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Topical anesthetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786114/endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-cerebral-arterioles-of-rats-deteriorates-during-acute-hyperglycemia-and-then-is-restored-by-reducing-the-glucose-level
#1
Kazuhiro Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Koji Sakata, Naokazu Fukuoka, Kiyoshi Nagase, Mami Iida, Hiroki Iida
PURPOSE: Acute hyperglycemia in patients with traumatic brain injury correlates with a poor neurological outcome. We investigated the endothelium function of rat cerebral arterioles during acute hyperglycemia and after reducing the glucose levels using insulin. We also examined whether or not oxidative stress was involved in the cerebral arteriole response to acute hyperglycemia. METHODS: In isoflurane-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats, we used closed cranial window preparation to measure the changes in the pial arteriolar diameter following the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766368/systemic-contact-dermatitis
#2
REVIEW
Marcella Aquino, Greg Rosner
Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell receptor without first being presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules and without prior metabolism, which would help explain why SCD can be seen on first exposure to medications...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764631/introduction-to-surgical-and-perioperative-clinical-pharmacy-for-third-year-pharmacy-students-a-pilot-study-of-an-elective-course
#3
Eric G Johnson, Douglas R Oyler
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to implement and assess an elective course that exposes pharmacy students to clinical pharmacy in the surgical and perioperative setting. METHODS: A blended-design elective that included synchronous and asynchronous learning was developed and offered to third-year pharmacy students. Students' knowledge and perception regarding clinical topics in perioperative pharmacy was assessed using pre- and post-course assessments, online quizzes, a journal club, and course assignments...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756747/common-controversies-surrounding-anesthesia-for-procedures-in-the-interventional-pulmonology-suite
#4
Srikantha L Rao, Niraja Rajan
The number of anesthetics for both simple diagnostic and complex therapeutic procedures being performed in non-operating room locations (NORA) in dedicated Interventional Pulmonology Suites have been increasing in the past few years. Anesthesiologists must be familiar with the demands necessitated by the procedures performed by the interventionists and tailor the anesthetic to create a still field while carefully considering the patient's altered pharmacokinetics and reduced cardiopulmonary function and choose a technique that allows prompt recovery and early discharge in these patients, many of whom are elderly and frail...
May 14, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733110/parameters-in-fractional-laser-assisted-delivery-of-topical-anesthetics-role-of-laser-type-and-laser-settings
#5
Arne A Meesters, Marilin J Nieboer, Sanja Kezic, Menno A de Rie, Albert Wolkerstorfer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficacy of topical anesthetics can be enhanced by pretreatment of the skin with ablative fractional lasers. However, little is known about the role of parameters such as laser modality and laser density settings in this technique. Aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with two different ablative fractional laser modalities, a CO2 laser and an Er:YAG laser, and to assess the role of laser density in ablative fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia...
May 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717361/non-interventional-study-to-collect-data-for-the-application-of-lidocaine-gel-2-during-scaling-and-root-planing-and-professional-mechanical-plaque-removal
#6
Gregor J Petersilka, Nicole B Arweiler, Joachim Otto, Tobias Wittig
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a topical lidocaine gel 2% (LG) during scaling and root planing (SRP) and professional mechanical plaque removal (PMPR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anesthetic effects as well as unwanted effects of LG prior to or during SRP and PMPR were evaluated in an observational, non-randomized, non-interventional study design. A total of 385 treatments were recorded in 68 study centers all over Germany. Rating of the anesthetic effect of LG by treating personnel and patients using a four-item verbal rating scale (VRS), tolerability, safety (adverse effects), and need for additional local injection anesthesia (ALI)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708926/pain-management-after-photorefractive-keratectomy
#7
Oren Golan, J Bradley Randleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current concepts regarding the mechanisms of postoperative pain after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and review available treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Many clinical studies have established the safety and efficacy of different topical and systematic therapeutic agents and techniques for the treatment of postoperative pain after PRK, especially topical nonsteroidal anti inflammatory agents and oral nonsteroidal and narcotic medications...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703287/pupil-dilation-dynamics-with-an-intracameral-fixed-combination-of-mydriatics-and-anesthetic-during-cataract-surgery
#8
Frederic Chiambaretta, Uwe Pleyer, Anders Behndig, Pierre-Jean Pisella, Erik Mertens, Antonio Limao, Francesco Fasce, Joaquin Fernandez, Salah-Eddine Benmoussa, Marc Labetoulle, Beatrice Cochener
PURPOSE: To compare the pupil dynamics of an intracameral combination of 2 mydriatics and 1 anesthetic (Mydrane) to a standard topical regimen for cataract surgery. SETTING: Sixty-two centers in Europe and 6 centers in Algeria. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Pupil size measurements were performed in 2 randomized studies (phase 2 and phase 3) under masked conditions (recorded videography, masked reading center)...
