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Genetics of MRSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642157/genome-comparisons-of-two-taiwanese-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st59-clones-support-the-multi-origin-theory-of-ca-mrsa
#1
Ye Feng, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Chih-Jung Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type VT, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage ΦSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage ΦSa3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#2
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611950/the-saers-two-component-system-controls-survival-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-human-blood-through-regulation-of-coagulase
#3
Haiyong Guo, Jeffrey W Hall, Junshu Yang, Yinduo Ji
The SaeRS two-component system plays important roles in regulation of key virulence factors and pathogenicity. In this study, however, we found that the deletion mutation of saeRS enhanced bacterial survival in human blood, whereas complementation of the mutant with SaeRS returned survival to wild-type levels. Moreover, these phenomena were observed in different MRSA genetic background isolates, including HA-MRSA WCUH29, CA-MRSA 923, and MW2. To elucidate which gene(s) regulated by SaeRS contribute to the effect, we conducted a series of complementation studies with selected known SaeRS target genes in trans...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600216/molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-circulating-in-the-russian-federation
#4
Vladimir Gostev, Alexander Kruglov, Olga Kalinogorskaya, Olga Dmitrenko, Olga Khokhlova, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Yuri Lobzin, Irina Ryabchenko, Sergey Sidorenko
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of antimicrobial resistance and molecular features of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Russia. Isolates recovered from hospital patients (n=480), healthy medical personnel (n=25), and healthy carriers (n=13) were included in the study. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) demonstrated high resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol (76%-92%), moderate - to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin (38%-54%), and low - to fusidic acid, co-trimoxazole, mupirocin, and daptomycin (2%-7%)...
June 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598251/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-australian-animals-and-veterinarians
#5
Kate A Worthing, Sam Abraham, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs, Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Hui S Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Darren J Trott, Jacqueline M Norris
This study aimed to determine the frequency and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Australian animals and whether animal-derived MRSA was similar to that from Australian veterinarians. A total of 1,080 clinical coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates from Australian animals were collected during 2013. Sixteen (4%) of 360 S. aureus isolates were MRSA. Most MRSA came from companion animals, while none came from livestock. MRSA isolates were characterized using whole genome sequencing...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595277/genetic-alterations-responsible-for-reduced-susceptibility-to-vancomycin-in-community-associated-mrsa-strains-of-st72
#6
Jin Yang Baek, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kwan Soo Ko, So Hyun Kim, Soo-Jin Yang, Cheol-In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Objectives: We previously reported the first case of vancomycin treatment failure due to development of vancomycin-intermediate resistance in a patient with an MRSA of ST72, a community genotype in Korea. We investigated two isogenic MRSA strains from this patient, who experienced treatment failure with vancomycin and rifampicin. Methods: We tracked the genetic alterations that confer reduced susceptibility to vancomycin on those two isogenic MRSA strains by WGS...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526788/zinc-resistance-within-swine-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolates-in-the-usa-is-associated-with-mlst-lineage
#7
Samantha J Hau, Timothy Frana, Jisun Sun, Peter R Davies, Tracy L Nicholson
Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398 is primarily mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, within the type V SCCmec element. Because czrC and mecA are located within the same mobile genetic element, it has been suggested that the use of in feed zinc as an antidiarrheal agent has the potential to contribute to the emergence and spread of MRSA in swine through increased selection pressure to maintain the SCCmec element in isolates obtained from pigs...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522992/molecular-characterization-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-young-children-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2009
#8
Delfino Vubil, Marcelino Garrine, Ulla Ruffing, Sozinho Acácio, Betuel Sigaúque, Pedro L Alonso, Lutz von Müller, Mathias Herrmann, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections is increasingly recognized as life threating problem worldwide. In Manhiça district, southern Mozambique, S. aureus is the leading cause of community-acquired bacteremia in neonates. Methods: Eighty-four S. aureus isolates from children less than 5 years admitted to Manhiça District Hospital from 2001 to 2009 were randomly selected and genetically characterized by DNA microarray and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by VITEK 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477235/down-regulation-of-the-two-component-system-and-cell-wall-biosynthesis-related-genes-was-associated-with-the-reversion-to-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-daptomycin-non-susceptible-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Y Iwata, K Satou, H Tsuzuku, K Furuichi, Y Senda, Y Sakai-Takemori, T Wada, S Fujita, T Miyake, H Yasuda, N Sakai, S Kitajima, T Toyama, Y Shinozaki, A Sagara, T Miyagawa, A Hara, M Shimizu, Y Kamikawa, S Kaneko, T Wada
Daptomycin (DAP) is widely used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The emergence of DAP non-susceptible MRSA strains during therapy is a major concern in clinical settings. Recent studies revealed that MRSA spontaneously reverts to a subsequent methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain. However, it is not clear whether DAP non-susceptible MRSA has the ability to revert to a susceptible strain. We obtained an MRSA strain pair, DAP non-susceptible strain and subsequent DAP susceptible strain, from a patient...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447896/nanoemulsion-is-an-effective-antimicrobial-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-infected-wounds
#10
Zhengyi Cao, Theodore Spilker, Yongyi Fan, Linda M Kalikin, Susan Ciotti, John J LiPuma, Paul E Makidon, John Erby Wilkinson, James R Baker, Su He Wang
AIM: To develop NB-201, a nanoemulsion compound, as a novel microbicidal agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, which is a common threat to public health but with limited therapeutic options. MATERIALS & METHODS: NB-201 was tested in in vitro and in vivo murine and porcine models infected with MRSA. RESULTS: Topical treatment of MRSA-infected wounds with NB-201 significantly decreased bacterial load and had no toxic effects on healthy skin tissues...
