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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198416/a-one-week-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-to-measure-impulsivity-and-attention-in-adult-and-adolescent-mice
#1
Esther Remmelink, Uyen Chau, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence. The study of executive functions in animal models of these disorders critically requires short-duration tasks measuring these functions before the animal ages. Here, a novel 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) protocol is presented, to measure attention and impulsivity within one week, without scheduled food deprivation and with little animal handling. Mice were allowed 24-h/day task access from their home-cage, during which they could self-pace task progression and earn unlimited food rewards depending on task performance...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193102/identification-of-predictors-for-treatment-failure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#2
Jeffrey W Jansen, Gillian M Powderly, Travis W Linneman
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191610/italian-intersociety-consensus-on-doac-use-in-internal-medicine
#3
Domenico Prisco, Walter Ageno, Cecilia Becattini, Armando D'Angelo, Giovanni Davì, Raimondo De Cristofaro, Francesco Dentali, Giovanni Di Minno, Anna Falanga, Gualberto Gussoni, Luca Masotti, Gualtiero Palareti, Pasquale Pignatelli, Roberto M Santi, Francesca Santilli, Mauro Silingardi, Antonella Tufano, Francesco Violi
The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are drugs used in clinical practice since 2009 for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and for the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. The four DOACs, including the three factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) provide oral anticoagulation therapy alternatives to Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Despite their clear advantages, the DOACs require on the part of the internist a thorough knowledge of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics to ensure their correct use, laboratory monitoring and the appropriate management of adverse events...
February 13, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181585/single-or-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-pci
#4
REVIEW
Yosuke Miyazaki, Pannipa Suwannasom, Yohei Sotomi, Mohammad Abdelghani, Karthik Tummala, Yuki Katagiri, Taku Asano, Erhan Tenekecioglu, Yaping Zeng, Rafael Cavalcante, Carlos Collet, Yoshinobu Onuma, Patrick W Serruys
The optimal duration and type of antiplatelet therapy after implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES) remains uncertain. At the time of the first-in-man implantation of the sirolimus DES in 1999, the protocol-defined dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration was only 2 months. Subsequently, DAPT duration was extended to 1 year on the basis of anecdotal historical data, and this practice was then incorporated into clinical guidelines. For >1 decade, trialists have sought to compare the safety and efficacy of abbreviated (<6 months) and prolonged (>12 months) DAPT regimens...
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177213/characterization-of-optically-and-electrically-evoked-dopamine-release-in-striatal-slices-from-digenic-knock-in-mice-with-dat-driven-expression-of-channelrhodopsin
#5
Brian O'Neill, Jyoti C Patel, Margaret E Rice
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FCV) is an established method to monitor increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration ([DA]o) in the striatum, which is densely innervated by DA axons. Ex vivo brain slice preparations provide an opportunity to identify endogenous modulators of DA release. For these experiments, local electrical stimulation is often used to elicit release of DA, as well as other transmitters, in the striatal microcircuitry; changes in evoked increases in [DA]o after application of a pharmacological agent (e...
February 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174658/making-safer-preoperative-arrangements-for-patients-using-vitamin-k-antagonists
#6
Joris van Fessem, Jessica Willems, Marieke Kruip, Sanne Hoeks, Robert Jan Stolker
Use of vitamin K antagonists creates a risk for patient health and safety. The Dutch framework "Nationwide Standard Integrated Care of Anticoagulation" propagates a shared plan and responsibility by surgeon and anesthesiologist together in the preoperative setting. In our institution, this framework had not been implemented. Therefore, a quality-improvement project was started at the Anesthesia Department to improve perioperative safety. After exploration of barriers, multiple interventions were carried out to encourage co-workers at the preoperative screening department to take shared responsibility: distribution of prints, adjustments in electronic patient records, introduction of a protocol and education sessions...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173995/gnrh-antagonist-and-letrozole-co-treatment-in-diminished-ovarian-reserve-patients-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Safak Olgan, Peter Humaidan
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of luteal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist pretreatment on the outcomes of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) patients who were treated using a FSH/letrozole/GnRH antagonist (FLA) protocol. Thus, patients who had luteal GnRH antagonist pretreatment (AFLA) prior to stimulation were compared to patients who had the FLA protocol, only. An electronic database was used to identify patients and stimulation characteristics. Women who had a total antral follicle count (AFC) of <7 were included in the analysis...
