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validation silhouettes

Ulrich Sander, Nils Lubbe
Intersection accidents are frequent and harmful. The accident types 'straight crossing path' (SCP), 'left turn across path - oncoming direction' (LTAP/OD), and 'left-turn across path - lateral direction' (LTAP/LD) represent around 95% of all intersection accidents and one-third of all police-reported car-to-car accidents in Germany. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) have announced that intersection scenarios will be included in their rating from 2020; however, how these scenarios are to be tested has not been defined...
January 17, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Gonzalo Sotomayor, Henrietta Hampel, Raúl F Vázquez
A non-supervised (k-means) and a supervised (k-Nearest Neighbour in combination with genetic algorithm optimisation, k-NN/GA) pattern recognition algorithms were applied for evaluating and interpreting a large complex matrix of water quality (WQ) data collected during five years (2008, 2010-2013) in the Paute river basin (southern Ecuador). 21 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters collected at 80 different WQ sampling stations were examined. At first, the k-means algorithm was carried out to identify classes of sampling stations regarding their associated WQ status by considering three internal validation indexes, i...
December 8, 2017: Water Research
Agnes M Kroczek, Florian B Haeussinger, Justin Hudak, Lucy D Vanes, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: Cue reactivity is an automatic reaction to alcohol-related cues, contributing to the maintenance of drinking behavior and relapse in alcohol dependency. The identification of valid cue-reactivity features is a prerequisite for its clinical application. We were interested in the effects of visual features of alcohol cues (e.g., color) on cue reactivity. Assuming its development at a pre-pathological stage, we analyzed cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers, with light social drinkers as controls...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Mark J Connick, Emma Beckman, Yves Vanlandewijck, Laurie A Malone, Sven Blomqvist, Sean M Tweedy
BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required. AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure...
November 25, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Thomas M M Versluys, William J Skylark
Leg-to-body ratio (LBR) predicts evolutionary fitness, and is therefore expected to influence bodily attractiveness. Previous investigations of LBR attractiveness have used a wide variety of stimuli, including line drawings, silhouettes, and computer-generated images based on anthropometric data. In two studies, community samples of heterosexual women from the USA rated the attractiveness of male figures presented as silhouettes and as detailed computer-generated images with three different skin tones (white, black, and an artificial grey)...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
F Thomas, J P Empana, M A Charles, P Boutouyrie, X Jouven, B Pannier, N Danchin
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: In epidemiological studies, recall of weight and height are not readily available at different ages of life. In order to improve the knowledge of the weight history, Sörensen et al. in 1983, developed a tool from silhouettes allowing an individual to evaluate his corpulence at different ages of life. Validity studies showed that measured weight and size were correlated to 80% in the reported silhouette. Studies have also shown that silhouettes are a good way to trace the weight history in an individual's life...
June 21, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Yue Zhao, Yuanzhen Li
In double planar mirror omnidirectional imaging systems, camera calibration is a crucial part of the 3D reconstruction process. Based on analysis of the imaging geometric features of double planar mirrors, three types of algorithms for the camera intrinsic parameters are presented by computing the imaged circular points and orthogonal vanishing points. The camera intrinsic parameters can be obtained by the constraints on the imaged circular points and the orthogonal vanishing points to the image of the absolute conic...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Zhi Zhong, Haitao Qin, Lei Liu, Yabin Zhang, Mingguang Shan
A novel approach for silhouette-free image encryption based on interference is proposed using discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (DMPFrFT), which generalizes from fractional Fourier transform. An original image is firstly applied by chaotic pixel scrambling (CPS) and then encoded into the real part of a complex signal. Using interference principle, the complex signal generates three phase-only masks in DMPFrFT domain. The silhouette of the original image cannot be extracted using one or two of the three phase-only masks...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
Hojun Kim, Young-Jae Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether enterotypes in the gut microbiome could be determined by clustering validity indexes and whether these enterotypes were associated with individual differences in temperament traits. METHODS: Sixty healthy Korean participants (21 men; 27.5 ± 8.1 years, 39 women; 34.5 ± 14.3 years) were asked to answer 60 temperament questions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) from the Korean version of the temperament and character inventory-125 (K-TCI-125)...
March 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
Miguel M Serrano, Yu-Ping Chen, Ayanna Howard, Patricio A Vela
The paper describes a computer vision method for estimating the clinical gait metrics of walking patients in unconstrained environments. The method employs background subtraction to produce a silhouette of the subject and a randomized decision forest to detect their feet. Given the feet detections, the stride and step length, cadence, and walking speed are estimated. Validation of the system is presented through an error analysis on manually annotated videos of subjects walking in different outdoor settings...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Miguel M Serrano, Yu-Ping Chen, Ayanna Howard, Patricio A Vela, Miguel M Serrano, Yu-Ping Chen, Ayanna Howard, Patricio A Vela, Miguel M Serrano, Ayanna Howard, Patricio A Vela, Yu-Ping Chen
The paper describes a computer vision method for estimating the clinical gait metrics of walking patients in unconstrained environments. The method employs background subtraction to produce a silhouette of the subject and a randomized decision forest to detect their feet. Given the feet detections, the stride and step length, cadence, and walking speed are estimated. Validation of the system is presented through an error analysis on manually annotated videos of subjects walking in different outdoor settings...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ayman A Mostafa, Clifford R Berry
OBJECTIVE To determine manubrium heart scores (MHSs) from measurements of cardiac short-axis length (cSAL) and long-axis length (cLAL) relative to the corresponding manubrium length (ML) on thoracic radiographic views of dogs and assess correlation of MHSs with vertebral heart scores (VHSs). ANIMALS 120 clinically normal large-breed dogs (LBDs) and small-breed dogs (SBDs). PROCEDURES On right lateral views (RLVs) and ventrodorsal views (VDVs) for each dog, cSAL and cLAL were measured and expressed as a ratio; the cSAL:ML ratio (short-MHS), cLAL:ML ratio (long-MHS), and cSAL-and-cLAL:ML ratio (overall-MHS) were also calculated...
