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Genetics of MRSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213999/genetic-and-phenotypic-study-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-patients-and-health-care-workers-in-mansoura-university-hospital-egypt
#1
Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Maysaa Elsayed Zaki, Mohamed Farag Kamel
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is common pathogen that is associated with many hospital acquired infections. The virulence of S. aureus is identified with resistance to antibiotics especially to methicillin. Therefore the aims of the present study were to detect the carrier rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among health care Workers (HCWs) and patients and to compare use of specific chromogenic agar for MRSA culture with PCR for detection of MRSA genes...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212459/acquisition-and-persistence-of-strain-specific-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-their-determinants-in-community-nursing-homes
#2
Nataliya G Batina, Christopher J Crnich, Dörte Döpfer
BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents are frequently colonized with various strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but the intra-facility dynamics of strain-specific MRSA remains poorly understood. We aimed at identifying and quantifying the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in community nursing homes using mathematical modeling. METHODS: The data was collected during a longitudinal MRSA surveillance study in six nursing homes in South Central Wisconsin...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204221/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-and-virulence-determinants-of-different-sccmec-and-pulsotypes-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-a-major-hospital-in-ilam-iran
#3
REVIEW
Mehdi Abbasi, Majid BaseriSalehi, Nima Bahador, Morovat Taherikalani
Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance pattern, and virulence characteristics of different types of S. aureus isolated from air, surfaces, staff, and patients in a Public hospital in Ilam. Methods & Materials: A total of 88 of 140 staphylococci identified as S. aureus by conventional and molecular methods were used in this study. Isolate samples were obtained from surfaces, staff, patients, and hospital indoor air...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203479/host-pathogen-treatment-triad-host-factors-matter-most-in-mrsa-bacteremia-outcomes
#4
M Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Benjamin Deaton, Jenny Shroba, Laia Vazquez, Renee-Claude Mercier
Background: Previous studies have separately emphasized the importance of host, pathogen and treatment characteristics in determining short term or in-hospital mortality for patients with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections. Less is known about the relative importance of these factors and their interaction in determining short, medium and long-term mortality.Methods: This is an observational cohort study where all patients admitted to University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC) between July 2002 and August 2013 with MRSA positive blood cultures were recorded...
December 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177635/the-arlrs-two-component-system-is-a-regulator-of-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-endothelial-cell-damage
#5
Kati Seidl, Michèle Leemann, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Staphylococcus aureus endovascular infections retain a high morbidity and mortality despite antibiotics and supportive care. The destruction of endothelial cells (ECs) is a critical step in the pathogenesis of S. aureus endovascular infections. In order to better understand S. aureus-induced EC damage, we systematically screened a collection of two-component regulatory system mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 strain JE2 for damage induction in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). This screen revealed that the two-component regulatory system ArlRS is required for maximum damage: arlRS inactivation leads to a > 70% reduction in damage...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155125/virulence-characteristics-and-molecular-relatedness-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-harboring-different-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec
#6
Rana El-Baz, Dina E Rizk, Rasha Barwa, Ramadan Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a versatile pathogen capable of causing multitude of human diseases. It is one of the most important nosocomial pathogen that implicated in community and healthcare associated infections. Therefore, this study aims to characterize different SCCmec elements found in MRSA isolates. Moreover, molecular typing was performed to investigate the genetic relatedness among MRSA isolates. METHODS: Phenotypic identification of MRSA was done by disc diffusion method...
