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Genetics of MRSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096484/evolutionary-dynamics-of-pandemic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-and-its-international-spread-via-routes-of-human-migration
#1
Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Paul R McAdam, Sean B Sullivan, Justin R Knox, Hossein Khiabanian, Raul Rabadan, Peter R Davies, J Ross Fitzgerald, Franklin D Lowy
: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC)...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069659/mrsa-strains-carrying-the-novel-mecc-gene-full-genome-sequencing-identifies-in-the-genetic-background-several-determinants-that-modulate-the-resistant-phenotype
#2
Catarina Milheiriço, Hermínia de Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
Most MRSA strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics due to the presence of the mecA gene encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2A) that has low affinity to virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a new resistance determinant - the mecC gene - was identified in S. aureus isolates recovered from humans and dairy cattle. Although having typically low MICs to beta-lactam antibiotics, MRSA strains with the mecC determinant are also capable of expressing high levels of oxacillin resistance when in an optimal genetic background...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004519/antimicrobial-assay-and-genetic-screening-of-selected-freshwater-cyanobacteria-and-identification-of-a-biomolecule-dihydro-2h-pyran-2-one-derivative
#3
A Srivastava, V K Singh, S Patnaik, J Tripathi, P Singh, G Nath, R K Asthana
AIMS: Explorations of freshwater cyanobacteria as antimicrobial (bacteria, fungi and MRSA strains) drug resource using bioassay, NRPS (non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetase) and PKS (polyketide synthase) genes, as well as in silico approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have bioassayed the extracts of Phormidium CCC727, Geitlerinema CCC728, Arthrospira CCC729, Leptolyngbya CCC732, Phormidium CCC730, Phormidium CCC731 against six pathogenic bacteria Gram (+ve): Staphylococcus aureus including seven clinical methicillin-resistant S...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003353/staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-icu-are-these-golden-grapes-ripe-for-a-new-approach
#4
EDITORIAL
Georgia R Sampedro, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Staphylococcus aureus is leading cause of infection in the setting of critical illness and injury. This pathogen causes life-threatening infection in otherwise healthy individuals, and also complicates the clinical course of patients requiring intensive care as a result of their primary medical or surgical disease processes. S. aureus infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) most commonly manifests as sepsis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and infection of surgical sites and indwelling medical devices. With the epidemic spread of methicillin-resistant S...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999423/characterization-of-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-multicenter-study-in-china
#5
Ying Liu, Zhe Xu, Zhou Yang, Juan Sun, Lin Ma
We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends...
December 21, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990009/distribution-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-mrcops-in-a-surgical-unit-and-cystotomy-operation-sites-in-a-veterinary-teaching-hospital
#6
Fungwithaya Punpichaya, Brikshavana Pasakorn, Chanchaithong Pattrarat, Prapasarakul Nuvee
This study aimed to investigate the spread of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) among veterinary staff, hand-touch sites and surgical tissue during cystotomy operations on cats and dogs that were patients, and to analyze the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. Human and environmental samples were obtained from the nasal passageways of 12 surgeons and veterinary assistants and from 29 hand-touch sites of instruments in operative units and subjected to bacterial isolation and enumeration...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955932/molecular-analysis-of-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-different-types-of-infections-from-patients-hospitalized-in-12-regional-non-teaching-hospitals-in-southern-poland
#7
A Chmielarczyk, M Pomorska-Wesołowska, A Szczypta, D Romaniszyn, M Pobiega, J Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Accumulated data indicate that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are associated with a worse prognosis than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections. AIM: To assess the epidemiological profile of S. aureus infections and the genetic diversity of clinical strains of MRSA in 12 hospitals in southern Poland. METHODS: Samples from bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections from adult patients were examined...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936152/variety-of-antimicrobial-resistances-and-virulence-factors-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-meat-products-legally-and-illegally-introduced-to-germany
#8
Anja Müller, Diana Seinige, Wiebke Jansen, Günter Klein, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Corinna Kehrenberg
Food products of animal origin can serve as a vehicle for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, a facultative pathogen involved in a variety of diseases. As a result, international trade and illegal transportation of foodstuffs can facilitate the distribution of S. aureus over long distances. In this study, we investigated S. aureus isolates recovered from meat products confiscated from passengers returning from non-EU countries at two German airports and from samples of legally imported meats from non-EU countries. The aim was to characterize isolates in regard to their genetic relatedness as well as their antimicrobial resistance profiles and major virulence factors in order to assess potential risks associated with these products...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902380/antimicrobial-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-typing-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-a-malaysian-teaching-hospital
#9
Ainihayati Noordin, Hassriana Fazzila Sapri, Nurul Azirah Mohamad Sani, Shih Kei Leong, Xin-Ee Tan, Toh Leong Tan, Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Hui-Min Neoh, Salasawati Hussin
The annual prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malaysia has been estimated to be 30 % to 40 % of all S. aureus infections. Nevertheless, data on the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Malaysian MRSAs remain few. In 2009, we collected 318 MRSA strains from various wards of our teaching hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on these strains. The strains were then molecularly characterized via staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec and virulence gene (cna, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, eta, etb, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) typing; a subset of 49 strains isolated from the intensive care unit was also typed using PFGE...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899074/antibiotic-resistance-and-clonal-diversity-of-invasive-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-rural-ashanti-region-ghana
#10
