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validation silhouettes

Sudipta Acharya, Sriparna Saha
Distance plays an important role in the clustering process for allocating data points to different clusters. Several distance or proximity measures have been developed and reported in the literature to determine dissimilarities between two given points. The choice of distance measure depends on a particular domain as well as different data sets of the same domain. It is important to automatically determine the appropriate distance measure which acts best for a particular data set. In this study we have developed an automatic clustering technique using the search capability of multiobjective optimization which can automatically determine the relevant distance measure and the corresponding partitioning from a given data set...
September 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Xiong Xiao, Albert Jan van Hoek, Michael G Kenward, Alessia Melegaro, Mark Jit
OBJECTIVE: Infectious disease spread depends on contact rates between infectious and susceptible individuals. Transmission models are commonly informed using empirically collected contact data, but the relevance of different contact types to transmission is still not well understood. Some studies select contacts based on a single characteristic such as proximity (physical/non-physical), location, duration or frequency. This study aimed to explore whether clusters of contacts similar to each other across multiple characteristics could better explain disease transmission...
December 2016: Epidemics
Shubham Tulsiani, Abhishek Kar, Joao Carreira, Jitendra Malik
We address the problem of fully automatic object localization and reconstruction from a single image. This is both a very challenging and very important problem which has, until recently, received limited attention due to difficulties in segmenting objects and predicting their poses. Here we leverage recent advances in learning convolutional networks for object detection and segmentation and introduce a complementary network for the task of camera viewpoint prediction. These predictors are very powerful, but still not perfect given the stringent requirements of shape reconstruction...
June 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Weifang Zhu, Haoyu Chen, Heming Zhao, Bei Tian, Lirong Wang, Fei Shi, Dehui Xiang, Xiaohong Luo, Enting Gao, Li Zhang, Yilong Yin, Xinjian Chen
Detection and assessment of the integrity of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) are important because it is critical for visual acuity in retina trauma and other diseases. We have proposed and validated a framework that can automatically analyse the 3D integrity of the EZ in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The images are first filtered and automatically segmented into 10 layers, of which EZ is located in the 7(th) layer. For each voxel of the EZ, 57 features are extracted and a principle component analysis is performed to optimize the features...
2016: Scientific Reports
Saeedeh Pourahmad, Soudabeh Pourhashemi, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah
Determination of the colorectal cancer stage is possible only after surgery based on pathology results. However, sometimes this may prove impossible. The aim of the present study was to determine colorectal cancer stage using three clustering methods based on preoperative clinical findings. All patients referred to the Colorectal Research Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for colorectal cancer surgery during 2006 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. Accordingly, 117 cases participated. Three clustering algorithms were utilized including k-means, hierarchical and fuzzy c-means clustering methods...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles, Ana Carolina Soares Amaral, Clara Mockdece Neves, Maria Aparecida Conti, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
This study aimed to examine construct validity, internal consistency, and reproducibility of the Body Change Questionnaire (BCQ). A total of 439 female and male adolescents (13-22 years of age) were evaluated. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis and correlation between the scores of the BCQ and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Scale Silhouettes (SS). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and reproducibility using test-retest and intra-class correlation. The scale presented a six-factor structure that almost entirely accounted for the instrument's subscales...
November 2015: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Maryam Yepes, Barathi Viswanathan, Pascal Bovet, Jürgen Maurer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to validate the Pulvers silhouette showcard as a measure of weight status in a population in the African region. This tool is particularly beneficial when scarce resources do not allow for direct anthropometric measurements due to limited survey time or lack of measurement technology in face-to-face general-purpose surveys or in mailed, online, or mobile device-based surveys. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Republic of Seychelles with a sample of 1240 adults...
2015: Population Health Metrics
Konstantinos C Koskinas, Giovanni J Ughi, Stephan Windecker, Guillermo J Tearney, Lorenz Räber
While coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality, evaluation of coronary lesions was previously limited to either indirect angiographic assessment of the lumen silhouette or post mortem investigations. Intracoronary (IC) imaging modalities have been developed that allow for visualization and characterization of coronary atheroma in living patients. Used alone or in combination, these modalities have enhanced our understanding of pathobiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis, identified factors responsible for disease progression, and documented the ability of various medications to reverse the processes of plaque growth and destabilization...
February 7, 2016: European Heart Journal
Ilona Skoczń, Jan Cieciuch, Johan H L Oud, Kai Welzen
The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Danilo Garcia, Shane MacDonald, Trevor Archer
Background. The notion of the affective system as being composed of two dimensions led Archer and colleagues to the development of the affective profiles model. The model consists of four different profiles based on combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive and negative affect: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. During the past 10 years, an increasing number of studies have used this person-centered model as the backdrop for the investigation of between and within individual differences in ill-being and well-being...
