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Genetics of MRSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678979/observational-cross-sectional-study-of-nasal-staphylococcal-species-of-medical-students-of-diverse-geographical-origin-prior-to-healthcare-exposure-prevalence-of-scc-mec-fusc-fusb-and-the-arginine-catabolite-mobile-element-acme-in-the-absence-of-selective-antibiotic
#1
Paulo E Budri, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Peter M Kinnevey, Hilary Humpreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate co-located nasal Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis ), recovered from healthy medical students in their preclinical year, prior to exposure to the healthcare environment, for the carriage of genes and genetic elements common to both species and that may contribute to S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) evolution. DESIGN: Prospective observational cross-sectional study...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668723/emerging-variants-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-genotypes-in-kuwait-hospitals
#2
Samar S Boswihi, Edet E Udo, Stefan Monecke, Bindu Mathew, Bobby Noronha, Tina Verghese, Sajida B Tappa
BACKGROUND: Frequent changes in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurring worldwide demand regular surveillance to study their composition and distribution in healthcare facilities. We investigated the genotypic characteristics of MRSA obtained in Kuwait hospitals to better understand their clonal distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,327 MRSA isolates obtained from clinical samples in 13 Kuwait hospitals from 1 January to 31 December 2016 were investigated using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing and DNA microarray...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661157/sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-oxacillin-modify-the-expression-of-agr-locus-in-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-strains-belonging-to-different-clonal-complexes
#3
Esther Viedma, Dafne Pérez-Montarelo, Jennifer Villa, Irene Muñoz-Gallego, Nieves Larrosa, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Joan Gavaldà, Benito Almirante, Fernando Chaves
BACKGROUND: The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade tissues and cause an infectious disease is the result of a multi-factorial process supported by the huge number of virulence factors inherent to this microorganism tightly regulated by the accessory gene regulator (agr). During antimicrobial therapy bacteria may be exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics that may trigger transcriptional changes that may have an impact on the pathogenesis of infection...
April 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621629/genetic-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-milk-and-nasal-samples-of-healthy-cows-in-tunisia-first-report-of-st97-t267-agri-sccmecv-mrsa-of-bovine-origin-in-tunisia
#4
Monia Khemiri, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Natacha Couto, Riadh Mansouri, Salah Hammami, Constança Pomba
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to screen for and characterize methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA in nasal swabs and milk from healthy cows from different regions in Tunisia. METHODS: One hundred and forty-one Staphylococcus spp. isolates were recovered from milk and nasal swabs of cows. S. aureus isolates were further characterized by determining their antibiotic susceptibilities, genes encoding antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, biofilm production, agr type and PFGE...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614602/-molecular-typing-characterization-of-food-borne-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-china
#5
Y Bai, W Wang, L Yan, S R Yang, S F Yan, Y P Dong, B C Zhao, Y Y Zhao, J Xu, Y J Hu, F Q Li
Objective: To analyses the antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of 21 MRSA isolates cultured from retail foods from different provinces in China, and evaluate the molecular typing methods. Methods: Twenty-one MRSA isolates were obtained from national foodborne pathogen surveillance network in 2012 (Chinese salad, n= 3; milk, n= 1; cake, n= 2; rice, n= 1; cold noodle, n= 1; spiced beef, n= 1; dumpling, n= 1; packed meal, n= 1; salad, n= 1; raw pork, n= 9). The antimicrobial resistance of 21 strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by broth dilution method...