February 4, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167634/management-of-patients-on-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-the-acute-care-and-periprocedural-setting-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#8
Amish N Raval, Joaquin E Cigarroa, Mina K Chung, Larry J Diaz-Sandoval, Deborah Diercks, Jonathan P Piccini, Hee Soo Jung, Jeffrey B Washam, Babu G Welch, Allyson R Zazulia, Sean P Collins
Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are now widely used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and management of venous thromboembolism. In clinical practice, there is still widespread uncertainty on how to manage patients on NOACs who bleed or who are at risk for bleeding. Clinical trial data related to NOAC reversal for bleeding and perioperative management are sparse, and recommendations are largely derived from expert opinion. Knowledge of time of last ingestion of the NOAC and renal function is critical to managing these patients given that laboratory measurement is challenging because of the lack of commercially available assays in the United States...
February 6, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166815/regulation-of-submaxillary-gland-androgen-regulated-protein-3a-via-estrogen-receptor-2-in-radioresistant-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#9
Jennifer Grünow, Chao Rong, Jan Hischmann, Karim Zaoui, Christa Flechtenmacher, Klaus-Josef Weber, Peter Plinkert, Jochen Hess
BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms of intrinsic or acquired radioresistance serve as critical barrier for curative therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and remain a major obstacle for progression-free and disease-specific survival. METHODS: HNSCC cell lines were treated with a protocol of fractionated irradiation (IR, 4× 2Gy) alone or in combination with antagonists of estrogen receptor signaling and viability was determined by a colony-forming assay (CFA)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153344/frequency-of-pocket-hematoma-in-patients-receiving-vitamin-k-antagonist-and-antiplatelet-therapy-at-the-time-of-pacemaker-or-cardioverter-defibrillator-implantation-from-the-pocket-study
#10
Michele Malagù, Filippo Trevisan, Antonella Scalone, Lina Marcantoni, Giuseppe Sammarco, Matteo Bertini
In patients undergoing cardiac device implantation, anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy are associated with an increased risk of pocket hematoma. In case of vitamin K antagonist therapy, a strategy of continued warfarin with no heparin bridge showed a reduction of pocket hematoma. Evidence regarding antiplatelet therapy management is limited. This is a single-center observational study which reflects our systematic approach to the problem. In 2012, we proposed an improved management protocol for anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy (no-bridge protocol) based on individual thromboembolic risk stratification, noninterruption of oral anticoagulation, no bridge with heparin and elastic adherence compression bandage...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152037/reassessing-the-feasibility-of-the-zygote-score-for-predicting-embryo-viability-in-ivf-icsi-using-the-gnrh-antagonist-protocol-compared-to-the-long-protocol
#11
Pin-Yao Lin, Fu-Jen Huang, Fu-Tsai Kung, Yi-Chi Lin, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yu-Ju Lin, Kuo-Chung Lan
BACKGROUND: Many factors from the oocyte/sperm or the process of fertilization may affect the zygote formation. The zygote score (Z-score) describes the quality of a human zygote based on its pronuclear morphology, nucleolar precursor bodies, and alignment of polar bodies, and it can be used in the selection process at the zygote stage for embryo transfer or cryopreservation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between different controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols and the zygote score (Z-score) and to assess the feasibility of the Z-score for predicting embryo survival in the GnRH-antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148306/agonist-muscle-adaptation-accompanied-by-antagonist-muscle-atrophy-in-the-hindlimb-of-mice-following-stretch-shortening-contraction-training
#12
Erik P Rader, Marshall A Naimo, James Ensey, Brent A Baker
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited...
February 2, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137573/rapid-proteomics-to-prospect-and-validate-novel-bacterial-metabolism-induced-by-environmental-burden
#13
C L Yu, S Brooks, Y Li, M Subramanian, R Summers, M Pope
Understanding the pathophysiology of genes and enzymes involved in caffeine metabolism can have extracurricular benefits, such as providing distinct methylxanthines as intermediates for pharmaceutical synthesis, and also improve environmental waste remediation. The strains Pseudomonas putida CBB5 and CES may provide insights into these applications because they may both be induced to degrade caffeine, yet the latter thrives in concentrations >8.0gL(-1); threefold higher than any other bacteria. We took a novel approach toward identifying the enzymatic pathways in both Pseudomonas sp...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130435/cumulative-live-birth-rates-after-one-art-cycle-including-all-subsequent-frozen-thaw-cycles-in-1050-women-secondary-outcome-of-an-rct-comparing-gnrh-antagonist-and-gnrh-agonist-protocols
#14
M Toftager, J Bogstad, K Løssl, L Prætorius, A Zedeler, T Bryndorf, L Nilas, A Pinborg
STUDY QUESTION: Are cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) similar in GnRH-antagonist and GnRH-agonist protocols for the first ART cycle including all subsequent frozen-thaw cycles from the same oocyte retrieval? SUMMARY ANSWER: The chances of at least one live birth following utilization of all fresh and frozen embryos after the first ART cycle are similar in GnRH-antagonist and GnRH-agonist protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Reproductive outcomes of ART treatment are traditionally reported as pregnancies per cycle or per embryo transfer...