2015: PeerJ
Lincoln F Silva, Giomar O Sequeiros, Maria Lúcia O Santos, Cristina A P Fontes, Débora C Muchaluat-Saade, Aura Conci
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. Currently, there are no effective methods to prevent this disease. However, early diagnosis increases chances of remission. Breast thermography is an option to be considered in screening strategies. This paper proposes a new dynamic breast thermography analysis technique in order to identify patients at risk for breast cancer. Thermal signals from patients of the Antonio Pedro University Hospital (HUAP), available at the Mastology Database for Research with Infrared Image - DMR-IR were used to validate the study...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jacqueline Kory Westlund, Jacqueline Kory Westlund, Sidney K D'Mello, Andrew M Olney
Researchers in the cognitive and affective sciences investigate how thoughts and feelings are reflected in the bodily response systems including peripheral physiology, facial features, and body movements. One specific question along this line of research is how cognition and affect are manifested in the dynamics of general body movements. Progress in this area can be accelerated by inexpensive, non-intrusive, portable, scalable, and easy to calibrate movement tracking systems. Towards this end, this paper presents and validates Motion Tracker, a simple yet effective software program that uses established computer vision techniques to estimate the amount a person moves from a video of the person engaged in a task (available for download from http://jakory...
2015: PloS One
Maulik J Gandhi, Michael J Anderton, Lennard Funk
PURPOSE: To evaluate correlations between objective performances measured by a new online arthroscopic skills acquisition tool (ASAT, in which "shape match" with inverted controls requires lifting shapes and releasing them into their corresponding silhouettes) and a validated virtual reality (VR) shoulder arthroscopy simulator (Insight Arthro VR; GMV, Madrid, Spain). METHODS: Forty-nine medical students familiarized themselves with 5 ASATs. They were then assessed using a sixth ASAT (shape match with inverted controls) and 4 VR tasks (operating room, visualize, locate and palpate, and pendulum) on the VR simulator...
September 2015: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Xiaoyan Shi, Ziyang Chen, Daomu Zhao, Haidan Mao, Linfei Chen
In this paper, we demonstrate a security system by using optical interference and phase retrieval algorithm (PRA) techniques. The modified PRA is proposed to encode the target image into random phase distribution. Optical and digital methods can be used for decryption. By using this method, silhouette elimination is realized. In addition, due to this simplified system design, the iterative rate is improved and the optical decryption realization is easier. Validity and performance of the proposed system are demonstrated by means of numerical simulations...
April 10, 2015: Applied Optics
Claudio Ghittino, Enrico Busato, Achille Casale
Carabus (Cathoplius) aliai was described as a separate species by Escalera in 1944 but since the 1950-60s it has been considered as a subspecies of Carabus (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. This downgrading was adopted after examining only a few specimens, due to their rarity in collections. In recent years, an important population of this taxon was rediscovered in the Tan-Tan area in southern Morocco. By combining field observations with laboratory breeding experiments including hybridization trials, and through the morphological examination of a representative number of individuals, it is confirmed that Carabusaliai is indeed a valid species...
2015: ZooKeys
Etienne Lord, Abdoulaye Baniré Diallo, Vladimir Makarenkov
BACKGROUND: Workflows, or computational pipelines, consisting of collections of multiple linked tasks are becoming more and more popular in many scientific fields, including computational biology. For example, simulation studies, which are now a must for statistical validation of new bioinformatics methods and software, are frequently carried out using the available workflow platforms. Workflows are typically organized to minimize the total execution time and to maximize the efficiency of the included operations...
March 3, 2015: BMC Bioinformatics
Jianjun Cai, Xueju Shen, Ming Lei, Chao Lin, Shuaifeng Dou
A novel asymmetric cryptosystem based on coherent superposition, which is free from silhouette problem, is proposed. Being different from the phase-truncated Fourier transform-based cryptosystem, the encryption process uses equal modulus decomposition (EMD) to create an effective trapdoor one-way function. As a result, the proposed method achieves high robustness against the special attack based on iterative Fourier transform. Simulation results are presented to prove the validity of the proposed system.
February 15, 2015: Optics Letters
Bojan Mihaljević, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Luis Guerra, Javier DeFelipe, Pedro Larrañaga, Concha Bielza
OBJECTIVES: A recently introduced pragmatic scheme promises to be a useful catalog of interneuron names. We sought to automatically classify digitally reconstructed interneuronal morphologies according to this scheme. Simultaneously, we sought to discover possible subtypes of these types that might emerge during automatic classification (clustering). We also investigated which morphometric properties were most relevant for this classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A set of 118 digitally reconstructed interneuronal morphologies classified into the common basket (CB), horse-tail (HT), large basket (LB), and Martinotti (MA) interneuron types by 42 of the world's leading neuroscientists, quantified by five simple morphometric properties of the axon and four of the dendrites...
September 2015: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Ricardo de Lima Thomaz, Ana Claudia Patrocinio, Alcimar Barbosa Soares
This paper presents a computational system for three-dimensional reconstruction and surface extraction of the human lower limb as a new methodology of visualizing images of multifaceted ecchymosis on the lower limbs. Through standardization of image acquisition by a mechanical system, an algorithm was developed for three-dimensional and surface reconstruction based on the extraction of depth from silhouettes. In order to validate this work, a three-dimensional model of the human lower limb was used inside a virtual environment...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Srikanth Ryali, Tianwen Chen, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Weidong Cai, Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Clustering methods are increasingly employed to segment brain regions into functional subdivisions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, these methods are highly sensitive to the (i) precise algorithms employed, (ii) their initializations, and (iii) metrics used for uncovering the optimal number of clusters from the data. NEW METHOD: To address these issues, we develop a novel consensus clustering evidence accumulation (CC-EAC) framework, which effectively combines multiple clustering methods for segmenting brain regions using rs-fMRI data...
January 30, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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