April 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581406/-staphylococcus-aureus-utilizes-host-derived-lipoprotein-particles-as-sources-of-exogenous-fatty-acids
#6
Phillip C Delekta, John C Shook, Todd A Lydic, Martha H Mulks, Neal D Hammer
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567316/evaluation-of-membrane-fluidity-of-multidrug-resistant-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-in-presence-and-absence-of-antibiotics
#7
Lucinda J Bessa, Mariana Ferreira, Paula Gameiro
In the face of the serious problem of antimicrobial resistance and the global dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, it is relevant to deeply study such bacteria both genetically and phenotypically. It is well known that bacteria have the ability to modify the biophysical properties of their cytoplasmic membranes, namely fluidity, in order to survive and thrive in hostile environments. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the membrane fluidity among multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in absence and in presence of antibiotics (ceftazidime or ciprofloxacin)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565724/molecular-epidemiology-and-virulence-features-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-isolates-in-a-regional-burn-center-in-china-2012-2016
#8
Yang Liu, Fang-Ling Du, Pan-Pan Liu, Yan-Fang Mei, La-Gen Wan, Dan-Dan Wei, Heng-Yi Xu, Wei Zhang
Staphylococcus aureus is known to be a predominant pathogen causing bloodstream infection (BSI) from burn units. Our study aimed to perform the clinical epidemiological analysis and virulence features of S. aureus strains isolated from the burn patients with BSI from a burn center in southeastern China during 2012-2016. A collection of 112 S. aureus isolates causing BSI from burn center of a tertiary care hospital in China was carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555636/genetic-determinants-of-high-level-oxacillin-resistance-in-mrsa
#9
Maria Pardos de la Gandara, Vitor Borges, Marilyn Chung, Catarina Milheiriço, João Paulo Gomes, Herminia de Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains carry either a mecA - or a mecC -mediated mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and the phenotypic expression of resistance shows extensive strain-to-strain variation. In recent communications we identified genetic determinants associated with the stringent stress response that play a major role in the antibiotic resistant phenotype of the historically earliest "archaic" clone of MRSA and in the mecC carrying MRSA strain LGA251...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544544/comparative-and-molecular-analysis-of-mrsa-isolates-from-infection-sites-and-carrier-colonization-sites
#10
Khaled R Alkharsah, Suriya Rehman, Fatimah Alkhamis, Amani Alnimr, Asim Diab, Amein K Al-Ali
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes a major global health concern causing hospital and community acquired infections. A wide diversity of MRSA genotypes are circulating in geographically related regions. Therefore understanding the molecular epidemiology of MRSA is fundamental to design control and clearance measures. METHODS: A total of 106 MRSA isolates from infection (51) and carrier colonization sites (55) are characterized genetically based on SCCmec and MLST genotyping methods in addition to detection of PVL, TSST-1 and enterotoxins...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540306/distribution-genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-clinically-important-bacteria-from-the-environment-of-a-tertiary-hospital
#11
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535697/the-changing-pattern-of-population-structure-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-bacteremia-in-china-from-2013-to-2016-st239-030-mrsa-replaced-by-st59-t437
#12
Shuguang Li, Shijun Sun, Chentao Yang, Hongbin Chen, Yuyao Yin, Henan Li, Chunjiang Zhao, Hui Wang
To investigate the epidemiology and genetic structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in China, a total of 416 isolates from 22 teaching hospitals in 12 cities from 2013 and 2016 were characterized by antibiogram analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing. The predominant meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) genotypes in 2013 were ST188 (19.1%), ST7 (8.7%), and ST398 (7.8%), respectively, and they continued to be the main genotypes in 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530854/clinical-and-genetic-risk-factors-for-biofilm-forming-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Megan K Luther, Diane M Parente, Aisling R Caffrey, Katie Daffinee, Vrishali V Lopes, Emily T Martin, Kerry L LaPlante
Background. Molecular and clinical factors associated with biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are incompletely understood. Methods. Biofilm production was quantified in 182 MRSA isolates from clinical culture sites (2004-2013). Microbiologic toxins, pigmentation, and genotypes were evaluated, and patient demographics were collected. Logistic regression was used to quantify the effect of strong biofilm production (versus weak) on clinical outcomes and independent predictors of strong biofilm...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505885/emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-sequence-type-45-strains-among-borderline-oxacillin-resistant-meca-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-bacteraemia-in-a-medical-centre-in-taiwan
#14
Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Shey-Ying Chen, Hsin-Sui Hsu, Lee-Jene Teng, Po-Ren Hsueh
