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Retrograde transsynaptic degeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548455/spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-documentation-of-transsynaptic-retinal-degeneration
#1
Stephen G Schwartz, Joshua Pasol, Byron L Lam, Harry W Flynn
Patients with post-geniculate neurologic disease and corresponding visual field loss may have ophthalmologic abnormalities detectable by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), presumably by transsynaptic retrograde retinal degeneration. Here, three such patients (ages 13 years through 75 years) illustrate thinning of the macula and ganglion cell complex corresponding to zones of visual field loss. Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer is not notable in these patients. SD-OCT may be a useful technique in diagnosing and following patients with post-geniculate neurologic disease...
August 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306632/early-diffusion-evidence-of-retrograde-transsynaptic-degeneration-in-the-human-visual-system
#2
Kevin R Patel, Lenny E Ramsey, Nicholas V Metcalf, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices of white matter integrity would offer early markers of retrograde transsynaptic degeneration (RTD) in the visual system after stroke. METHODS: We performed a prospective longitudinal analysis of the sensitivity of DTI markers of optic tract health in 12 patients with postsynaptic visual pathway stroke, 12 stroke controls, and 28 healthy controls. We examined group differences in (1) optic tract fractional anisotropy (FA-asymmetry), (2) perimetric measures of visual impairment, and (3) the relationship between FA-asymmetry and perimetric assessment...
July 12, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273271/retrograde-degeneration-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-secondary-to-head-trauma
#3
Lee Vien, Christina DalPorto, David Yang
PURPOSE: To discuss the clinical case of a patient with transsynaptic retrograde degeneration (TRD) demonstrated by progressive retinal nerve fiber layer loss documented by serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography secondary to traumatic brain injury after 2 months post-trauma. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old Caucasian male patient presented to a polytrauma rehabilitation center (PRC) for evaluation and treatment secondary to a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a motorcycle accident 2 months before...
June 3, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116491/transsynaptic-retrograde-degeneration-clinical-evidence-with-homonymous-rgcl-loss-on-oct
#4
P Meier, P Maeder, F-X Borruat
BACKGROUND: Retinal thinning after a retrogeniculate lesion (transsynaptic retrograde degeneration) was first described 50 years ago, but has long been a controversial issue. It is now possible to use OCT for the in vivo measurement of retinal thickness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with homonymous visual field loss, with SD-OCT assessment (RNFL and RGCL measurements) in isolated retrogeniculate lesions, subsequently confirmed by a neuroradiologist...
April 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26446718/sectoral-analysis-of-the-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thinning-and-its-association-with-visual-field-loss-in-homonymous-hemianopia-caused-by-post-geniculate-lesions-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
Katsutoshi Goto, Atsushi Miki, Tsutomu Yamashita, Syunsuke Araki, Go Takizawa, Masaki Nakagawa, Yoshiaki Ieki, Junichi Kiryu
PURPOSE: To report a sectoral analysis of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thinning and its association with visual field loss using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with homonymous hemianopia following acquired post-geniculate visual pathway damage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven patients with homonymous hemianopia due to unilateral acquired post-geniculate visual pathway lesions were studied. The average duration from the onset of brain lesions to the initial visit was 49...
April 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26446103/propagation-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-hypotheses-discoveries-and-yet-unresolved-questions-from-experimental-and-human-brain-studies
#6
REVIEW
Toshiki Uchihara, Benoit I Giasson
Progressive aggregation of alpha-synuclein (αS) through formation of amorphous pale bodies to mature Lewy bodies or in neuronal processes as Lewy neurites may be the consequence of conformational protein changes and accumulations, which structurally represents "molecular template". Focal initiation and subsequent spread along anatomically connected structures embody "structural template". To investigate the hypothesis that both processes might be closely associated and involved in the progression of αS pathology, which can be observed in human brains, αS amyloidogenic precursors termed "seeds" were experimentally injected into the brain or peripheral nervous system of animals...
January 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26035806/corresponding-ganglion-cell-atrophy-in-patients-with-postgeniculate-homonymous-visual-field-loss
#7
Jamie R Mitchell, Cristiano Oliveira, Apostolos J Tsiouris, Marc J Dinkin
BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to look for the presence of homonymous ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer complex (GCL-IPL) thinning using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with a history of adult-onset injury to the postgeniculate pathways with rigorous radiological exclusion of geniculate and pregeniculate pathology. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of twenty-two patients (ages 24-75 y, 6 men, 16 women) with homonymous visual field (VF) defects secondary to postgeniculate injury examining the GCL-IPL with SD-OCT...
