated disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Many neuropeptides are abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in emotional processing and anxiety behaviors. Moreover, risk factors for anxiety disorders such as stress modulate the expression of various neuropeptides in the brain. Due to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and yet limited treatment options, there is a clear need for more effective therapeutics...
2012: Current Pharmaceutical Design
M Häring, S Guggenhuber, B Lutz
An adequate emotional response to stress is essential for survival and requires the fine-tuned regulation of several distinct neuronal circuits. Therefore, a precise control of these circuits is necessary to prevent behavioral imbalances. During the last decade, numerous investigations have evidenced that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is able to crucially control stress coping. Its central component, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 receptor), is located at the presynapse, where it is able to attenuate neurotransmitter release after its activation by postsynaptically produced and released eCBs...
March 1, 2012: Neuroscience
Claudio Zanettini, Leigh V Panlilio, Mano Alicki, Steven R Goldberg, József Haller, Sevil Yasar
Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory) and emotion (anxiety and depression). We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors...
2011: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Maria Hadjiconstantinou, Norton H Neff
Although the mesolimbic dopamine hypothesis is the most influential theory of nicotine reward and reinforcement, there has been a consensus that other neurotransmitter systems contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine as well. In this regard, the brain opioidergic system is of interest. Striatum is rich in opioid peptides and opioid receptors, and striatal opioidergic neurons are engaged in a bidirectional communication with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, closely regulating each other's activity. Enkephalins and dynorphins exert opposing actions on dopaminergic neurons, increasing and decreasing dopamine release respectively, and are components of circuits promoting positive or negative motivational and affective states...
June 2011: Neuropharmacology
Matthew N Hill, Boris B Gorzalka
The central endocannabinoid system is a neuroactive lipid signalling system in the brain which acts to control neurotransmitter release. The expression patterns of this system throughout limbic regions of the brain ideally situate it to exert regulatory control over emotional behaviour, mood and stress responsivity. A growing body of evidence unequivocally demonstrates that deficits in endocannabinoid signalling may result in depressive and anxiogenic behavioral responses, while pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoid signalling can produce both antidepressive and anxiolytic behavioral responses...
December 2009: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
P Ducrotté
Irritable bowel syndrome is not only a digestive motor disorder. It is a multifactorial disease for which many data have highlighted the pathophysiological importance of visceral hypersensitivity in the onset of symptoms, particularly abdominal pain. Hypersensitivity is due either to an afferent neurons disfunction at the enteric nervous system level, either to an abnormal brain-gut axis processing of sensory or nociceptive inputs arising from the gut, at the spinal or supraspinal level. Disturbances of the autonomic nervous system occur in IBS as a consequence of this brain-gut axis dysfunction...
August 2009: Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique
Silvana Gaetani, Pasqua Dipasquale, Adele Romano, Laura Righetti, Tommaso Cassano, Daniele Piomelli, Vincenzo Cuomo
Observational studies in humans suggest that exposure to marijuana and other cannabis-derived drugs produces a wide range of subjective effects on mood tone and emotionality. These observations have their counterpart in animal studies, showing that cannabinoid agonists strongly affect emotional reactivity in directions that vary depending on dose and context. Based on these evidence, the activation of central CB(1) receptor has emerged as potential target for the development of antianxiety and antidepressant therapies...
2009: International Review of Neurobiology
Karl Ebner, Simone B Sartori, Nicolas Singewald
The first report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of an orally applied neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist in depression was published 10 years ago. Although there were difficulties to reproduce this particular finding, a huge amount of data has been published since this time, supporting the potential therapeutic value of various tachykinin ligands as promising novel tools for the management of stress-related disorders including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and depression. The present review summarizes evidence derived from anatomical, neurochemical, pharmacological and behavioral studies demonstrating the localization of tachykinin neuropeptides including substance P (SP), neurokinin A, neurokinin B and their receptors (NK1, NK2, NK3) in brain areas known to be implicated in stress-mechanisms, mood/anxiety regulation and emotion-processing; their role as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators within these structures and their interactions with other neurotransmitter systems including dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)...
2009: Current Pharmaceutical Design
F Alén, A Santos, G Moreno-Sanz, G González-Cuevas, E Giné, L Franco-Ruiz, M Navarro, J A López-Moreno
The endocannabinoid system is a neuromodulatory system which controls the release of multiple neurotransmitters, including glutamate and both, the endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems, have been implicated in alcohol relapse. Cannabinoid agonists induce an increase in relapse-like drinking whereas glutamate receptor antagonists could prevent it. Here we hypothesize that cannabinoid-induced increases in relapse-like alcohol drinking could be mediated by glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors...
January 23, 2009: Neuroscience
A K Läck, O J Ariwodola, A M Chappell, J L Weiner, B A McCool
The neurobiological mechanisms governing alcohol-induced alterations in anxiety-like behaviors are not fully understood. Given that the amygdala is a major emotional center in the brain and regulates the expression of both learned fear and anxiety, neurotransmitter systems within the basolateral amygdala represent likely mechanisms governing the anxiety-related effects of acute ethanol exposure. It is well established that, within the glutamatergic system, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type receptors are particularly sensitive to intoxicating concentrations of ethanol...
October 2008: Neuropharmacology
A Holmes, M R Picciotto
Galanin is a neuropeptide synthesized in many neuronal types including brainstem norepinephrine-producing cells of the locus coeruleus and the serotonin-producing neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus. Galanin inhibits the firing of rodent norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine neurons and reduces release of these neurotransmitters in forebrain target regions. The distribution of galanin and its receptors and its actions on monoamine signaling has fostered interest in this neuropeptide in the field of behavioral pharmacology and the potential role of galanin in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, stroke, and in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction, particularly withdrawal...
April 2006: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tatyana Adayev, Buddima Ranasinghe, Probal Banerjee
Serotonin (5-HT) is an ancient chemical that plays a crucial functional role in almost every living organism. It regulates platelet aggregation, activation of immune cells, and contraction of stomach and intestinal muscles. In addition, serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. These activities are initiated by the binding of serotonin to 15 or more receptors that are pharmacologically classified into seven groups, 5-HT1 through 5-HT7. Each group is further divided into subgroups of receptors that are homologous but are encoded by discrete genes...
October 2005: Bioscience Reports
Rainer K Reinscheid, Yan-Ling Xu
Behavioral arousal requires integration of multiple neurotransmitter and neuromodulatory systems. Identifying these systems is the key to not only a better understanding of the neurobiology of sleep/wakefulness but may also lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for various sleep disorders. We review here a novel arousal promoting neuropeptide system, neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor. Pharmacologically, NPS activates NPS receptors at low nanomolar concentration to increase concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+)...
November 2005: FEBS Journal
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