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Topical anesthetic

Kathryn L Kreicher, Jeremy S Bordeaux
Importance: Cutaneous surgery is performed by otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologic surgeons, and some primary care physicians. Practice gaps exist among cutaneous surgeons, as do differences in how different physicians approach preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative decision-making. Objective: To present the newest and best evidence to close common practice gaps in cutaneous surgery. Evidence Review: We performed a detailed search of peer-reviewed publications that were identified through a search of PubMed/MEDLINE (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2016) using the literature search terms "cutaneous surgery," "Mohs micrographic surgery," "plastic surgery," in combination with "safety," "cost," "anesthesia," "anti-coagulation," "bleeding," "pain," "analgesia," "anxiety," or "infection," among others...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Rachel B Matusow, Ian P Herring, J Phillip Pickett, Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Stephen R Werre
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride-0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study. ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes). PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Jin Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, with the latest comprehensive study published in 2006. Since that time, more than 70 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, necessitating a new and comprehensive review. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine published RCT studies investigating the effect of music on pain. METHODS: The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Music Therapy
Alireza Daneshkazemi, Seyyed Mohammad Abrisham, Pedram Daneshkazemi, Amin Davoudi
Dental pain management is one of the most critical aspects of modern dentistry which might affect patient's quality of life. Several methods are suggested to provide a painless situation for patients. Desensitization of the oral site using topical anesthetics is one of those methods. The improvements of topical anesthetic agents are probably one of the most important advances in dental science in the past 100 years. Most of them are safe and can be applied on oral mucosa with minimal irritation and allergic reactions...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Kristen Jijelava, Hongvan Le, Jack Parker, Jeffrey Yee
BACKGROUND: Ocular chemical injuries due to accidental exposure or application of cyanoacrylate, commonly known as "superglue," have increased over the past 30 years. However, current treatment options to relieve eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate applications are difficult to successfully execute and can require sedation or general anesthesia. Here we describe a simple technique to release eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate, or other adhesive agents, that can be successfully performed at bedside without sedation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Menekse Oksar
Although anesthetic requirements for minimally invasive neurosurgical techniques have been described in detail and applied successfully since the early 2000s, most of the literature on this subject has dealt with cranial cases that were operated on in the supine or sitting positions. However, spinal surgery has also used minimally invasive techniques that were performed in prone position for more than 30 years to date. Although procedures in both these neurosurgical techniques require the patient to be awake for a certain period of time, the main surgical difference with minimally invasive spinal surgery is that the patients are in the prone position, which may result in increased requirement of airway management because of deep sedation...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Erika Little, Kathy Yvorchuk-St Jean, William Little, Fortune Sithole, Guy St Jean
Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution has been widely used off-label in horses and donkeys, despite lack of data demonstrating efficacy and safety in these species. The objective of this study was to assess anesthetic efficacy of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in horses (n = 5) and donkeys (n = 24) and compare the effects with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group A received sterile ophthalmic solutions 0...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
C Raspé, L Flöther, R Schneider, M Bucher, P Piso
Due to the significantly improved outcome and quality of life of patients with different tumor entities after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, there is an increasing number of centers performing CRS and HIPEC procedures. As this procedure is technically challenging with potential high morbidity and mortality, respectively, institutional experience also in the anesthetic and intensive care departments is essential for optimal treatment and prevention of adverse events. Clinical pathways have to be developed to achieve also good results in more comorbid patients with border line indications and extensive surgical procedures...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Brianne Bordes, David Martin, Brian Schloss, Allan Beebe, Walter Samora, Jan Klamar, David Stukus, Joseph D Tobias
When hemodynamic or respiratory instability occurs intraoperatively, the inciting event must be determined so that a therapeutic plan can be provided to ensure patient safety. Although generally uncommon, one cause of cardiorespiratory instability is anaphylactic reactions. During anesthetic care, these most commonly involve neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, or latex. Floseal is a topical hemostatic agent that is frequently used during orthopedic surgical procedures to augment local coagulation function and limit intraoperative blood loss...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Muhammad Laklouk, Ganesan Baranidharan