January 26, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130080/fatigability-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-during-maximal-concentric-contractions
#15
Sophie Hameau, Djamel Bensmail, Nicolas Roche, Raphael Zory
OBJECTIVE: To compare quadriceps fatigability during maximal concentric contractions in persons with MS and healthy subjects (HS). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Hospital rehabilitation department PARTICIPANTS: Thirty eight persons with MS and fourteen HS were included. Torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and fatigability of the knee extensor muscles were evaluated using an isokinetic device. Surface electromyographic activity of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semi tendinosus was recorded...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125926/coordinated-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-ips-cell-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells-depends-on-bmp-signaling-regulation-by-gremlin-2
#16
Jeffery Bylund, Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, David T Paik, Christopher Jetter, Rajneesh Jha, Jianhua Zhang, Kristof Nolan, Chunhui Xu, Thomas Thompson, Timothy J Kamp, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted BMP antagonist GREMLIN2 (GREM2) is induced in cardiac progenitor cells shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation protocol used, or the origin of human pluripotent stem cells, suggesting GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis...
January 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122888/response-to-ovarian-stimulation-is-not-impacted-by-a-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#17
Molly M Quinn, Hakan Cakmak, Joseph M Letourneau, Marcelle I Cedars, Mitchell P Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Does a breast cancer diagnosis impact ovarian function in the setting of fertility preservation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian reserve and ovarian stimulation outcomes are similar in patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer and patients undergoing elective fertility preservation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Prior studies, with small study populations, lack of controlling for individual differences in ovarian reserve and infertile controls, have reported conflicting outcomes for cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation...
January 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122088/preventing-corneal-calcification-associated-with-xylazine-for-longitudinal-optical-coherence-tomography-in-young-rodents
#18
Tianwei Ellen Zhou, Diane N Sayah, Baraa Noueihed, Javier Mazzaferri, Santiago Costantino, Isabelle Brunette, Sylvain Chemtob
Purpose: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and recently gained popularity in laboratory research involving small rodents. Its noninvasive nature allows repeated measurements, thereby decreasing the number of animals required. However, when used at a conventional dosage, xylazine (an α2-adrenoceptor) can cause irreversible corneal calcification, especially among young rodents. In the present study, we test whether corneal calcification associated with xylazine is mediated by the α2-adrenoceptor...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120445/efficacy-and-adherence-of-flexibly-adding-on-a-second-antimuscarinic-agent-for-patients-with-refractory-overactive-bladder
#19
Chung-Cheng Wang, Yuan-Hong Jiang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events (AE) of flexibly adding on oxybutynin ER in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) refractory to monotherapy with the first muscarinic antagonist. METHODS: A total of 129 patients with refractory OAB were enrolled in a prospective, open-label protocol. Inclusion criteria were persistent symptoms or partial response to 3-month behavioral therapy and an optimized dose of one antimuscarinic agent. At baseline, weeks 4, and 12 after the oxybutynin ER (5-15 mg once a day) was flexibly added, we assessed the OAB symptom indexes and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition, uroflowmetry, and post-void residual, along with the therapeutic effect, AE, and tolerability...
January 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116732/generation-of-a-mouse-model-with-smooth-muscle-cell-specific-loss-of-the-expression-of-ppar%C3%AE
#20
Yohann Rautureau, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
An inducible tissue-specific knockout (KO) technique has been used to study the role of genes in the adult heart. This KO technique circumvents the developmental effect that could otherwise be observed in a tissue-specific KO. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is a transcription factor that when activated has been shown to improve vascular remodeling and endothelial function in hypertensive rodents. Here we describe an inducible tissue specific KO protocol used to study the role of PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMC) in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension in adult mice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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