April 27, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435821/utilization-of-pfge-as-a-powerful-discriminative-tool-for-the-investigation-of-genetic-diversity-among-mrsa-strains
#11
Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam, Mohammad Reza Pourmand, Masoumeh Douraghi, Samira Sabzi, Parisa Ghaffari
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant challenge to the burn patient. The implementation of proper monitoring programs and prompt identification of epidemic MRSA strains are critical to consequently control and eradicate potential outbreaks. This study aimed to define the genetic relatedness of MRSA strains isolated from burn patients by analyzing the large fragments of DNA. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 126 pus/wound swabs from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) were collected from inpatients of Shahid Motahari Burn Center (Tehran, Iran) in 2013...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434876/dual-targeting-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-fmn-riboswitch-disrupt-riboflavin-homeostasis-in-an-infectious-setting
#12
Hao Wang, Paul A Mann, Li Xiao, Charles Gill, Andrew M Galgoci, John A Howe, Artjohn Villafania, Christopher M Barbieri, Juliana C Malinverni, Xinwei Sher, Todd Mayhood, Megan D McCurry, Nicholas Murgolo, Amy Flattery, Matthias Mack, Terry Roemer
Riboswitches are bacterial-specific, broadly conserved, non-coding RNA structural elements that control gene expression of numerous metabolic pathways and transport functions essential for cell growth. As such, riboswitch inhibitors represent a new class of potential antibacterial agents. Recently, we identified ribocil-C, a highly selective inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch that controls expression of de novo riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we provide a mechanistic characterization of the antibacterial effects of ribocil-C as well as of roseoflavin (RoF), an antimetabolite analog of RF, among medically significant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis...
May 18, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421046/horses-in-denmark-are-a-reservoir-of-diverse-clones-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Md Zohorul Islam, Carmen Espinosa-Gongora, Peter Damborg, Raphael N Sieber, Rikke Munk, Louise Husted, Arshnee Moodley, Robert Skov, Jesper Larsen, Luca Guardabassi
Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412568/first-report-on-mrsa-cc398-recovered-from-wild-boars-in-the-north-of-portugal-are-we-facing-a-problem
#14
Margarida Sousa, Nuno Silva, Vera Manageiro, Sónia Ramos, António Coelho, David Gonçalves, Manuela Caniça, Carmen Torres, Gilberto Igrejas, Patrícia Poeta
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from wild boars, to analyze their genetic lineages, and to investigate the susceptibility to oxacillin. Samples from mouth and nose of 45 wild boars (Sus scrofa) were collected during hunt activity from November 2012 to January 2013 in the North of Portugal. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 30 of these samples (33%); one isolate/sample was further studied. The susceptibility of the isolates was tested by disk-diffusion test against 14 antimicrobial agents and minimal inhibitory concentration was used to test oxacillin according to EUCAST guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407796/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infection-and-the-molecular-characteristics-of-mrsa-bacteraemia-over-a-two-year-period-in-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-malaysia
#15
Pik San Sit, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Nuryana Idris, I-Ching Sam, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Kwai Lin Thong, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established pathogen that causes hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The prevalence rate of MRSA infections were reported to be the highest in Asia. As there is limited epidemiological study being done in Malaysia, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia. METHODS: Two hundred and nine MRSA strains from year 2011 to 2012 were collected from a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia...
April 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394942/evidence-for-the-evolutionary-steps-leading-to-meca-mediated-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-in-staphylococci
#16
Joana Rolo, Peder Worning, Jesper Boye Nielsen, Rita Sobral, Rory Bowden, Ons Bouchami, Peter Damborg, Luca Guardabassi, Vincent Perreten, Henrik Westh, Alexander Tomasz, Hermínia de Lencastre, Maria Miragaia
The epidemiologically most important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with mecA-an acquired gene encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) with low affinity to virtually all β-lactams. The introduction of mecA into the S. aureus chromosome has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemics, responsible for high rates of mortality worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the origin and evolution of mecA. Different mecA homologues have been identified in species belonging to the Staphylococcus sciuri group representing the most primitive staphylococci...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369698/in-vitro-gene-expression-coupled-bacterial-cell-chip-for-screening-species-specific-antimicrobial-enzymes
#17
Seok-Joon Kwon, Domyoung Kim, Inseon Lee, Jungbae Kim, Jonathan S Dordick
Targeting infectious bacterial pathogens is important for reducing the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and preserving the endogenous human microbiome. Cell lytic enzymes including bacteriophage endolysins, bacterial autolysins, and other bacteriolysins are useful antibiotic alternatives due to their exceptional target selectivity, which may be used to lysins rapidly kill target bacteria and their high specificity permit the normal commensal microflora to be left undisturbed. Genetic information of numerous lysins is currently available, but the identification of their antimicrobial function and specificity has been limited because most lysins are often poorly expressed and exhibit low solubilities...
March 28, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342937/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-among-patients-and-their-parents-guardian-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#18
Babak Pourakbari, Mahmoud Khodabandeh, Shima Mahmoudi, Farah Sabouni, Alireza Aziz-Ahari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the nose appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. It is important to investigate the genetic relatedness of S. aureus and MRSA clones in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, including MRSA strains in both hospitalized children and general adult population (parents/guardian). In addition, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and molecular diversity of S...
June 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304109/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-controversial-food-borne-pathogen
#19
REVIEW
D Sergelidis, A S Angelidis
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and HA-MRSA (HA-MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates...
June 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303819/prevalence-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-staphylococcus-species-a-multicentre-report-of-the-indian-council-of-medical-research-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sunanda Rajkumar, Sujatha Sistla, Meerabai Manoharan, Madhan Sugumar, Niveditha Nagasundaram, Subhash Chandra Parija, Pallab Ray, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Arti Kapil, Kamini Walia, V C Ohri
PURPOSE: Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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