December 2015: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25491295/long-term-effects-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-on-structural-and-physiological-integrity-of-the-eye-and-visual-pathway-by-multimodal-mri
#8
Kevin C Chan, Swarupa Kancherla, Shu-Juan Fan, Ed X Wu
PURPOSE: Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of brain damage in infants and may frequently present visual impairments. Although advancements in perinatal care have increased survival, the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic injury and the long-term consequences to the visual system remain unclear. We hypothesized that neonatal hypoxia-ischemia can lead to chronic, MRI-detectable structural and physiological alterations in both the eye and the brain's visual pathways. METHODS: Eight Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia for 2 hours at postnatal day 7...
December 9, 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25285723/homonymous-ganglion-cell-layer-thinning-after-isolated-occipital-lesion-macular-oct-demonstrates-transsynaptic-retrograde-retinal-degeneration
#9
Paolo G Meier, Philippe Maeder, Randy H Kardon, François-Xavier Borruat
A 48-year-old man was examined 24 months after medial and surgical treatment of an isolated well-circumscribed right occipital lobe abscess. An asymptomatic residual left homonymous inferior scotoma was present. Fundus examination revealed temporal pallor of both optic discs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed mild temporal loss of retinal nerve fiber layer in both eyes. No relative afferent pupillary defect was present. Assessment of the retinal ganglion cell layer demonstrated homonymous thinning in a pattern corresponding to the homonymous visual field loss...
June 2015: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24397189/-four-year-changes-in-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness-in-homonymous-hemianopia
#10
Toshio Kurokawa, Masami Park, Naoko Ueda
PURPOSE: Aquired transsynaptic retrograde degeneration of the human visual system can be identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can reveal optic tract atrophy, retinal nerve fiber layer loss, and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thinning. We investigated GCC changes in the first 4 years following post-geniculate lesions. METHODS: Nine patients with congruous homonymous hemianopia were scanned with OCT. A 6-mm circle centered on the macula was divided vertically into hemianopia (H) and unaffected (U) sides...
November 2013: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24163431/quantifying-the-pattern-of-optic-tract-degeneration-in-human-hemianopia
#11
Rebecca S Millington, Clarissa L Yasuda, Panitha Jindahra, Mark Jenkinson, John L Barbur, Christopher Kennard, Fernando Cendes, Gordon T Plant, Holly Bridge
BACKGROUND: The existence of transsynaptic retrograde degeneration (TRD) in the human visual system has been established, however the dependence of TRD on different factors such as lesion location, size and manner of lesion acquisition has yet to be quantified. METHODS: We obtained T1-weighted structural and diffusion-weighted images for 26 patients with adult-acquired or congenital hemianopia and 12 age-matched controls. The optic tract (OT) was defined and measured in the structural and diffusion-weighted images, and degeneration assessed by comparing the integrity of tracts in the lesioned and in the undamaged hemisphere...
April 2014: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23600720/direct-and-retrograde-transduction-of-nigral-neurons-with-aav6-8-and-9-and-intraneuronal-persistence-of-viral-particles
#12
Karin Löw, Patrick Aebischer, Bernard L Schneider
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotypes 6, 8, and 9 were characterized as tools for gene delivery to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra for future gene therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease. While vectors of all three serotypes transduced nigral dopaminergic neurons with equal efficiency when directly injected to the substantia nigra, AAV6 was clearly superior to AAV8 and AAV9 for retrograde transduction of nigral neurons after striatal delivery. For sequential transduction of nigral dopaminergic neurons, the combination of AAV9 with AAV6 proved to be more powerful than AAV8 with AAV6 or repeated AAV6 administration...
June 2013: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22679330/acquired-retrograde-transsynaptic-degeneration
#13
Marta Esteves Guedes, Ana Catarina Almeida, Maria Sara Patricio, João Marques Costa
Although retrograde transsynaptic degeneration in the visual pathway of monkeys has been described since 1963, data in humans are sparse. The authors present a 24-year-old female referred to a neuro-ophthalmology consult for assessment before neurosurgery for a right occipital ependymoma. Clinical examination was unremarkable, including visual fields evaluated by computerised static perimetry. Four years after tumour extraction, the patient showed a left homonymous haemianopia documented by computerised static perimetry and a bow-tie like atrophy on the left on funduscopy...
2011: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22222509/transsynaptic-retinal-degeneration-in-optic-neuropathies-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Prema Sriram, Stuart L Graham, Chenyu Wang, Con Yiannikas, Raymond Garrick, Alexander Klistorner
PURPOSE: Recently demonstrated neuronal loss in the inner nuclear layer of the retina in multiple sclerosis (MS) and glaucoma raises the question of a primary (possibly immune-mediated) or secondary (transsynaptic) mechanism of retinal damage in these diseases. In the present study we used optical coherence tomography to investigate retrograde retinal transsynaptic degeneration in patients with long-standing and severe loss of ganglion cells due to optic neuropathy. METHODS: Fifteen eyes of glaucoma patients with visual field defect limited to upper hemifield and 15 eyes of MS patients with previous episode of optic neuritis (ON) and extensive loss of ganglion cells were imaged using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and compared with two groups of age-matched controls...