November 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152580/chromosomal-targeting-by-the-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-system-can-reshape-genomes-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Jing Guan, Wanying Wang, Baolin Sun
CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]-CRISPR-associated protein [Cas]) systems can provide protection against invading genetic elements by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) as a guide to locate and degrade the target DNA. CRISPR-Cas systems have been classified into two classes and five types according to the content of cas genes. Previous studies have indicated that CRISPR-Cas systems can avoid viral infection and block plasmid transfer. Here we show that chromosomal targeting by the Staphylococcus aureus type III-A CRISPR-Cas system can drive large-scale genome deletion and alteration within integrated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146256/isolation-purification-structural-elucidation-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-kocumarin-a-novel-antibiotic-isolated-from-actinobacterium-kocuria-marina-cmg-s2-associated-with-the-brown-seaweed-pelvetia-canaliculata
#8
Bushra Uzair, Farid Menaa, Barkat Ali Khan, Faryal Vali Mohammad, Viqar Uddin Ahmad, Ryad Djeribi, Bouzid Menaa
AIMS: Screening of seaweed-associated bacteria capable of producing antimicrobials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen microbial strains, associated to the brown seaweed Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) attached to the rocks of Sonmiani Beach (Karachi, Pakistan), were screened. Crude extract filtrates of CMG S2 strain grew on Zobell marine agar (ZMA) had the most remarkable antimicrobial activity. Based on its phenotypic aspects (e.g. Gram-positive, microccoid form), biochemical characteristics (e...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101193/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-st-5-isolates-from-health-care-and-agricultural-sources-adhere-equivalently-to-human-keratinocytes
#9
Samantha J Hau, Steven Kellner, Kirsten C Eberle, Ursula Waack, Susan L Brockmeier, Jisun S Haan, Peter R Davies, Timothy Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Staphylococcus aureus is part of the nasal microbiome of many humans and has become a significant public health burden due to infections with antibiotic resistant strains, including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Several lineages of S. aureus including MRSA are found in livestock species and can be acquired by humans through contact with animals. These livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates raise public health concerns because of the potential for livestock to act as reservoirs for MRSA outside of the hospital setting...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099326/disarming-staphylococcus-aureus-from-destroying-human-cells-by-simultaneously-neutralizing-six-cytotoxins-with-two-human-monoclonal-antibodies
#10
Harald Rouha, Susanne Weber, Philipp Janesch, Barbara Maierhofer, Karin Gross, Ivana Dolezilkova, Irina Mirkina, Zehra C Visram, Stefan Malafa, Lukas Stulik, Adriana Badarau, Eszter Nagy
Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized to be driven by powerful toxins. Staphylococcus aureus employs up to six pore-forming toxins to subvert the human host defense and to promote bacterial invasion: alpha-hemolysin that disrupts epithelial and endothelial barriers and five leukocidins that lyse phagocytes involved in bacterial clearance. Previously, we described two human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), ASN-1 that neutralizes alpha-hemolysin and four leukocidins (LukSF-PV, LukED, HlgAB, HlgCB), and ASN-2 that inactivates the 5(th) leukocidin, LukGH...
November 3, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097453/draft-genome-sequences-of-50-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-5-isolates-obtained-from-a-u-s-hospital
#11
Samantha J Hau, Darrell O Bayles, David P Alt, Tracy L Nicholson
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be a commensal or pathogen in humans. Pathogenicity and disease are related to the acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Here, we report draft genome sequences for 50 clinical MRSA isolates from humans with MRSA-related disease.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097451/draft-genome-sequences-of-63-swine-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-5-isolates-from-the-united-states
#12
Samantha J Hau, Darrell O Bayles, David P Alt, Timothy S Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonizes humans and other animals such as swine. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type 5 (ST5) isolates are a public concern due to their pathogenicity and ability to acquire mobile genetic elements. This report presents draft genome sequences for 63 LA-MRSA ST5 isolates in the United States.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095965/frequent-undetected-mrsa-ward-based-transmission-linked-to-patient-sharing-between-hospitals
#13
Olga Tosas Auguet, Richard A Stabler, Jason Betley, Mark D Preston, Mandeep Dhaliwal, Michael Gaunt, Avgousta Ioannou, Nergish Desai, Tacim Karadag, Rahul Batra, Jonathan A Otter, Helene Marbach, Taane G Clark, Jonathan D Edgeworth
Background: Recent evidence suggests hospital transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is uncommon in UK centers that have implemented sustained infection control programmes. We investigated whether a healthcare-network analysis could shed light on transmission paths currently sustaining MRSA levels in UK hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in two NHS hospital groups and a general district hospital in South-East London...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077854/investigation-of-a-cluster-of-sequence-type-22-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-transmission-in-a-community-setting
#14
Michelle S Toleman, Emmeline R Watkins, Tom Williams, Beth Blane, Belinda Sadler, Ewan M Harrison, Francesc Coll, Julian Parkhill, Bernadette Nazareth, Nicholas M Brown, Sharon J Peacock