March 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703286/transepithelial-corneal-crosslinking-for-keratoconus
#9
Peter S Hersh, Michael J Lai, John D Gelles, Sebastian P Lesniak
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of corneal crosslinking (CXL) using a transepithelial technique for the treatment of keratoconus. SETTING: Cornea and refractive surgery subspecialty practice. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Transepithelial CXL was performed in keratoconic eyes using riboflavin 0.1% and topical anesthetic containing benzalkonium chloride to facilitate riboflavin diffusion through the epithelium...
March 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698355/genital-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#10
Katerina Yale, Olabola Awosika, Monica Rengifo-Pardo, Alison Ehrlich
Genital allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an uncommon disorder, yet it severely impairs the quality of life for both men and women. Because of cultural taboos, many patients self-treat and delay proper diagnosis before presenting to a provider. Diagnosis is further confounded by irritant contact dermatitis and other genital dermatoses, which can predispose to skin barrier dysfunction and allergen penetration. Genital ACD can present acutely with erythematous erosions and pruritus or chronically with lichenification...
May 2018: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671656/interferon-beta-injection-site-reactions-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Martina Maurelli, Roberto Bergamaschi, Ambra Antonini, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Elisa Puma, Giulia Mallucci, Rocco Totaro, Giampiero Girolomoni
Interferon-beta (IFNβ) is effective treatments for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). IFNβ treatment includes subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1b, intramuscular (IM) and SC IFNβ-1a, and SC pegylated IFNβ-1a (PEG-IFNβ-1a). PEG-IFNβ-1a offers the advantage of a prolonged duration of action with a less frequent administration (every 2 weeks) and a higher patient adherence. However, the use of SC interferons could be characterized by potential skin toxicity. Injection site reactions (ISRs), featured by erythema, edema, pain, and pruritus, are the most common adverse reactions...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666657/the-effects-of-aloe-vera-cream-on-the-expression-of-cd4-and-cd8-lymphocytes-in-skin-wound-healing
#12
Yos Adi Prakoso, Kurniasih
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of topical application of Aloe vera on skin wound healing. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-200 grams were divided into four groups. All groups were anesthetized, shaved, and exposed to round full-thickness punch biopsy on the back: group I (control); group II (treated with 1% Aloe vera cream); group III (treated with 2% Aloe vera cream); and group IV (treated with madecassol®). The treatments were given once a day. Macroscopic and microscopic examination were observed at 5, 10, and 15 days after skin biopsy...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659054/tuning-in-c-nociceptors-to-reveal-mechanisms-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#13
Robin Jonas, Barbara Namer, Lenka Stockinger, Kim Chisholm, Mark Schnakenberg, Gunther Landmann, Mateusz Kucharczyk, Christoph Konrad, Roland Schmidt, Richard Carr, Stephen McMahon, Martin Schmelz, Roman Rukwied
OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a low-intensity sinusoidal electrical stimulation paradigm to preferentially activate C-fibers in human skin. METHODS: Sinusoidal transcutaneous stimulation (4 Hz) was assessed psychophysically in healthy volunteers (n=14) and neuropathic pain patients (n=9). Pursuing laser Doppler imaging and single nociceptor recordings in vivo in humans (microneurography) and pigs confirmed the activation of "silent" C-nociceptors. Synchronized C-fiber compound action potentials were evoked in isolated human nerve fascicles in vitro...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642528/the-effect-of-topical-ocular-anesthetic-proparacaine-on-conjunctival-and-nasal-mucosal-flora-in-dry-eye-disease-patients
#14
Ozlem Onerci Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk Celebi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied ocular anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival and nasal bacterial mucosal flora in patients with dry eye disease. A Schirmer test was done with (group 1) and without (group 2) topical anesthetic proparacaine to 40 patients in each group. Conjunctival and nasal cultures were obtained before and 10 min after performing the Schirmer test. The bacterial culture results and the isolated bacteria were recorded in two groups. Patients' mean age was 62 years (70 female, 10 male)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629603/evaluation-of-emla-cream-for-relieving-pain-during-needle-insertion-on-totally-implantable-venous-access-device
#15
Lijuan Yin, Shudi Jiang
