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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474316/autoantibodies-against-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-1-in-health-and-disease
#1
Hannelore Ehrenreich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Humoral autoimmunity has gained highest interest in neurology and psychiatry. Despite numerous recent articles on this hot topic, however, the biological significance of natural autoantibodies (AB) and the normal autoimmune repertoire of mammals remained quite obscure. AB may contribute to disorder-relevant phenotypes and are even believed to induce diseases themselves, but the circumstances under which AB become pathogenic are not fully understood. This review will focus on the highly frequent AB against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1-AB) as an illustrating example and provide a critical overview of current work (please note that the new nomenclature, GluN1, is disregarded here for consistency with the AB literature)...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471250/duret-haemorrhage-an-unusual-finding-in-compression-of-neck-structures
#2
Tanuj Kanchan, Alok Atreya
Hanging is one of the most lethal methods of suicide, where survival is an obvious rarity. Those who survive the initial act of hanging mostly suffer from hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and show some form of neurological damage. Intracranial haemorrhages are rarely associated with hanging. We report the first case of Duret haemorrhages in a 58 years old victim who survived for 8 days after the attempted hanging. Duret haemorrhage is mostly associated with fatal outcome. It is thus implied that cerebral edema should be brought under control at the earliest to prevent transtentorial herniation and subsequent Duret haemorrhages...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470714/surgical-management-of-cauda-syndrome-in-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-focusing-on-spinal-anesthesia-and-right-lateral-positioning-during-surgery-as-possible-practices
#3
REVIEW
Viktor Zsolt Kovari, Laszlo Horvath
PURPOSE: This article presents a surgical solution of a lumbar disc hernia of a pregnant woman focusing on the use of right lateral positioning, spinal anesthesia which has not previously been utilized in third trimester and discusses positioning options, and possible anesthesia methods with the surgical procedure options. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A left-sided L5/S1 lumbar disc hernia (verified by magnetic resonance imaging) of a 35-year-old, 32-week-pregnant woman with a deteriorating neurological status leading to cauda syndrome was treated successfully by microdiscectomy in right lateral position applying spinal anesthesia...
February 22, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468621/fusarium-brain-abscess-in-a-patient-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-liver-cirrhosis
#4
Yu-Ju Chen, Chao-Liang Chou, Kuan-Ju Lai, Ya-Ju Lin Lin
PURPOSE: Invasive mycosis caused by the Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucor can be fetal, especially in the immunocompromised patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Here we present a case of CNS Fusarium infection, and this is the first reported case of Fusarium brain abscess in Taiwan. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman presented with fever and conscious disturbance for 3 days. Neurological examination showed stupor consciousness, neck stiffness, multiple cranial nerves palsy, and bilateral Babinski signs...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468203/inner-retinal-vasculopathy-in-zika-virus-disease
#5
Mandeep S Singh, Maria Carolina Marquezan, Revaz Omiadze, Ashvini K Reddy, Rubens Belfort, William N May
Purpose: Zika virus infection is associated with vision-threatening ocular complications including uveitis and outer retinopathy. The aim of this report is to describe a case of an adult patient with serologically confirmed Zika infection who presented with retinal vascular abnormalities that coincided with systemic post-viral neurological manifestations of the disease. Observations: A 34-year-old white female presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy following serologically confirmed Zika virus infection that was acquired in Puerto Rico four months prior to presentation...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468001/cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-in-a-patient-with-meningococcal-meningitis
#6
Sudhir Kumar Palat Chirakkara, Abdul Rahim Ali Bakhsh, Aparna Kalyani Pariyadath, Balamurugan Rathinavelu
Meningococcal meningitis has a wide range of neurological complications. However, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) following infection with Neisseria meningitidis is uncommon. We report a case of CVST in a 42-year-old male admitted with meningococcal meningitis. The patient was managed with antibiotics. Due to altered coagulation parameters observed in fulminant cases of meningococcemia, deployment of anticoagulation therapy, which would otherwise be the treatment of choice for CVST, is a dilemma.