Denise Dekker, Manuel Wolters, Eva Mertens, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Norbert G Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Holger Rohde, Martin Christner, Florian Marks, Nimako Sarpong, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common pathogens isolated from blood cultures in Ghana; yet the epidemiology of blood infections in rural settings is poorly described. This study aims to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal diversity of S. aureus causing bloodstream infections in two hospitals in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. METHODS: Blood cultures were performed for all febrile patients (≥37.5 °C) on hospital admission. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for S...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895635/molecular-characteristic-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-in-shanghai-china
#11
Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881973/livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-la-mrsa-clonal-complex-cc-398-isolated-from-uk-animals-belong-to-european-lineages
#12
Meenaxi Sharma, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Angela M Kearns, Michel Doumith, Patrick R Butaye, M Angeles Argudín, Angela Lahuerta-Marin, Bruno Pichon, Manal AbuOun, Jon Rogers, Richard J Ellis, Christopher Teale, Muna F Anjum
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 recovered from S. aureus isolated animals in the UK. To determine possible origins of 12 LA-MRSA CC398 isolates collected after screening more than a thousand S. aureus animal isolates from the UK between 2013 and 2015, whole genome sequences (WGS) of CC398 European, including UK, and non-European isolates from diverse animal hosts were compared. Phylogenetic reconstruction applied to WGS data to assess genetic relatedness of all 89 isolates, clustered the 12 UK CC398 LA-MRSA within the European sub-lineages, although on different nodes; implicating multiple independent incursions into the UK, as opposed to a single introduction followed by clonal expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869532/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-outpatients-in-northern-japan-increasing-tendency-of-st5-st764-mrsa-iia-with-arginine-catabolic-mobile-element
#13
Meiji Soe Aung, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Ayako Sumi, Masahiko Ito, Kenji Kudo, Shigeo Morimoto, Shino Hosoya, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a genomic island of staphylococcus and is considered to confer enhanced ability to survive and growth on host bacterial cells. ACME has been typically identified in Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with SCCmec type IVa (USA300 clone), and it is also found in other lineages at low frequency. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL(+)and/or ACME(+) MRSA were investigated for 624 clinical isolates collected from outpatients in northern Japan from 2013 to 2014...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865508/occurrence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-cattle-herds-related-swine-farms-and-humans-in-contact-with-herds
#14
C Locatelli, P Cremonesi, A Caprioli, V Carfora, A Ianzano, A Barberio, S Morandi, A Casula, B Castiglioni, V Bronzo, P Moroni
In this study we investigated the circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2 dairy cattle farms (farm A and B), previously identified as MRSA-positive in bulk tank milk samples, and epidemiologically related to swine farms. Collected specimens included quarter milk samples and nasal swabs from dairy cows, pig nasal swabs collected at both the farm and slaughterhouse level, environmental dust samples, and human nasal swabs from the farms' owners and workers. The prevalence of MRSA was estimated at the herd level by testing quarter milk samples...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855652/performance-of-an-electronic-health-record-based-phenotype-algorithm-to-identify-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-cases-and-controls-for-genetic-association-studies
#15
Kathryn L Jackson, Michael Mbagwu, Jennifer A Pacheco, Abigail S Baldridge, Daniel J Viox, James G Linneman, Sanjay K Shukla, Peggy L Peissig, Kenneth M Borthwick, David A Carrell, Suzette J Bielinski, Jacqueline C Kirby, Joshua C Denny, Frank D Mentch, Lyam M Vazquez, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Abel N Kho
BACKGROUND: Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the most common causes of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States, and a variety of genetic host factors are suspected to be risk factors for recurrent infection. Based on the CDC definition, we have developed and validated an electronic health record (EHR) based CA-MRSA phenotype algorithm utilizing both structured and unstructured data. METHODS: The algorithm was validated at three eMERGE consortium sites, and positive predictive value, negative predictive value and sensitivity, were calculated...
November 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851997/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-animals-current-overview
#16
REVIEW
M Aires-de-Sousa
Currently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a universal threat. After being well established in the healthcare setting, it has emerged in the community among people with no risk factors for MRSA acquisition, therefore imposing a new threat. The subsequent detection of MRSA colonizing or infecting animals as well as in food of animal origin was of major concern, revealing new reservoirs for MRSA. The major MRSA clonal lineages circulating in the different settings, i.e. in hospitals, in the community and among animals, are described here, differentiating between clones colonizing companion and food-chain animals...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836760/staphylococcal-chromosomal-cassettes-mec-sccmec-a-mobile-genetic-element-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
REVIEW
Junyan Liu, Dingqiang Chen, Brian M Peters, Lin Li, Bing Li, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirliff
Considered to be a potential "superbug", methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been one of the major recent infectious pathogens and thus poses a challenge to hospital infection control. The mobile genetic element staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) carries both the mecA or mecC gene, encoding for a novel specific penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a), and site-specific recombinase genes ccrAB or/and ccrC. In MRSA, the acquisition of SCCmec leads to the resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics...
December 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827853/antimicrobial-usage-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-animal-production-in-southeast-asia-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Nguyen T Nhung, Nguyen V Cuong, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-Mas
Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU) and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens...
November 2, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755189/a-10-year-review-of-ocular-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-epidemiology-clinical-features-and-treatment
#19
Emily S Wong, Claire W Y Chow, W K Luk, Kitty S C Fung, Kenneth K W Li
PURPOSE: To characterize epidemiological data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular infections over a 10-year period in Hong Kong; to compare the characteristics between hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) ocular infections; and to review the treatment regimen and outcome of identified cases. METHODS: A retrospective case review of ocular samples testing positive for MRSA at a tertiary eye center from July 2005 to June 2015 was performed...
January 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729903/potential-relationship-between-phenotypic-and-molecular-characteristics-in-revealing-livestock-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-in-chinese-humans-without-occupational-livestock-contact
#20
Yanping Fan, Xiaolin Wang, Ling Li, Zhenjiang Yao, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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