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Genetics of MRSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438544/emergence-and-control-of-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-an-icu-of-a-german-hospital
#1
Christina Weßels, Birgit Strommenger, Ingo Klare, Jennifer Bender, Sabine Messler, Frauke Mattner, Michael Krakau, Guido Werner, Franziska Layer
Objectives: To investigate an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) in an interdisciplinary ICU, linezolid consumption and infection control measures taken. Methods: Routine surveillance of nosocomial infections revealed colonization and infection with LRSE affecting 14 patients during a 15 month period. LRSE isolates were analysed with respect to their clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428976/spa-type-distribution-in-mrsa-and-mssa-bacteremias-and-association-of-spa-clonal-complexes-with-the-clinical-characteristics-of-bacteremia
#2
Elina Jokinen, Laura Lindholm, Reetta Huttunen, Heini Huhtala, Risto Vuento, Jaana Vuopio, Jaana Syrjänen
The genetic distribution of invasive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has to be addressed in order to target infection control strategies. A large MRSA epidemic caused by a certain MRSA strain (spa type 067) broke out in 2001 in our health district. We wanted to investigate the current spa type distribution in MRSA and MSSA bacteremias and assess the potential association of spa clonal complexes (spaCC) with the clinical characteristics of S. aureus bacteremia. One hundred nine invasive MRSA isolates and 353 invasive MSSA isolates were spa typed and grouped into clonal complexes (spaCC)...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426410/diversity-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-austrian-ruminants-and-new-world-camelids
#3
B Schauer, R Krametter-Frötscher, F Knauer, R Ehricht, S Monecke, A T Feßler, S Schwarz, T Grunert, J Spergser, I Loncaric
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids that were treated at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Between April 2014 and January 2017, 723 nasal swabs originating from ruminants and New World camelids were examined. MRSA isolates were characterized by mecA/mecA1/mecC PCRs and by DNA microarray analysis. They were genotyped by spa typing, dru typing, MLST and MLVA...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386909/distribution-of-sasx-pvl-and-qaca-b-genes-in-epidemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-east-china
#4
Haishen Kong, Lingmei Fang, Rujin Jiang, Jixiang Tong
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen. Various virulence and antiseptic-resistant factors increase the pathogenicity of MRSA strains and allow for increased infection rates. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of virulence-associated and antiseptic-resistant genes from epidemic MRSA strains isolated from East China. Methods: A newly designed multiplex PCR assay was used to assess whether the virulence-associated genes sasX and pvl and the chlorhexidine tolerance gene qacA/B were present in 189 clinical isolates of MRSA...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382143/use-of-a-regression-model-to-study-host-genomic-determinants-of-phage-susceptibility-in-mrsa
#5
Henrike Zschach, Mette V Larsen, Henrik Hasman, Henrik Westh, Morten Nielsen, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Andrzej Górski
Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections. Especially in methicillin-resistant strains, conventional treatment options are limited and expensive, which has fueled a growing interest in phage therapy approaches. We have tested the susceptibility of 207 clinical S. aureus strains to 12 (nine monovalent) different therapeutic phage preparations and subsequently employed linear regression models to estimate the influence of individual host gene families on resistance to phages. Specifically, we used a two-step regression model setup with a preselection step based on gene family enrichment...
January 29, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378646/detection-and-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-human-adapted-sequence-type-398-allows-insight-into-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-evolution
#6
Lei He, Hong-Xiang Zheng, Yanan Wang, Katherine Y Le, Qian Liu, Jun Shang, Yingxin Dai, Hongwei Meng, Xing Wang, Tianming Li, Qianqian Gao, Juanxiu Qin, Huiying Lu, Michael Otto, Min Li
BACKGROUND: Severe infections with highly virulent community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are a global problem. However, the molecular events defining the evolution of CA-MRSA are still poorly understood. MRSA of sequence type (ST) 398 is known to frequently infect livestock, while ST398 isolates infecting humans are commonly methicillin-susceptible or represent MRSA originating from livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. METHODS: We used whole genome sequencing of newly detected CA-MRSA ST398 isolates, in comparison to geographically matched LA-MRSA and methicillin-sensitive ST398, to determine their evolutionary history...