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466947/stroke-as-an-atypical-initial-presentation-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#7
Tharsika Kuganesan, Allen R Huang
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune mediated inflammatory disease of medium and large arteries which afflicts older people. The classical presentation features include: headache, visual disturbances, and jaw claudication. Patients diagnosed with GCA have also been observed to be at higher risk for the subsequent development of strokes. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of an 84-year old right-handed man who presented to hospital with dysarthria, dysphagia, right-sided facial drop, a history of generalized weakness and multiple falls...
February 21, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466521/prolonged-zika-virus-viremia-in-a-patient-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#8
Gabriel Gonzalez-Escobar, Anne Marie Valadere, Rosmond Adams, Karen Polson-Edwards, Avery Q J Hinds, Akenath Misir, C James Hospedales
An emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV) is a significant public health concern because of the syndromes associated with the infection. In addition, ZIKV is considered a major problem due to large-scale spread of the disease and the possible clinical complications for the central nervous system, especially Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Since the introduction of ZIKV in the Caribbean, molecular detection of the viral RNA has been utilized as a more specific and sensitive approach to demonstrating acute infection...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465576/delayed-epidural-pseudoaneurysm-following-cervical-laminectomy-and-instrumentation-in-a-patient-with-canal-stenosis-secondary-to-skeletal-fluorosis-a-case-report
#9
Yinze Diao, Yu Sun, Shaobo Wang, Fengshan Zhang, Shengfa Pan, Zhongjun Liu
RATIONALE: The typical intraoperative presentation of vertebral artery injury (VAI) usually involves profuse bleeding and requires immediate treatment. However, an occult VAI may occur intraoperatively and result in delayed life-threatening epidural pseudoaneurysm several days postoperatively. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 21-year-old man with compressive cervical myelopathy resulting from canal stenosis of skeletal fluorosis underwent decompression of C1 to C7 and instrumentation from C2 to C7...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465574/simultaneous-acute-marchiafava-bignami-disease-and-central-pontine-myelinolysis-a-case-report-of-a-challenging-diagnosis
#10
Chun-Yi Tsai, Po-Kai Huang, Poyin Huang
RATIONALE: Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare disease characterized by demyelination of the corpus callosum. It is most commonly seen in patients with chronic alcoholism. The clinical diagnosis of MBD can be difficult due to its nonspecific manifestation. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) occurs mostly as a complication of severe and prolonged hyponatremia, especially when corrected too rapidly. However, CPM can be associated with chronic alcoholism and its clinical presentation can be heterogeneous...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465562/subacute-onset-leukodystrophy-and-visual-spatial-disorders-revealing-phenylketonuria-combined-with-homocysteinmia-in-adulthood-a-case-report
#11
Chunchen Wang, Jieying Li
RATIONALE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder, which manifests a progressive irreversible neurological impairment during infancy and childhood. Hyperhomocysteinemia also showed that it might be involved in pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. The late-onset clinical manifestations of these 2 diseases have not been reported elsewhere. We speculated that the late-onset PKU is caused by 2 kinds of metabolic dysfunction synergistically, especially a short period of irregular diet directly caused clinical symptoms...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465211/-case-report-pneumocephalia-after-epidural-anesthesia-for-hip-replacement-surgery
#12
S A Pervukhin, A M Ageenko, M N Lebedeva, R I Golikov
Lumbar epidural anesthesia is a commonly used anaesthetic technique for trauma and orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities. One of the rare complications of epidural anesthesia is pneumocephalia. The article describes a case of pneumocephalia after epidural anesthesia performed for anesthetic management of the hip replacement surgery. Eight hours after the epidural anesthesia the patient had depression of consciousness progressing to coma. Computed tomog- raphy of the brain detected pneumocephalia. Symptomatic treatment provided a regression of neurological deficit...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465166/full-percutaneous-biventricular-support-with-two-impella-pumps-the-bi-pella-approach
#13
Federico Pappalardo, Anna Mara Scandroglio, Azeem Latib
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used for acute respiratory distress syndrome, refractory cardiogenic shock, and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with uncertain neurological status, and, until recently, it was the only minimally invasive option to achieve biventricular support. However, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation increases left ventricular afterload and requires systemic anticoagulation, which is a major contraindication in the context of thrombolytic therapy following an ischaemic stroke. Conversely, the Impella heart pumps by design unload the ventricle and require minimal anticoagulation...
