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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806855/functional-stem-cell-integration-into-neural-networks-assessed-by-organotypic-slice-cultures
#1
David Forsberg, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Johan Jäderstad, Linda Maria Jäderstad, Petri Olivius, Eric Herlenius
Re-formation or preservation of functional, electrically active neural networks has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated neural therapeutics. A primary issue for a cell therapy approach is the formation of functional contacts between the implanted cells and the host tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to establish protocols that allow us to delineate a detailed time course of grafted stem cell survival, migration, differentiation, integration, and functional interaction with the host...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806854/generation-of-xeno-free-cgmp-compliant-patient-specific-ipscs-from-skin-biopsy
#2
Luke A Wiley, Kristin R Anfinson, Cathryn M Cranston, Emily E Kaalberg, Malia M Collins, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, Budd A Tucker
This unit describes protocols for the generation of clinical-grade patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal cells from patients with inherited retinal degenerative blindness. Specifically, we describe how, using xeno-free reagents in an ISO class 5 environment, one can isolate and culture dermal fibroblasts, generate iPSCs, and derive autologous retinal cells via 3-D differentiation. The universal methods described herein for the isolation of dermal fibroblasts and generation of iPSCs can be employed regardless of disease, tissue, or cell type of interest...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806784/structural-analysis-of-p-falciparum-kahrp-and-pfemp1-complexes-with-host-erythrocyte-spectrin-suggests-a-model-for-cytoadherent-knob-protrusions
#3
Erin E Cutts, Niklas Laasch, Dirk M Reiter, Raphael Trenker, Leanne M Slater, Phillip J Stansfeld, Ioannis Vakonakis
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) and Knob-associated Histidine-rich Protein (KAHRP) are directly linked to malaria pathology. PfEMP1 and KAHRP cluster on protrusions (knobs) on the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface and enable pathogenic cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes to the host microvasculature, leading to restricted blood flow, oxygen deprivation and damage of tissues. Here we characterize the interactions of PfEMP1 and KAHRP with host erythrocyte spectrin using biophysical, structural and computational approaches...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806768/design-and-fabrication-of-a-realistic-anthropomorphic-heterogeneous-head-phantom-for-mr-purposes
#4
Sossena Wood, Narayanan Krishnamurthy, Tales Santini, Shailesh Raval, Nadim Farhat, John Andy Holmes, Tamer S Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to design an anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom that can be used for MRI and other electromagnetic applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An eight compartment, physical anthropomorphic head phantom was developed from a 3T MRI dataset of a healthy male. The designed phantom was successfully built and preliminarily evaluated through an application that involves electromagnetic-tissue interactions: MRI (due to it being an available resource)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806763/genome-wide-regulation-of-electro-acupuncture-on-the-neural-stat5-loss-induced-obese-mice
#5
Shu-Ping Fu, Hao Hong, Sheng-Feng Lu, Chen-Jun Hu, Hou-Xi Xu, Qian Li, Mei-Ling Yu, Chen Ou, Jian-Zhong Meng, Tian-Lin Wang, Lothar Hennighausen, Bing-Mei Zhu
Acupuncture is reported to be effective in treating obesity related illnesses, but its mechanism is still unclear. To investigate this mechanism we applied electro-acupuncture (EA) in a mouse model of obesity and used RNA-seq to identify molecular consequences. Deletion of the transcription factor STAT5 from neurons (Stat5NKO) led to obesity. Acupuncture, in turn, reduced body weight and the ratio of epididymal white adipose tissue (Epi-WAT) to body weight, and it also decreased plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806762/a-becn1-mutation-mediates-hyperactive-autophagic-sequestration-of-amyloid-oligomers-and-improved-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Altea Rocchi, Soh Yamamoto, Tabitha Ting, Yuying Fan, Katherine Sadleir, Yigang Wang, Weiran Zhang, Sui Huang, Beth Levine, Robert Vassar, Congcong He