February 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Bedor Abualhaj, Guoyang Weng, Melissa Ong, Ali Asgar Attarwala, Flavia Molina, Karen Büsing, Gerhard Glatting
PURPOSE: Dynamic [(18) F]fluoro-ethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography ([(18) F]FET-PET) is used to identify tumor lesions for radiotherapy treatment planning, to differentiate glioma recurrence from radiation necrosis and to classify gliomas grading. To segment different regions in the brain k-means cluster analysis can be used. The main disadvantage of k-means is that the number of clusters must be pre-defined. In this study, we therefore compared different cluster validity indices for automated and reproducible determination of the optimal number of clusters based on the dynamic PET data...
January 2017: Medical Physics
Sudipta Acharya, Sriparna Saha
Distance plays an important role in the clustering process for allocating data points to different clusters. Several distance or proximity measures have been developed and reported in the literature to determine dissimilarities between two given points. The choice of distance measure depends on a particular domain as well as different data sets of the same domain. It is important to automatically determine the appropriate distance measure which acts best for a particular data set. In this study we have developed an automatic clustering technique using the search capability of multiobjective optimization which can automatically determine the relevant distance measure and the corresponding partitioning from a given data set...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Xiong Xiao, Albert Jan van Hoek, Michael G Kenward, Alessia Melegaro, Mark Jit
OBJECTIVE: Infectious disease spread depends on contact rates between infectious and susceptible individuals. Transmission models are commonly informed using empirically collected contact data, but the relevance of different contact types to transmission is still not well understood. Some studies select contacts based on a single characteristic such as proximity (physical/non-physical), location, duration or frequency. This study aimed to explore whether clusters of contacts similar to each other across multiple characteristics could better explain disease transmission...
December 2016: Epidemics
Shubham Tulsiani, Abhishek Kar, Joao Carreira, Jitendra Malik
We address the problem of fully automatic object localization and reconstruction from a single image. This is both a very challenging and very important problem which has, until recently, received limited attention due to difficulties in segmenting objects and predicting their poses. Here we leverage recent advances in learning convolutional networks for object detection and segmentation and introduce a complementary network for the task of camera viewpoint prediction. These predictors are very powerful, but still not perfect given the stringent requirements of shape reconstruction...
April 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Weifang Zhu, Haoyu Chen, Heming Zhao, Bei Tian, Lirong Wang, Fei Shi, Dehui Xiang, Xiaohong Luo, Enting Gao, Li Zhang, Yilong Yin, Xinjian Chen
Detection and assessment of the integrity of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) are important because it is critical for visual acuity in retina trauma and other diseases. We have proposed and validated a framework that can automatically analyse the 3D integrity of the EZ in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The images are first filtered and automatically segmented into 10 layers, of which EZ is located in the 7(th) layer. For each voxel of the EZ, 57 features are extracted and a principle component analysis is performed to optimize the features...
2016: Scientific Reports
Saeedeh Pourahmad, Soudabeh Pourhashemi, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah
Determination of the colorectal cancer stage is possible only after surgery based on pathology results. However, sometimes this may prove impossible. The aim of the present study was to determine colorectal cancer stage using three clustering methods based on preoperative clinical findings. All patients referred to the Colorectal Research Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for colorectal cancer surgery during 2006 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. Accordingly, 117 cases participated. Three clustering algorithms were utilized including k-means, hierarchical and fuzzy c-means clustering methods...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles, Ana Carolina Soares Amaral, Clara Mockdece Neves, Maria Aparecida Conti, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
This study aimed to examine construct validity, internal consistency, and reproducibility of the Body Change Questionnaire (BCQ). A total of 439 female and male adolescents (13-22 years of age) were evaluated. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis and correlation between the scores of the BCQ and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Scale Silhouettes (SS). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and reproducibility using test-retest and intra-class correlation. The scale presented a six-factor structure that almost entirely accounted for the instrument's subscales...
November 2015: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Maryam Yepes, Barathi Viswanathan, Pascal Bovet, Jürgen Maurer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to validate the Pulvers silhouette showcard as a measure of weight status in a population in the African region. This tool is particularly beneficial when scarce resources do not allow for direct anthropometric measurements due to limited survey time or lack of measurement technology in face-to-face general-purpose surveys or in mailed, online, or mobile device-based surveys. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Republic of Seychelles with a sample of 1240 adults...
2015: Population Health Metrics
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