PURPOSE: Needle insertion is a routine procedure performed on cancer patients with totally implantable venous access device. Although this procedure is painful for most of the patients, it is regularly performed without topical application of local anesthetics. In our study, we assess the degree of pain associated with different duration times of EMLA cream. METHODS: A total of 361 cancer patients with totally implantable venous access devices were randomly divided into three groups: group 1-placebo, group 2-30 min after application of EMLA, and group 3-60 min after application of EMLA...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623556/anesthesia-for-interventional-pulmonology-procedures-a-review-of-advanced-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-bronchoscopy
#16
Andres de Lima, Fayez Kheir, Adnan Majid, John Pawlowski
PURPOSE: Interventional pulmonology is a growing subspecialty of pulmonary medicine with flexible and rigid bronchoscopies increasingly used by interventional pulmonologists for advanced diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This review discusses different technical aspects of anesthesia for interventional pulmonary procedures with an emphasis placed on pharmacologic combinations, airway management, ventilation techniques, and common complications. SOURCE: Relevant medical literature was identified by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for publications on different anesthesia topics applicable to interventional pulmonary procedures...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616566/report-on-first-certificate-course-on-applied-physiology-of-pain-analgesia-anesthesia-and-euthanasia-for-laboratory-animals-held-in-sri-lanka
#17
Mangala Gunatilake
Similar to human beings, pain is an unpleasant sensation experienced by animals as well. There is no exception when the animals are subjected to experimental procedures. Our duty as researchers/scientists is to prevent or minimize the pain in animals so as to lessen their suffering and distress during experimental procedures. The basics of the physiology of pain and pain perception, analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia of laboratory animals were included to complete the program, before the practical part was attempted and before advanced topics, such as comparison of anesthetic combinations, were discussed...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609424/synergistic-activities-of-abdominal-muscles-are-required-for-efficient-micturition-in-anesthetized-female-mice
#18
Chuan Zhang, Yingchun Zhang, Yolanda Cruz, Timothy B Boone, Alvaro Munoz
PURPOSE: To characterize the electromyographic activity of abdominal striated muscles during micturition in urethane-anesthetized female mice, and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of abdominal responses to efficient voiding. METHODS: Cystometric and multichannel electromyographic recordings were integrated to enable a comprehensive evaluation during micturition in urethane-anesthetized female mice. Four major abdominal muscle domains were evaluated: the external oblique, internal oblique, and superior and inferior rectus abdominis...
March 2018: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607941/gyy4137-an-extended-release-hydrogen-sulfide-donor-reduces-nmda-induced-neuronal-injury-in-the-murine-retina
#19
Kohei Sone, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto, Tsutomu Nakahara
We previously reported that systemic administration with sodium hydrogen sulfide, a rapid-release donor compound of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), protected retinal neurons against N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced injury. For clinical application of H2 S donors for retinal neurodegeneration, topical administration with an extended-release donor compound will be better. In the present study, we histologically investigated whether GYY4137, an extended-release hydrogen sulfide donor, had a protective effect on NMDA-induced retinal injury in the mice in vivo...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601618/the-use-of-a-self-occluding-topical-anasthetic-in-daily-practice-a-non-interventional-study
#20
Ravi Jain, Gerardo Moreno Arias, Pablo Naranjo, Max Murison, Jose Luis López Estebaranz, Alina Fratila, Welf Prager, Carlos Guillén Barona, Michael Weidmann, Serge Dahan, Hugues Cartier, Gerhard Sattler, Maurizio Podda
INTRODUCTION: A variety of topical anesthetic creams are available to reduce pain associated with dermatological procedures. Pliaglis is a self-occluding eutectic mixture of lidocaine and tetracaine. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the post-marketing safety profile of Pliaglis and efficacy in terms of pain reduction, product satisfaction, and daily practice use prior to pre-defined dermatological procedures. METHODS: A prospective, non-interventional study conducted at 44 sites in four European countries; 581 patients were treated prior to dermatological procedures such as pulsed-dye laser therapy, laser-assisted hair removal, non-ablative laser resurfacing, dermal filler injections, and vascular access...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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