Capsaicin is a naturally occurring irritant active ingredient found in hot peppers. It is a ligand for transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptors, which are found in nociceptive nerve terminals in the skin. Initial exposure to topical capsaicin leads to excitation of these receptors, release of vasoactive mediators, erythema, intense burning, pain, and thereafter desensitization of sensory neurons resulting in inhibition of pain transmission. Capsaicin 8% has been licensed for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia pain in recent years...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
John R Richards, Erik G Laurin, Nabil Tabish, Richard A Lange
BACKGROUND: Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. CASE REPORT: We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Alice He, Divya Sharma, Kazuki M Matsuda, Shawn G Kwatra
Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom that significant decreases patients' quality of life. Topical corticosteroids and antihistamines are commonly used for itch. However, these therapies are not long-term solutions for chronic pruritus because of their feared side effects, including skin atrophy and cognitive impairment, respectively. As such, dermatologists require additional therapies for long-term management of chronic pruritus. Topical anesthetics have been shown in many studies to be effective antipruritic agents...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Francesca Braschi, Francesca Bartoli, Cosimo Bruni, Ginevra Fiori, Claudia Fantauzzo, Lucia Paganelli, Amato De Paulis, Laura Rasero, M Matucci-Cerinic
In Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), digital ulcers (DU) are painful, difficult to heal, and frequently infected. To reduce the risk of bacterial infection and to prevent chronicity, it is essential to carefully remove necrotic tissue from DU, with maximum patient comfort. Debridement, although very efficacious, is invasive and causes local pain: lidocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as to fight pain during debridement procedures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine 4 % in pain control during debridement procedure of DU in SSc...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Du Geon Moon
Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Shin-Ichi Hisasue
The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers will be the next strategies of the drug treatment for PE in the future...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Emad Khalilzadeh, Reza Hazrati, Gholamreza Vafaei Saiah
Clinical studies suggest that essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove) buds (EOEC) is efficacious in the treatment of dental pain. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic and local anesthetic effects of EOEC and its possible mechanisms of action in acute corneal pain in rats. EOEC was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus from clove buds. The acute corneal pain was induced by applying a drop (40 µl) of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface, and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s...
July 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jacob Rinkinen, Eric G Halvorson
Background Topical vasodilators are frequently used during free tissue transfer to prevent and treat vasospasm and microvascular thrombosis. A variety of agents have been studied and are available, yet most microsurgeons select an agent based on anecdotal evidence or personal training. Our aim was to review the literature on topical vasodilators so microsurgeons can make more informed decisions about which agent to use. Methods A systemic review of the literature was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar using keywords "topical vasodilator," "antispasmodic," "vasospasm," "free flaps," and "microsurgery...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Verônica Santana de Freitas-Blanco, Michelle Franz-Montan, Francisco Carlos Groppo, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Glyn Mara Figueira, Luciano Serpe, Ilza Maria Oliveira Sousa, Viviane Aparecida Guilherme Damasio, Lais Thiemi Yamane, Eneida de Paula, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa. METHODS: Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC)...
2016: PloS One
Lucy L Shi, Michael R Sargen, Suephy C Chen, Jack L Arbiser, Brian P Pollack
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections are an effective treatment for controlling hyperhidrosis at sites of amputation. Hyperesthesia associated with amputated limbs is a major barrier to performing this procedure under local anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To present a novel method for improving local anesthesia with BTX-A injections. Methods & RESULTS: A 29-year-old military veteran with a below-the-knee amputation of his right leg was suffering from amputation site hyperhidrosis, which was impeding his ability to comfortably wear a prosthesis...
June 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Michael Dreher, Christian Gabriel Cornelissen, Manuel Armin Reddemann, Annegret Müller, Christian Hübel, Tobias Müller
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial administration of local anesthetics such as lidocaine is often used for cough suppression during bronchoscopy. To achieve a better distribution of lidocaine in the tracheobronchial tree, spray catheters have been developed, allowing nebulization of the local anesthetic solution. However, there are little data on the efficacy and safety of this approach, or on the consumption of sedative drugs and lidocaine during nebulized administration. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the tolerability of nebulized lidocaine compared to conventional lidocaine administration via syringe through the working channel of the bronchoscope in patients undergoing bronchoscopy...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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