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Topical anesthetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521706/fibrinous-anterior-uveitis-and-recurrent-epithelial-erosion-following-topical-tetracaine-abuse
#1
Olga E Makri, Panagiotis Plotas, Foteini Tsapardoni, Ilias Georgalas, Constantinos D Georgakopoulos
A 54-year-old man presented complaining of severe pain and blurred vision in his left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a large epithelial defect with an underlying prominent ring infiltrate and severe anterior uveitis with fibrinous exudates and hypopyon. Patient admitted abuse of topical tetracaine, which was discontinued and topical treatment with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, an antibiotic, a cycloplegic agent were instituted while a therapeutic contact lens was applied. Response to treatment was favorable with a rapid resolution of anterior uveitis within days while the epithelial defect fully healed within a month...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511700/a-new-easy-to-make-pectin-honey-hydrogel-enhances-wound-healing-in-rats
#2
Gessica Giusto, Cristina Vercelli, Francesco Comino, Vittorio Caramello, Massimiliano Tursi, Marco Gandini
BACKGROUND: Honey, alone or in combination, has been used for wound healing since ancient times and has reemerged as a topic of interest in the last decade. Pectin has recently been investigated for its use in various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, skin protection, and scaffolding for cells. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a pectin-honey hydrogel (PHH) as a wound healing membrane and to compare this dressing to liquid honey. METHODS: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 2 × 2 cm excisional wound was created on the dorsum...
May 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504321/hemodynamic-responses-and-plasma-phenylephrine-concentrations-associated-with-intranasal-phenylephrine-in-children
#3
Lisa K Christensen, Valerie E Armstead, David P Bilyeu, Kenneth E Johnson, Robert H Friesen
INTRODUCTION: Intranasal phenylephrine, an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, causes vasoconstriction of the nasal mucosa and is used to reduce bleeding associated with nasotracheal intubation or endoscopic sinus surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the hemodynamic effects associated with plasma phenylephrine concentrations following topical intranasal administration of 0.25% and 0.5% phenylephrine in children. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board and parental approval, 77 children between the ages of 2 and 12 years were studied in a prospective, double-blind manner and randomized into three groups...
May 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480151/efficacy-of-topical-analgesics-in-pain-control-for-corneal-abrasions-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Bryan Thiel, Alexandra Sarau, Daniel Ng
Corneal abrasions are one of the most common ocular injuries seen in the emergency department. While most patients with corneal abrasions complain of excruciating pain, permanent sequelae may develop if not managed properly. The use of topical antibiotics and other standards of treatment have greatly reduced the incidence of complications. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the proper management of pain in corneal abrasions. Proposed analgesics for the control of corneal abrasion pain include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical anesthetics, and topical cycloplegics...
March 27, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473893/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-staphylococcus-aureus-contaminated-open-wounds-healing-in-mice-an-experimental-study
#5
Masood Adibhesami, Malahat Ahmadi, Amir Abbas Farshid, Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh
The microorganisms have been noted as the main cause of delayed wound healing. The most common pathogen causing the wound infections is Staphylococcus aureus. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show ample antibacterial activities. In the present study, the effect of AgNPs on mouse wounds inoculated with S. aureus was investigated. Sixty male mice (20 to 30 g) were anesthetized, full-thickness skin wounds were made on their back and then the bacterial suspension was added to each wound bed. Treatments were administered on wound bed topically including gentamicin (8 mg kg(-1)), AgNPs (0...
2017: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466422/neurotoxicity-versus-neuroprotection-of-anesthetics-young-children-on-the-ropes
#6
Ramón Eizaga Rebollar, María V García Palacios, Javier Morales Guerrero, Luis M Torres Morera
Normal brain development in young children depends on a balance between excitation and inhibition of neurons, and alterations to this balance may cause apoptosis. During the perioperative period, both surgical stimuli and anesthetics can induce neurotoxicity. This article attempts to expand the perspective of a topical issue-anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity-by also considering the protective effect of general anesthetics against surgery-induced neurotoxicity, all of which may generate some controversy in the current literature...
