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Genetics of MRSA

Emily S Wong, Claire W Y Chow, W K Luk, Kitty S C Fung, Kenneth K W Li
PURPOSE: To characterize epidemiological data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular infections over a 10-year period in Hong Kong; to compare the characteristics between hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) ocular infections; and to review the treatment regimen and outcome of identified cases. METHODS: A retrospective case review of ocular samples testing positive for MRSA at a tertiary eye center from July 2005 to June 2015 was performed...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Yanping Fan, Xiaolin Wang, Ling Li, Zhenjiang Yao, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Auttawit Sirichoat, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Ratree Tavichakorntrakool, Aroonwadee Chanawong, Sujintana Wongthong, Visith Thongboonkerd
Reduced vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem. Unfortunately, its genetic marker and molecular mechanisms remained unknown. This study investigated differential phenotypic characteristic and protein expression profiles among three groups of MRSA isolates, including vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA), heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) (n = 7 isolates/group). Phenotypic characteristic revealed significant greater number of isolates with non-spreading colony in VISA as compared to both VSSA and hVISA groups...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Aimée Kissou, Soufiane Sanou, Armel Poda, Carole G Kyelem, Jérôme Solassol, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Philippe Van De Perre, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Hélène Jean-Pierre, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Sylvain Godreuil
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Run Fan, Dexi Li, Yang Wang, Tao He, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
A total of 57 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and 475 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) collected from pigs in the Guangdong province of China in 2014 were investigated for the presence of the novel oxazolidinone-phenicol resistance gene optrA The optrA gene was detected in 6.9% (n=33) of the MRCoNS, all of which were MR-Staphylococcus sciuri, but in none of the MRSA. Five optrA-carrying MR-S. sciuri also harbored the multiresistance gene cfr Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and dru typing of the 33 optrA-carrying MR-S...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nabanita Mukherjee, Irshad M Sulaiman, Pratik Banerjee
Indoor skin-contact surfaces of public fitness centers may serve as reservoirs of potential human transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) MRSA of clonal complex 59 lineage harboring a variety of extracellular toxin genes from surface swab samples collected from inanimate surfaces of fitness centers in the Memphis metropolitan area, Tennessee. Our findings underscore the role of inanimate surfaces as potential sources of transmission of MDR MRSA strains with considerable genetic diversity...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Ø Angen, M Stegger, J Larsen, B Lilje, H Kaya, K S Pedersen, A Jakobsen, A Petersen, A R Larsen
OBJECTIVES: We unexpectedly identified MRSA isolates carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA) from a Danish swine farm located in eastern Zealand. The objective of the present study was to investigate the origin of these isolates and their genetic relatedness to other mecC-MRSA isolates from Zealand. METHODS: WGS was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship between 19 identified mecC-MRSA isolates from the swine farm and 34 additional epidemiologically unrelated human isolates from the same geographical region of Denmark...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Stefan Monecke, Lutz Jatzwauk, Elke Müller, Hedda Nitschke, Katharina Pfohl, Peter Slickers, Annett Reissig, Antje Ruppelt-Lorz, Ralf Ehricht
SCCmec elements are very important mobile genetic elements in Staphylococci that carry beta-lactam resistance genes mecA/mecC, recombinase genes and a variety of accessory genes. Twelve main types and a couple of variants have yet been described. In addition, there are also other SCC elements harbouring other markers. In order to subtype strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on variations within their SCCmec elements, 86 markers were selected from published SCC sequences for an assay based on multiplexed primer extension reactions followed by hybridisation to the specific probes...
2016: PloS One
Geoffrey Omuse, Kristien Nel Van Zyl, Kim Hoek, Shima Abdulgader, Samuel Kariuki, Andrew Whitelaw, Gunturu Revathi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has established itself over the years as a major cause of morbidity and mortality both within the community and in healthcare settings. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular has been a major cause of nosocomial infections resulting in significant increase in healthcare costs. In Africa, the MRSA prevalence has been shown to vary across different countries. In order to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA in a setting, it is important to define its population structure using molecular tools as different clones have been found to predominate in certain geographical locations...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
H S Tunsjø, S Kalyanasundaram, M M Worren, T M Leegaard, A E F Moen
Rapid nucleic acid amplification tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) diagnostics commonly target the mec resistance gene, genes specific for S. aureus, and the integration site for the SCCmec resistance cassette, orfX. Due to poor specificity when these target genes are used individually, additional culture is required to verify positive results. The combination of these targets is useful, but the optimal algorithm may depend on the presence of the genetic markers in S. aureus isolates, as well as the prevalence of MRSA in a population...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ana M N Botelho, Maiana O C Costa, Cristiana O Beltrame, Fabienne A Ferreira, Nicholas C B Lima, Bruno S S Costa, Guilherme L de Morais, Rangel C Souza, Luiz G P Almeida, Ana T R Vasconcelos, Marisa F Nicolás, Agnes M S Figueiredo
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is still one of the most important hospital pathogen globally. The multiresistant isolates of the ST239-SCCmecIII lineage are spread over large geographic regions, colonizing and infecting hospital patients in virtually all continents. The balance between fitness (adaptability) and virulence potential is likely to represent an important issue in the clonal shift dynamics leading the success of some specific MRSA clones over another. The accessory gene regulator (agr) is the master quorum sensing system of staphylococci playing a role in the global regulation of key virulence factors...