January 29, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373088/molecular-characterization-and-clonal-diversity-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-of-milk-of-cows-with-clinical-mastitis-in-tunisia
#7
Amira Klibi, Ahlem Jouini, Paula Gómez, Khouloud Slimene, Sara Ceballos, Carmen Torres, Abderrazek Maaroufi
The aim of this study was to determine the genetic lineages, and the frequency of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from milk of cows with clinical mastitis. Three hundred milk samples from bovine with clinical mastitis were obtained from 30 dairy farms in different regions of Tunisia. Fifteen of the 300 tested samples contained S. aureus (5%), in three cases were MRSA. Isolates (one/sample) were typed (S...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336763/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-trauma-population-does-decolonization-prevent-infection
#8
Robert A Maxwell, Chasen A Croft, C Buddy Creech, Isaac Thomsen, Nicole Soper, Laura E Brown, Vicente A Mejia, Benjamin W Dart, Donald E Barker
The purpose of this study was to determine if a decolonization regimen reduces the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and if colonization isolates are genetically related to subsequent infectious strains. Trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit with positive MRSA nasal swabs were randomized to either daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) baths and mupirocin (MUP) ointment to the nares or soap and water baths and placebo ointment for five days. Nasal swabs performed at the end of treatment and invasive MRSA infections during the remaining hospitalization were compared with the original nasal isolate via polymerase chain reaction for genetic relatedness as well as CHG and MUP resistance genes...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246634/genetics-of-bi-component-leukocidin-and-drug-resistance-in-nasal-and-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-in-lagos-nigeria
#9
Nkechi V Enwuru, Solayide A Adesida, Christian A Enwuru, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Udoma E Mendie, Akitoye O Coker
BACKGROUND: Resistant and virulent Staphylococcus aureus is a global public health challenge. Staphylococcal Bi-component leukotoxins are cytolytic to immune cells and evolve to disarm the innate immunity during infections, hence the severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We studied drug resistance profile and the occurrence of bi-component leukocidin in clinical and nasal S. aureus in Lagos, Nigeria. METHOD: Ninety-two S. aureus (70 clinical and 22 nasal) strains were characterized by conventional and molecular methods...
December 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225754/methicillin-resistance-and-selective-genetic-determinants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-with-bovine-mastitis-milk-origin
#10
Zohreh Ahangari, Masoud Ghorbanpoor, Masoud Reza Seifiabad Shapouri, Darioush Gharibi, Kiarash Ghazvini
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of bovine mastitis, which can be transmitted from animals to humans. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates are more attentive and if not treated promptly, they can cause death. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistance and frequency of selected virulence factors of S. aureus isolates with bovine mastitis milk origin in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: During a two-year period (2014-2015), 75 S...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213999/genetic-and-phenotypic-study-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-patients-and-health-care-workers-in-mansoura-university-hospital-egypt
#11
Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Maysaa Elsayed Zaki, Mohamed Farag Kamel
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is common pathogen that is associated with many hospital acquired infections. The virulence of S. aureus is identified with resistance to antibiotics especially to methicillin. Therefore the aims of the present study were to detect the carrier rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among health care Workers (HCWs) and patients and to compare use of specific chromogenic agar for MRSA culture with PCR for detection of MRSA genes...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212459/acquisition-and-persistence-of-strain-specific-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-their-determinants-in-community-nursing-homes
#12
Nataliya G Batina, Christopher J Crnich, Dörte Döpfer
BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents are frequently colonized with various strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but the intra-facility dynamics of strain-specific MRSA remains poorly understood. We aimed at identifying and quantifying the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in community nursing homes using mathematical modeling. METHODS: The data was collected during a longitudinal MRSA surveillance study in six nursing homes in South Central Wisconsin...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204221/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-and-virulence-determinants-of-different-sccmec-and-pulsotypes-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-a-major-hospital-in-ilam-iran
#13
REVIEW
Mehdi Abbasi, Majid BaseriSalehi, Nima Bahador, Morovat Taherikalani
Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance pattern, and virulence characteristics of different types of S. aureus isolated from air, surfaces, staff, and patients in a Public hospital in Ilam. Methods & Materials: A total of 88 of 140 staphylococci identified as S. aureus by conventional and molecular methods were used in this study. Isolate samples were obtained from surfaces, staff, patients, and hospital indoor air...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203479/host-pathogen-treatment-triad-host-factors-matter-most-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-outcomes
#14
M Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Benjamin Deaton, Jenny Shroba, Laia Vazquez, Renee-Claude Mercier