May 2, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459052/development-of-a-piglet-grimace-scale-to-evaluate-piglet-pain-using-facial-expressions-following-castration-and-tail-docking-a-pilot-study
#7
Abbie V Viscardi, Michelle Hunniford, Penny Lawlis, Matthew Leach, Patricia V Turner
Facial expressions are increasingly being used to assess pain in non-human species, including rodents, horses, and lambs. The development of these species-specific grimace scales has allowed for more rapid pain detection, which can lead to better animal welfare if intervention promptly occurs. For grimace scales to ever be used as a stand-alone measure of pain, it is important they correlate with established pain assessment tools, such as behavioral analysis. This preliminary study aimed to determine whether piglets exhibit pain grimacing and if these facial expressions correlate with their behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456484/hypersensitivity-reactions-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#8
REVIEW
Lavjay Butani, Gianfranco Calogiuri
OBJECTIVE: To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. STUDY SELECTIONS: Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. RESULTS: Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445352/consensus-review-of-optimal-perioperative-care-in-breast-reconstruction-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-society-recommendations
#9
Claire Temple-Oberle, Melissa A Shea-Budgell, Mark Tan, John L Semple, Christiaan Schrag, Marcio Barreto, Phillip Blondeel, Jeremy Hamming, Joseph Dayan, Olle Ljungqvist
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery following surgery can be achieved through the introduction of evidence-based perioperative maneuvers. This review aims to present a consensus for optimal perioperative management of patients undergoing breast reconstructive surgery and to provide evidence-based recommendations for an enhanced perioperative protocol. METHODS: A systematic review of meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and large prospective cohorts was conducted for each protocol element...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445208/toxic-keratoconjunctivitis
#10
Grace L Paley, Anthony J Lubniewski, James J Reidy, Asim V Farooq
Toxic keratoconjunctivitis (TK) is an underrecognized complication of ophthalmic drug use and various environmental or occupational exposures. A detailed history and clinical examination are important to identify the offending agent(s). Common drug-related causes of TK include preservatives in ophthalmic medications, topical antimicrobials, and topical anesthetics. Alternatives to benzalkonium chloride as well as preservative-free formulations should be considered in patients requiring long-term topical medication...
April 25, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441653/effect-of-topical-iloprost-and-nitroglycerin-on-gastric-microcirculation-and-barrier-function-during-hemorrhagic-shock-in-dogs
#11
Richard Truse, Jonas Hinterberg, Jan Schulz, Anna Herminghaus, Andreas Weber, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Inge Bauer, Olaf Picker, Christian Vollmer
BACKGROUND: Topical drug application is used to avoid systemic side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze whether locally applied iloprost or nitroglycerin influence gastric mucosal perfusion, oxygenation, and barrier function during physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. METHODS: In repeated experiments, 5 anesthetized dogs received iloprost, nitroglycerin, or normal saline during physiological and hemorrhagic (-20% blood volume) conditions. Macro- and microcirculatory variables were recorded continuously...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437305/breast-feeding-analgesia-in-infants-an-update-on-the-current-state-of-evidence
#12
Britney Benoit, Ruth Martin-Misener, Margot Latimer, Marsha Campbell-Yeo
To provide an updated synthesis of the current state of the evidence for the effectiveness of breast-feeding and expressed breast milk feeding in reducing procedural pain in preterm and full-term born infants. A systematic search of key electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE) was completed. Of the 1032 abstracts screened, 21 were found eligible for inclusion. Fifteen studies reported on the use of breast-feeding or expressed breast milk in full-term infants and 6 reported on preterm infants. Direct breast-feeding was more effective than maternal holding, maternal skin-to-skin contact, topical anesthetics, and music therapy, and was as or more effective than sweet tasting solutions in full-term infants...
April 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429926/the-efficacy-of-intraurethral-lidocaine-in-optical-internal-urethrotomy-for-anterior-urethral-stricture-a-multicenter-study
#13
Nedim Y Cem, Yıldız Yildiray, Cem Ö Berat, Melih S Mehmet, Gökhan D Ömer, Metin H Ahmet, Özyuvalı Ekrem, Ayyıldız Ali
BACKGROUND: Male anterior urethral strictures can be treated successfully with the help of optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and is usually performed under general or regional anaesthesia. In this study, we determined the efficacy of intraurethral lidocaine in OIU for anterior urethral stricture in an outpatient setting. METHODS: 157 patients with anterior urethral strictures underwent OIU under local urethral anaesthesia with lidocaine. Optical urethrotomy was performed with a cold-cutting knife...
April 20, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417892/discharge-criteria-impact-of-the-patient-and-the-procedure-what-the-oral-surgeon-should-know
#14
REVIEW
Kyle J Kramer
This article is a concise review of discharge criteria following sedation or anesthesia relevant to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Topics covered include a general overview of the need for objective discharge criteria, a review of standardized criteria, and a brief discussion on specific anesthetic, patient, and surgical factors that can impact the safety of the immediate postoperative recovery and postdischarge periods.