Background: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has typically been used to confirm or refute hospital/ward outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) identified through routine practice. However, appropriately targeted WGS strategies that identify routinely "undetectable" transmission remain the ultimate aim. Methods: WGS of MRSA isolates sent to a regional microbiological laboratory was performed as part of a 12-month prospective observational study...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068722/high-occurrence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-horses-at-slaughterhouses-compared-with-those-for-recreational-activities-a-professional-and-food-safety-concern
#15
Antonio Parisi, Marta Caruso, Giovanni Normanno, Laura Latorre, Angela Miccolupo, Rosa Fraccalvieri, Francesco Intini, Teresa Manginelli, Gianfranco Santagada
The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in horses and its zoonotic potential is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to provide data on the prevalence and genetic characteristics of MRSA isolated from horses on farms, at racecourses, and at slaughterhouses in Italy, using standard and molecular methods. In addition, we report the prevalence of MRSA in horse handlers. Among 388 horses tested by nasal swabs, 27 (7%) were positive for MRSA ST398 (t011, t899, t1255) and ST1 (t127)...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068720/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-table-eggs-in-haripur-pakistan
#16
Muhammad Ali Syed, Syeda Hala Hussain Shah, Yasmin Sherafzal, Syed Shafi-Ur-Rehman, Mushtaq Ahmed Khan, John B Barrett, Tiffanie A Woodley, Bushra Jamil, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Charlene R Jackson
Table eggs are nutritionally important food consumed globally. Despite being protected inside the hard shell and a semipermeable membrane, the egg contents may be contaminated with microbes and thus become a possible carrier of infectious agents to humans. A number of medically significant bacterial species such as Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica have already been reported from table eggs. More important is the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains in this food source...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054550/-mlva-analysis-and-virulence-profile-of-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-infections-in-paraguayan-children
#17
Fátima Rodríguez Acosta, Wilma D Basualdo Acuña, Héctor Castro, Ana Campuzano, María L Macchi, Juana Ortellado de Canese, Patricia Almada, Mónica Rodríguez, Lorena Grau, Gladys Velázquez, Carmen Espínola, Gloria C Samudio Domínguez, Gloria Gómez, Letizia Carpinelli, Rosa M Guillén Fretes
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the first causes of skin and soft tissue infections, and can also produce severe diseases such as osteomyelitis and pneumonia. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the SCCmec type and virulence profile and to study the genetic diversity by MLVA analysis of 21 CA-MRSA isolates that infected Paraguayan children in 2010. The SCCmec type and virulence factors were performed by PCR and genetic diversity by MLVA (multiple locus variable analysis)...
October 17, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052523/longitudinal-study-of-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-infection-in-a-cohort-of-swine-veterinarians-in-the-united-states
#18
Jisun Sun, My Yang, Srinand Sreevatsan, Jeffrey B Bender, Randall S Singer, Todd P Knutson, Douglas G Marthaler, Peter R Davies
BACKGROUND: People working with pigs are at elevated risk of harboring methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in their nose, which is attributable to occupational exposure to animals harboring livestock adapted S. aureus. To obtain insight into the biological nature of occupationally related nasal culture positivity, we conducted a longitudinal study of 66 swine veterinarians in the USA. METHODS: The study cohort resided in 15 US states and worked predominantly with swine...
October 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042801/investigating-a-rare-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-first-description-of-genome-sequencing-and-molecular-characterization-of-cc15-mrsa
#19
Abiola C Senok, Ali M Somily, Peter Slickers, Muhabat A Raji, Ghada Garaween, Atef Shibl, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht
PURPOSE: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC15 strains (CC15-MRSA) have only been sporadically described in literature. This study was carried out to describe the genetic make-up for this rare MRSA strain. METHODS: Four CC15-MRSA isolates collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2014 were studied. Two isolates were from clinical infection and 2 from retail meat products. Whole genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina HiSeq2500 genome analyzer...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039719/resistance-in-in-vitro-selected-tigecycline-resistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-5-is-driven-by-mutations-in-mepr-and-mepa-genes
#20
Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca Dabul, Juliana Sposto Avaca-Crusca, Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore, Ilana Lopes Baratella Cunha Camargo
A tigecycline-susceptible (TGC-S) Sequence Type (ST) 5 clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain was cultured in escalating levels of tigecycline, yielding mutants eightfold more resistant. Their genomes were sequenced to identify genetic alterations, resulting in resistance. Alterations in rpsJ, commonly related to tigecycline resistance, were also investigated. Tigecycline resistance was mediated by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional repressor mepR, resulting in derepression of the efflux pump mepA...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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