Previous studies have separately emphasized the importance of host, pathogen, and treatment characteristics in determining short-term or in-hospital mortality rates for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections. Less is known about the relative importance of these factors and their interactions in determining short-, medium-, and long-term mortality rates. This is an observational cohort study in which data for all patients admitted to the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Center (HSC) between July 2002 and August 2013 with MRSA-positive blood cultures were recorded...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177635/the-arlrs-two-component-system-is-a-regulator-of-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-endothelial-cell-damage
#15
Kati Seidl, Michèle Leemann, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Staphylococcus aureus endovascular infections retain a high morbidity and mortality despite antibiotics and supportive care. The destruction of endothelial cells (ECs) is a critical step in the pathogenesis of S. aureus endovascular infections. In order to better understand S. aureus-induced EC damage, we systematically screened a collection of two-component regulatory system mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 strain JE2 for damage induction in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). This screen revealed that the two-component regulatory system ArlRS is required for maximum damage: arlRS inactivation leads to a > 70% reduction in damage...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155125/virulence-characteristics-and-molecular-relatedness-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-harboring-different-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec
#16
Rana El-Baz, Dina E Rizk, Rasha Barwa, Ramadan Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a versatile pathogen capable of causing multitude of human diseases. It is one of the most important nosocomial pathogen that implicated in community and healthcare associated infections. Therefore, this study aims to characterize different SCCmec elements found in MRSA isolates. Moreover, molecular typing was performed to investigate the genetic relatedness among MRSA isolates. METHODS: Phenotypic identification of MRSA was done by disc diffusion method...
December 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152580/chromosomal-targeting-by-the-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-system-can-reshape-genomes-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Jing Guan, Wanying Wang, Baolin Sun
CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]-CRISPR-associated protein [Cas]) systems can provide protection against invading genetic elements by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) as a guide to locate and degrade the target DNA. CRISPR-Cas systems have been classified into two classes and five types according to the content of cas genes. Previous studies have indicated that CRISPR-Cas systems can avoid viral infection and block plasmid transfer. Here we show that chromosomal targeting by the Staphylococcus aureus type III-A CRISPR-Cas system can drive large-scale genome deletion and alteration within integrated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146256/isolation-purification-structural-elucidation-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-kocumarin-a-novel-antibiotic-isolated-from-actinobacterium-kocuria-marina-cmg-s2-associated-with-the-brown-seaweed-pelvetia-canaliculata
#18
Bushra Uzair, Farid Menaa, Barkat Ali Khan, Faryal Vali Mohammad, Viqar Uddin Ahmad, Ryad Djeribi, Bouzid Menaa
AIMS: Screening of seaweed-associated bacteria capable of producing antimicrobials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen microbial strains, associated to the brown seaweed Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) attached to the rocks of Sonmiani Beach (Karachi, Pakistan), were screened. Crude extract filtrates of CMG S2 strain grew on Zobell marine agar (ZMA) had the most remarkable antimicrobial activity. Based on its phenotypic aspects (e.g. Gram-positive, microccoid form), biochemical characteristics (e...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101193/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-st-5-isolates-from-health-care-and-agricultural-sources-adhere-equivalently-to-human-keratinocytes
#19
Samantha J Hau, Steven Kellner, Kirsten C Eberle, Ursula Waack, Susan L Brockmeier, Jisun S Haan, Peter R Davies, Timothy Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiome of many humans and has become a significant public health burden due to infections with antibiotic resistant strains, including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Several lineages of S. aureus including MRSA are found in livestock species and can be acquired by humans through contact with animals. These livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates raise public health concerns because of the potential for livestock to act as reservoirs for MRSA outside of the hospital setting...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099326/disarming-staphylococcus-aureus-from-destroying-human-cells-by-simultaneously-neutralizing-six-cytotoxins-with-two-human-monoclonal-antibodies
#20
Harald Rouha, Susanne Weber, Philipp Janesch, Barbara Maierhofer, Karin Gross, Ivana Dolezilkova, Irina Mirkina, Zehra C Visram, Stefan Malafa, Lukas Stulik, Adriana Badarau, Eszter Nagy
Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized to be driven by powerful toxins. Staphylococcus aureus employs up to six pore-forming toxins to subvert the human host defense and to promote bacterial invasion: alpha-hemolysin that disrupts epithelial and endothelial barriers and five leukocidins that lyse phagocytes involved in bacterial clearance. Previously, we described two human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), ASN-1 that neutralizes alpha-hemolysin and four leukocidins (LukSF-PV, LukED, HlgAB, HlgCB), and ASN-2 that inactivates the 5(th) leukocidin, LukGH...
November 3, 2017: Virulence
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