May 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416265/comparison-of-outcomes-for-pediatric-paraphimosis-reduction-using-topical-anesthetic-versus-intravenous-procedural-sedation
#15
Brett Burstein, Raphael Paquin
BACKGROUND: Paraphimosis is an acute urologic emergency requiring urgent manual reduction, frequently necessitating procedural sedation (PS) in the pediatric population. The present study sought to compare outcomes among pediatric patients undergoing paraphimosis reduction using a novel topical anesthetic (TA) technique versus PS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients <18years old, presenting to a tertiary pediatric ED requiring analgesia for paraphimosis reduction between October 2013 and September 2016...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412715/non-centralized-and-functionally-localized-nervous-system-of-ophiuroids-evidence-from-topical-anesthetic-experiments
#16
Yoshiya Matsuzaka, Eiki Sato, Takeshi Kano, Hitoshi Aonuma, Akio Ishiguro
Ophiuroids locomote along the seafloor by coordinated rhythmic movements of multi-segmented arms. The mechanisms by which such coordinated movements are achieved are a focus of interest from the standpoints of neurobiology and robotics, because ophiuroids appear to lack a central nervous system that could exert centralized control over five arms. To explore the underlying mechanism of arm coordination, we examined the effects of selective anesthesia to various parts of the body of ophiuroids on locomotion. We observed the following: (1) anesthesia of the circumoral nerve ring completely blocked the initiation of locomotion; however, initiation of single arm movement, such as occurs during the retrieval of food, was unaffected, indicating that the inability to initiate locomotion was not due to the spread of the anesthetic agent...
April 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409242/comparison-of-topical-ropivacaine-with-and-without-ketamine-on-post-surgical-pain-in-children-undergoing-tonsillectomy-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-study
#17
Boohwi Hong, Chae Seong Lim, Yoon-Hee Kim, Jung Un Lee, Yong Min Kim, Choonho Jung, Yumin Jo
PURPOSE: Tonsillectomy in pediatric patients may cause severe postoperative pain. Topical local anesthetics are an easy and safe way to control post-tonsillectomy pain, but there is no benefit during the early postoperative stage. Topical ketamine shows a good effect on early stage postoperative pain. We compared the effect of topical ropivacaine with and without ketamine on post-tonsillectomy pain. METHODS: Patients aged 3-7 years undergoing tonsillectomy were selected to participate in the study...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399267/development-of-a-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-amino-acid-dicarboxylate-prodrug-with-improved-ocular-bioavailability
#18
Goutham R Adelli, Prakash Bhagav, Pranjal Taskar, Tushar Hingorani, Sara Pettaway, Waseem Gul, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Michael A Repka, Soumyajit Majumdar
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. THC, timolol, and pilocarpine eye drops were used as controls. Methods: THC-Val, THC-Val-Val, and THC-Val-HS were synthesized and chemically characterized...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396114/surgery-related-contact-dermatitis-a-review-of-potential-irritants-and-allergens
#19
Kevin A Cook, John M Kelso
Surgical procedures utilize an increasing number of medical products including antiseptics, anesthetics, gloves, suture materials, tissue adhesives, topical antibiotics, and bandages. Many of these products have irritant potential. Allergic contact dermatitis has also been reported. This review covers preoperative, operative, and postoperative exposures that may result in contact dermatitis. Testing with standard patch panels such as T.R.U.E. Test and the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 65 allergen series does not evaluate for all relevant contactants...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393509/-an-unexpected-complication-glans-ischemia-after-circumcision-review-of-the-literature
#20
M Á Cárdenas Elías, F Vázquez Rueda, V Jiménez Crespo, A Siu Uribe, F J Murcia Pascual, J E Betancourth Alvarenga, R M Paredes Esteban
INTRODUCTION: Circumcision is a frequent and common surgical procedure in children; nevertheless it is not completely hassle-free. Post circumcision ischemic complications are even rare and they are generally due to administration of local vasoconstrictor anesthetics. There are few cases reported in the literature. We report the management and treatment of post- circumcision penile ischemia (PCI). CASE REPORT: A 10 years old patient who underwent circumcision and a dorsal penile nerve block DPNB presents signs of penile ischemia two hours after surgery without any other symptoms...
July 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
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