Impairment of the autophagy pathway has been observed during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular and intracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. Yet the role of autophagy in Aβ production and AD progression is complex. To study whether increased basal autophagy plays a beneficial role in Aβ clearance and cognitive improvement, we developed a novel genetic model to hyperactivate autophagy in vivo. We found that knock-in of a point mutation F121A in the essential autophagy gene Beclin 1/Becn1 in mice significantly reduces the interaction of BECN1 with its inhibitor BCL2, and thus leads to constitutively active autophagy even under non-autophagy-inducing conditions in multiple tissues, including brain...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806761/transcriptome-analysis-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-cells-identifies-t-type-ca2-channel-cacna1g-as-a-new-pathological-marker-for-pdgfr%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia
#7
Se Eun Ha, Moon Young Lee, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Chanjae Park, Paul J Park, Doug Redelman, Kent C Sasse, Laren S Becker, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells are distributed into distinct morphological groups within the serosal, muscular, and submucosal layers as well as the myenteric and deep muscular plexi. PDGFRα+ cells directly interact with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tissue. These three cell types, SMC, ICC, and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP cells), form an electrical syncytium, which dynamically regulates gastrointestinal motility. We have previously reported the transcriptomes of SMC and ICC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806760/endothelial-activation-and-dysfunction-in-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#8
Xiao-Kun Li, Zhen-Dong Yang, Juan Du, Bo Xing, Ning Cui, Pan-He Zhang, Hao Li, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Qing-Bin Lu, Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has not been well described yet. Recent studies indicate that SFTSV could replicate in endothelial cells. Here we performed a case-control study to determine whether endothelial activation/dysfunction occurred in SFTSV infection and to identify the biomarkers reflecting endothelial dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study of 134 SFTS patients and 68 healthy controls, serum levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, tissue plasminogen activator, P-selectin, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecular, CD40 ligand, E-selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor A, serum amyloid antigen 1 (SAA-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecular 1 were significantly enhanced in the patients than the controls (all P<0...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806736/unravelling-the-interplay-of-sphingolipids-and-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-the-human-corneal-stroma
#9
Sarah E Nicholas, Tyler G Rowsey, Shrestha Priyadarsini, Nawajes A Mandal, Dimitrios Karamichos
PURPOSE: To delineate the role of Sphingolipids (SPLs) in the human cornea and their cross-talks with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in order to develop novel, non-invasive therapies. METHODS: Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were harvested from healthy donors, stimulated with Vitamin C to promote extracellular matrix assembly, treated with exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or sphingosine kinase inhibitor 2 (SPHK I2) and isolated after 4 weeks for further analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806708/predictive-simulation-of-diabetic-gait-individual-contribution-of-ankle-stiffness-and-muscle-weakening
#10
Gilmar F Santos, Aline A Gomes, Isabel C N Sacco, Marko Ackermann
Diabetic neuropathic individuals present massive muscle strength reduction at the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors and increased joint stiffness. Our aim is to investigate the adaptation strategies to these musculoskeletal alterations during walking by means of predictive simulations. We used a seven segment planar musculoskeletal model actuated by eight Hill-type muscles in each leg. The effect of all passive tissue in muscles and other joint structures was modeled by net passive joint moment curves. The predictive simulations were generated by solving an optimal control problem that minimized a cost function, including effort and tracking terms, using direct collocation and a commercial optimal control package...
August 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806702/hmgb1-redox-during-sepsis
#11
Wasan Abdulmahdi, Devika Patel, May M Rabadi, Tala Azar, Edson Jules, Mark Lipphardt, Rameen Hashemiyoon, Brian B Ratliff
During sepsis, the alarmin HMGB1 is released from tissues and promotes systemic inflammation that results in multi-organ damage, with the kidney particularly susceptible to injury. The severity of inflammation and pro-damage signaling mediated by HMGB1 appears to be dependent on the alarmin's redox state. Therefore, we examined HMGB1 redox in kidney cells during sepsis. Using intravital microscopy, CellROX labeling of kidneys in live mice indicated increased ROS generation in the kidney perivascular endothelium and tubules during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis...