September 15, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
A M Ammar, A M Attia, M I Abd El-Hamid, I M El-Shorbagy, S A Abd El-Kader
Antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem for clinicians worldwide. The present study attempted to evaluate the susceptibility patterns of MRSA to various antimicrobials and the prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance as well as the relevant antibiotic and antiseptic resistance genes among these isolates. Totally, 40 MRSA isolates were recovered from examined milk and meat product samples (18.60%). Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was remarkably observed among 85% of these isolates...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Wei-Chun Hung, Tsai-Wen Wan, Yu-Chia Kuo, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Jui-Chang Tsai, Yu-Tzu Lin, Po-Ren Hsueh, Lee-Jene Teng
Clonal complex 59 (CC59) Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan includes both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). As the most prominent community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in Taiwan, CC59 has two major clones characterized as PVL-negative SCCmec IV (carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IV but Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative) and PVL-positive SCCmec V (5C2&5). We investigated the drug resistance, phylogeny and the distribution and sequence variation of SCCmec, staphylococcal bacteriophage φSA3, genomic island νSaβ and MES (an enterococcal mobile genetic element conferring multidrug resistance) in 195 CC59 S...
2016: PloS One
Hiral Mistry, Paresh Sharma, Sudipta Mahato, R Saravanan, P Anand Kumar, Vasundhra Bhandari
Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S...
2016: PloS One
Raju Sunagar, Nagendra Ramachandra Hegde, Ganapuram Jagadishwar Archana, Akhauri Yash Sinha, Kammili Nagamani, Shrikrishna Isloor
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious human pathogen that can cause a wide variety of infections. Comparative genetic analyses have led to the discovery that despite the existence of a vast number of genotypes, outbreak strains of MRSA appear to be limited to certain genotypes, some of which are further restricted to certain geographical locations. Whereas extensive literature is available in several countries, the complexity of the clonal distribution both of healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) MRSA in India is only now beginning to be understood...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Bahija Serray, Salwa Oufrid, Imane Hannaoui, Fatna Bourjilate, Nabila Soraa, Mostafa Mliji, Mohammed Sobh, Abderrahmane Hammoumi, Mohammed Timinouni, Mohamed El Azhari
INTRODUCTION: Infections involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remain a serious threat to hospitalized patients worldwide. MRSA is characterized by recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy, which is a function not only of widespread antimicrobial resistance, but also the capacity to form biofilms. The present study evaluated the presence of genes encoding adhesion factors and the biofilm-forming capacity in MRSA. METHODOLOGY: In this study, 53 isolates of MRSA, recovered from December 2010 to May 2014 in a mother and child hospital, CHU Mohamed VI in Marrakech, Morocco, were screened for the presence of bap and ica genes associated with biofilm formation, and for bbp, cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, clfA, and clfB genes that encode microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs)...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Gi Su Kang, Yung Hee Jung, Hwa Su Kim, Yeong Seon Lee, Chan Park, Kwang Jun Lee, Jeong Ok Cha
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important pathogens causing nosocomial infections in Korean hospitals. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and genetic diversity of clinical S. aureus isolates in healthcare settings from 2001 to 2008. METHODS: Samples and data were obtained from 986 individuals as part of the National Antimicrobial Surveillance Project, involving 10 regions nationwide. Molecular typing studies, including multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were performed, and a representative clone of Korean MRSA was classified by combinational grouping using a DiversiLab (DL; bioMérieux, France) repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) system...
November 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
L K Wilson, G W Coombs, K Christiansen, W B Grubb, F G O'Brien
BACKGROUND: In Western Australia (WA), clonal complex 5, ST835, community-associated (CA) MRSA is isolated almost exclusively from aged care facilities. In WA four different staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec (SCCmec) elements have been identified in this ST, indicating high genetic activity in the SCCmec region. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the SCC region of ST835 CA-MRSA WA MRSA-40 and determine the distribution of an SCCsorbitol element found within the region...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A M Bal, G W Coombs, M T G Holden, J A Lindsay, G R Nimmo, P Tattevin, R L Skov
The evolution of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from meticillin-susceptible S. aureus has been a result of the accumulation of genetic elements under selection pressure from antibiotics. The traditional classification of MRSA into healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) is no longer relevant as there is significant overlap of identical clones between these groups, with an increasing recognition of human infection caused by livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA)...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Xiaomei Yan, Zongwei Li, Monika A Chlebowicz, Xiaoxia Tao, Ming Ni, Yuan Hu, Zhen Li, Hajo Grundmann, Susan Murray, Ben Pascoe, Samuel K Sheppard, Xiaochen Bo, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Pengcheng Du, Minli Zhang, Yuanhai You, Xiaojie Yu, Fanliang Meng, Shengqi Wang, Jianzhong Zhang
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to investigate the genetic features of the recently identified lsa(E) gene in porcine S. aureus ST9 isolates. Three quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant isolates harboring the lsa(E) gene (two MRSA and one MSSA) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of 184S. aureus genomes showed that ST9 porcine isolates belong to a distinct sequence cluster. Further analysis showed that all isolates were deficient in the recently described type IV restriction-modification system and SCCmec type XII was identified in the two MRSA isolates, which included a rare class C2 mec gene complex...
August 10, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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