Clinical data related to bacteraemia caused by mecA-positive borderline-oxacillin resistant (minimum inhibitory concentrations, 0.5-4 mg/L) Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) isolates are limited. Patients (age >15 years) with bacteraemia due to BORSA who were admitted to the emergency department in a tertiary hospital between January 2001 and December 2015 were evaluated. Clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia caused by BORSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA were compared. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antibiotics were determined using the agar dilution method...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468193/scc-mec-finder-a-web-based-tool-for-typing-of-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-in-staphylococcus-aureus-using-whole-genome-sequence-data
#15
Hülya Kaya, Henrik Hasman, Jesper Larsen, Marc Stegger, Thor Bech Johannesen, Rosa Lundbye Allesøe, Camilla Koldbæk Lemvigh, Frank Møller Aarestrup, Ole Lund, Anders Rhod Larsen
Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is important in infection control and surveillance. The current nomenclature of MRSA includes the genetic background of the S. aureus strain determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or equivalent methods like spa typing and typing of the mobile genetic element staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), which carries the mecA or mecC gene. Whereas MLST and spa typing are relatively simple, typing of SCC mec is less trivial because of its heterogeneity...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458554/genetic-shifts-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-epidemic-clones-and-toxin-gene-profiles-in-japan-comparative-analysis-among-pre-epidemic-epidemic-and-post-epidemic-phases
#16
Shunsuke Osaka, Katsuko Okuzumi, Shota Koide, Kiyoko Tamai, Tomoaki Sato, Koichi Tanimoto, Haruyoshi Tomita, Masahiro Suzuki, Yukiko Nagano, Keigo Shibayama, Yoshichika Arakawa, Noriyuki Nagano
PURPOSE: The decline in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation rates has become a general observation worldwide, including Japan. We hypothesized that some genetic shift in MRSA might cause this phenomenon, and therefore we investigated the genetic profiles among MRSA clinical isolates obtained from three different epidemic phases in Japan. METHODOLOGY: A total of 353 MRSA isolates were selected from 202 medical facilities in 1990 (pre-epidemic phase), 2004 (epidemic phase) and 2016 (post-epidemic phase)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458545/predominance-of-community-associated-sequence-type-59-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#17
Qifa Song, Junhua Wu, Peisen Ruan
PURPOSE: To investigate the distribution of molecular types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) according to their community-associated (CA) and hospital-associated (HA) source of acquisition, and thus assess the degree to which CA-MRSA has been introduced into the PICU. METHODOLOGY: We implemented an MRSA surveillance in a PICU during 2013-2016 and investigated the genetic diversity of the isolates retrospectively using three genetic typing methods, as well as antibiograms and virulence factor profiles...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438544/emergence-and-control-of-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-an-icu-of-a-german-hospital
#18
Christina Weßels, Birgit Strommenger, Ingo Klare, Jennifer Bender, Sabine Messler, Frauke Mattner, Michael Krakau, Guido Werner, Franziska Layer
Objectives: To investigate an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) in an interdisciplinary ICU, linezolid consumption and infection control measures taken. Methods: Routine surveillance of nosocomial infections revealed colonization and infection with LRSE affecting 14 patients during a 15 month period. LRSE isolates were analysed with respect to their clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428976/spa-type-distribution-in-mrsa-and-mssa-bacteremias-and-association-of-spa-clonal-complexes-with-the-clinical-characteristics-of-bacteremia
#19
Elina Jokinen, Laura Lindholm, Reetta Huttunen, Heini Huhtala, Risto Vuento, Jaana Vuopio, Jaana Syrjänen
The genetic distribution of invasive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has to be addressed in order to target infection control strategies. A large MRSA epidemic caused by a certain MRSA strain (spa type 067) broke out in 2001 in our health district. We wanted to investigate the current spa type distribution in MRSA and MSSA bacteremias and assess the potential association of spa clonal complexes (spaCC) with the clinical characteristics of S. aureus bacteremia. One hundred nine invasive MRSA isolates and 353 invasive MSSA isolates were spa typed and grouped into clonal complexes (spaCC)...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426410/diversity-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-austrian-ruminants-and-new-world-camelids
#20
B Schauer, R Krametter-Frötscher, F Knauer, R Ehricht, S Monecke, A T Feßler, S Schwarz, T Grunert, J Spergser, I Loncaric
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids that were treated at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Between April 2014 and January 2017, 723 nasal swabs originating from ruminants and New World camelids were examined. MRSA isolates were characterized by mecA/mecA1/mecC PCRs and by DNA microarray analysis. They were genotyped by spa typing, dru typing, MLST and MLVA...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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