February 21, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464730/demyelination-during-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-for-psoriasis
#14
J M E Boggs, L Barnes
Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies have been associated with neurological complications, including in rare cases demyelinating disease. It is currently unknown whether patients who have received more than one immunosuppressive agent or anti-TNF have a greater risk of demyelination. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman with psoriasis who presented with an acute episode of demyelination while on anti-TNF therapy. This case was complicated by the fact that progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was considered the likely diagnosis initially and was only definitively excluded by brain biopsy...
February 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464140/a-case-report-of-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-use-in-a-span-100-positive-geriatric-patient-with-thrombocytopenia
#15
Ilya Bragin, Justine M Chen
Thrombocytopenia (platelet count: < 100,000/mm3 ) is considered a contraindication in the use of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Little literature exists regarding tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) usage in thrombocytopenic patients, especially in older patients. Age and stroke severity are major prognostic indicators of the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. The Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIH Stroke Scale (SPAN) index estimates a patient's risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and clinical response to thrombolysis by combining age in years with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores...
December 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462057/segmental-spinal-myoclonus-complicating-lumbar-transforaminal-epidural-steroid-injection
#16
Stanley Sau Ching Wong, Qiu Qiu, Chi Wai Cheung
OBJECTIVE: Lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection is commonly used for treating lumbar radicular pain. We report a case of segmental spinal myoclonus that developed during lumbar transforaminal epidural injection with local anesthetic and steroid. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old woman with failed back surgery syndrome presented with low back and right L3 and L4 radicular pain. As she had responded well previously to diagnostic selective nerve root injection with local anesthetic at the right L3 and L4 levels, lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the same levels was scheduled...
February 16, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460462/cri-du-chat-syndrome-characteristics-of-73-brazilian-patients
#17
R S Honjo, C B Mello, L S E Pimenta, E C Nuñes-Vaca, L M Benedetto, R B F Khoury, D M Befi-Lopes, C A Kim
BACKGROUND: Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic syndrome caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. Although the main clinical features of CdCS are well known, the neurocognitive and behavioural characteristics of the phenotype are rarely described in detail in the literature. In this study, we analysed the main phenotypic features of CdCS from a parental perspective. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to 700 Brazilian families that were registered in the Brazilian Association of CdCS...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460300/catheter-associated-venous-air-embolism-in-hospitalized-horses-32-cases
#18
Nicholas J Parkinson, Harold C McKenzie, Michelle H Barton, Jennifer L Davis, Bettina Dunkel, Amy L Johnson, Elizabeth S MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Venous air embolism is a potentially life-threatening complication of IV catheter use in horses. Despite widespread anecdotal reports of their occurrence, few cases have been reported in the literature and the prognosis is currently unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to describe the surrounding circumstances, clinical signs, treatment, progression, and outcome of venous air embolism in hospitalized horses. ANIMALS: Thirty-two horses with acute onset of compatible clinical signs associated with IV catheter disconnection or damage...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460065/the-impact-of-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-in-routine-pediatric-neurosurgical-practice-a-6-year-appraisal
#19
Sonia Tejada, Shivaram Avula, Benedetta Pettorini, Dawn Henningan, Laurence Abernethy, Conor Mallucci
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative magnetic resonance scanner (ioMR) was introduced in our unit in 2009, and has been used routinely since then. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe indications, radiological features, and clinical outcomes of the patients operated on with ioMRI and analyze our experience. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database has been performed, including surgical procedure, intent, radiological reports, need for second-look surgery, and complications, supplemented by further review of the clinical notes and the scans...
February 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460010/type-v-osteogenesis-imperfecta-undergoing-surgical-correction-for-scoliosis
#20
Morgan Jones, Lee Breakwell, Ashley Cole, Paul Arundel, Nick Bishop
PURPOSE: The objective of this article is to report a case of type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) undergoing posterior instrumented fusion for scoliosis. Type V OI is a moderately severe dysplasia causing primary defects in endochondral bone ossification or mineralisation. It is characterised by hyperplastic callus (HPC) formation, interosseous membrane calcifications, poor bone quality and spinal deformities including scoliosis. Data on the surgical management of spinal deformities in this patient group are lacking...
February 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
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