March 2012: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18929128/glaucoma-of-the-brain-a-disease-model-for-the-study-of-transsynaptic-neural-degeneration
#15
REVIEW
Yeni Yücel, Neeru Gupta
The identification of mechanisms precipitating neuronal death and injury is an intense area of investigation requiring reliable models to assess the effects of neuroprotective agents. Most are suboptimal since the effects of initial damage are diffuse and may not be reproducible or easily quantifiable. The ideal laboratory model should have the ability to (a) clearly detect evidence of neuronal injury and recovery, (b) accurately measure morphologically the extent of these changes, and (c) provide functional evidence for damage and recovery...
2008: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17903673/juvenile-global-tremor-a-clinicopathologic-syndrome-mimicking-polymyoclonia
#16
Nancy R Melick, Abraham Chutorian, Douglas C Miller
Olivary nucleus degeneration is one of the pathologic characteristics of infantile olivopontocerebellar atrophy. It has also been described in premature neonates and infants with severe perinatal asphyxia and is thought to represent retrograde transsynaptic changes from cerebellar hemisphere lesions. A 2-year-old boy developed global tremor after a respiratory infection with remission after corticosteroid therapy, and recurrence of the tremor during gradual withdrawal of steroids. Neuropathologic examination revealed neuronal loss and gliosis in the lateral portions of both inferior olivary nuclei without associated abnormalities in the cerebellum...
October 2007: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17551987/changes-in-the-connections-of-the-main-olfactory-bulb-after-mitral-cell-selective-neurodegeneration
#17
Javier S Recio, Eduardo Weruaga, Carmela Gómez, Jorge Valero, Jesús G Briñón, José R Alonso
The connections of the main olfactory bulb (OB) of the mouse were studied with iontophoretic injections of biotinylated dextran amine. To sort efferences from mitral cells and tufted cells, the Purkinje cell degeneration (PCD) mouse was used. This mutant animal undergoes a specific neurodegeneration of mitral cells, whereas tufted cells do not degenerate. The unilateral tracer injections used were small and confined largely to the OB of both PCD and control mice at P120. Seven days after tracer injection, the efferences from the OB and the centrifugal afferences from secondary olfactory structures to it were studied...
August 15, 2007: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15881149/-ophthalmologic-symptomatology-in-children-with-periventricular-leucomalation
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
I M Mosin, L K Moshetova, N V Slavinskaia, N V Vasil'eva, I A Letneva, O V Shuleshko
Ophthalmologic symptoms were analyzed in 76 children with periventricular leucomalation (PL). Clinical or functional ophthalmic disorders were detected in 100% of patients. Changes in the optic nerve disc were diagnosed in 93.4% of patients. The syndrome of dilated excavation (SDE), i.e. dilation and cupping of the optic nerve disc combined in all cases with affection of postgenicular visual paths (of optic radiation and/or striatal cortex) verified by neuroradiology, was most frequently (80.3%) encountered in children with PL...
March 2005: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15654853/transsynaptic-virus-tracing-from-host-brain-to-subretinal-transplants
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Magdalene J Seiler, Botir T Sagdullaev, Gustaw Woch, Biju B Thomas, Robert B Aramant
The aim of this study was to establish synapses between a transplant and a degenerated retina. To tackle this difficult task, a little-known but well-established CNS method was chosen: trans-synaptic pseudorabies virus (PRV) tracing. Sheets of E19 rat retina with or without retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were transplanted to the subretinal space in 33 Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) and transgenic s334ter-5 rats with retinal degeneration. Several months later, PRV-BaBlu (expressing E. colibeta-galactosidase) or PRV-Bartha was injected into an area of the exposed superior colliculus (SC), topographically corresponding to the transplant placement in the retina...
January 2005: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15381772/cortical-interneurons-become-activated-by-deafferentation-and-instruct-the-apoptosis-of-pyramidal-neurons
#20
V E Koliatsos, T M Dawson, A Kecojevic, Yueping Zhou, Yi-Feei Wang, K-X Huang
Unlike peripheral nervous system neurons and certain groups of nerve cells in the CNS, cortical projection neurons are tolerant of axonal lesions. This resistance is incongruent with the massive death of pyramidal neurons in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases that proceed along corticocortical connections. Some insights have emerged from our previous work showing that pyramidal cells in piriform cortex undergo classical apoptosis within 24 h after bulbectomy via transsynaptic, but not retrograde, signaling...
September 28, 2004: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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