August 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806692/microplastic-pollution-identified-in-deep-sea-water-and-ingested-by-benthic-invertebrates-in-the-rockall-trough-north-atlantic-ocean
#12
Winnie Courtene-Jones, Brian Quinn, Stefan F Gary, Andrew O M Mogg, Bhavani E Narayanaswamy
Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806674/cadmium-induces-histopathological-injuries-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-liver-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#13
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Yonghui Wang, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
The study investigated the histopathological and ultrastructural lesions of liver of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii exposed to Cadmium (Cd). The animals were exposed to 0 mg kg(-1) (0.85% normal saline (NS)), 7.5 mg kg(-1), 15 mg kg(-1), 30 mg kg(-1) Cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. Liver samples were collected for examination of lesions under light and electronic microscopes. Results showed that liver tissues from Cd -treated animals presented various degrees of histopathological lesions...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806667/hydrophobic-boron-compound-loaded-poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoparticles-for-boron-neutron-capture-therapy
#14
Issei Takeuchi, Kensuke Nomura, Kimiko Makino
Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) has been widely used and studied because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Recently, the usefulness of nanoparticles using poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLLGA) having a higher glass transition temperature than PLGA was suggested. In this study, we investigated the availability of boron compound-loaded PLGA and PLLGA nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by conducting biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice. o-Carborane, a hydrophobic boron compound, was used as a boron carrier, and o-carborane-albumin conjugate was used as a control...
August 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806641/acute-ethanol-administration-results-in-a-protective-cytokine-and-neuroinflammatory-profile-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Annette Palmer, Birgit Linkus, Albert C Ludolph, Tobias M Boeckers, Borna Relja, Markus Huber-Lang, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication is a common comorbidity in traumatic brain injury. To date, the effect of ethanol on TBI pathogenic cascades and resulting outcomes remains debated. A closed blunt weight-drop murine TBI model has been implemented to investigate behavioral (by sensorimotor and neurological tests), and neuro-immunological (by tissue cytokine arrays and immuno-histology) effects of ethanol intoxication on TBI. The effect of the occurrence of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage was also studied. The results indicate that ethanol pretreatment results in a faster and better recovery after TBI with reduced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced microglia activation...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806624/bcl-2-bax-protein-and-mrna-expression-in-yak-bos-grunniens-placentomes
#16
JiangFeng Fan, SiJiu Yu, Yan Cui, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Yangyang Pan, Honghong He
Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806613/automatic-blood-vessels-segmentation-based-on-different-retinal-maps-from-octa-scans
#17
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model...
August 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806605/phytochemistry-of-european-primula-species
#18
REVIEW
Paola S Colombo, Guido Flamini, Graziella Rodondi, Claudia Giuliani, Laura Santagostini, Gelsomina Fico
The genus Primula is the largest among the Primulaceae and is widespread mainly in the cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Since the beginning of the Twentieth century, several studies on the phytochemical composition of different species of Primula have been carried out. The main constituents examined were tissue and epicuticular flavonoids and saponins, which are of therapeutic significance. Only in recent years studies of the volatiles emitted by leaves and flowers have been carried out as well, but they are restricted to a small number of species...
August 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806598/automated-synthesis-of-1-11-c-acetoacetate-on-a-trasis-aio-module
#19
Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, H Donald Gage, Frankis Almaguel, Bryan Neth, Timothy M Hughes, Sebastien Tremblay, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Stephen C Cunnane, Matthew J Jorgensen, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz
We automated radiochemical synthesis of 1-[(11)C]acetoacetate in a commercially available radiochemistry module, TRASIS AllInOne by [(11)C]carboxylation of the corresponding enolate anion generated in situ from isopropenylacetate and MeLi, and purified by ion-exchange column resins.1-[(11)C]acetoacetate was synthesized with high radiochemical purity (95%) and specific activity (~ 66.6GBq/µmol, n = 30) with 35% radiochemical yield, decay corrected to end of synthesis. The total synthesis required ~ 16min. PET imaging studies were conducted with 1-[(11)C]acetoacetate in vervet monkeys to validate the radiochemical synthesis...
August 2, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806597/a-nested-multivariate-chemometrics-based-calibration-strategy-for-direct-trace-biometal-analysis-in-soft-tissue-utilizing-energy-dispersive-x-ray-fluorescence-edxrf-and-scattering-spectrometry
#20
REVIEW
J J Okonda, K H Angeyo, J M Mangala, S M Kisia
Compton scatter-modulated fluorescence and multivariate chemometric (artificial neural network (ANN) and principal component regression (PCR)) calibration strategy was explored for direct rapid trace biometals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) analysis in "complex" matrices (model soft tissues). This involved spectral feature selection (multiple fluorescence signatures) normalized to or in conjunction with Compton scatter. ANN model resulted in more accurate trace biometal determination (R(2)>0.9) compared to PCR. Hybrid nested (ANN and PCR) approach led to optimized accurate biometals' concentrations in Oyster tissue (≤ ± 10%)...
August 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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