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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728141/estimates-of-soil-ingestion-in-a-population-of-chinese-children
#1
Chunye Lin, Beibei Wang, Xiaoyong Cui, Dongqun Xu, Hongguang Cheng, Qin Wang, Jin Ma, Tuanyao Chai, Xiaoli Duan, Xitao Liu, Junwei Ma, Xuan Zhang, Yanzhong Liu
BACKGROUND: China's soil pollution poses serious health risks. However, data regarding the soil ingestion rate (SIR) of the Chinese population, which is critical to assessing associated health risks, are lacking. OBJECTIVES: We estimated soil ingestion of 177 Chinese children from Guangdong, Hubei, and Gansu Provinces. METHODS: We conducted this investigation by employing a tracer mass-balance method. We collected a duplicate of all food consumed and all feces and urine excreted on 1 d () and over 3 consecutive d (), as well as soil samples from play areas and drinking-water samples...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728114/variation-in-receipt-of-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-across-racial-ethnic-groups-a-national-study-in-the-u-s-veterans-health-administration
#2
Emily C Williams, Shalini Gupta, Anna D Rubinsky, Joseph E Glass, Rhonda Jones-Webb, Kara M Bensley, Alex H S Harris
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologic treatment is recommended for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but most patients do not receive it. Although racial/ethnic minorities have greater AUD consequences than whites, whether AUD medication receipt varies across race/ethnicity is unknown. We evaluate this in a national sample. METHODS: Electronic health records data were extracted for all black, Hispanic, and/or white patients who received care at the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VA) during Fiscal Year 2012 and had a documented AUD diagnosis...
July 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727930/visual-perception-of-british-women-s-skin-color-distribution-in-two-nonindustrialized-societies-the-maasai-and-the-tsimane
#3
Bernhard Fink, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Paul J Matts
In women with lightly pigmented skin in particular, facial skin color homogeneity decreases with age, primarily due to chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), leading to a decrease in perceived health and attractiveness. Perception of female skin may be influenced by continuous exposure to, and thus familiarity with, age-related changes in visible skin condition in a given society. Men and women of two traditional societies, the Maasai (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia), unfamiliar with lighter colored skin, judged images of British women's facial skin for age, health, and attractiveness...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727848/the-nuclear-proteome-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Carina Goos, Mario Dejung, Christian J Janzen, Falk Butter, Susanne Kramer
Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan flagellate that is transmitted by tsetse flies into the mammalian bloodstream. The parasite has a huge impact on human health both directly by causing African sleeping sickness and indirectly, by infecting domestic cattle. The biology of trypanosomes involves some highly unusual, nuclear-localised processes. These include polycistronic transcription without classical promoters initiated from regions defined by histone variants, trans-splicing of all transcripts to the exon of a spliced leader RNA, transcription of some very abundant proteins by RNA polymerase I and antigenic variation, a switch in expression of the cell surface protein variants that allows the parasite to resist the immune system of its mammalian host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727714/3d-morphometric-analysis-of-normal-sacroiliac-joints-a-new-classification-of-surface-shape-variation-and-the-potential-implications-in-pain-syndromes
#5
Mary Kristen Jesse, Christopher Kleck, Adam Williams, Brian Petersen, Deborah Glueck, Kimberly Lind, Vikas Patel
BACKGROUND: Normal sacroiliac (SI) joints vary widely in shape, and it is unclear whether SI joint morphology plays a role in the development of pain. To answer this question, we used 3D-CT surface rendering to image healthy study participants and used the resulting images to develop a classification system for SI joint morphology. In a case-control study comparing health research participants to patients with SI pain, we assessed whether the classification of SI joint morphology was associated with pain...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727153/month-of-birth-is-associated-with-the-subsequent-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-hypothyroidism-a-nationwide-danish-register-based-study
#6
Marianne Thvilum, Frans Brandt, Thomas Heiberg Brix, Laszlo Hegedüs
BACKGROUND: The triggering of thyroid autoimmunity in the genetically susceptible remains a conundrum. Environmental exposures during gestation and/or early postnatally have proponents, as suggested in diabetes mellitus, with a higher incidence of births during spring and summer. Whether the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism (AIT) is influenced by month or season of birth is less clear. METHOD: Nationwide cohort study of 111,565 individuals diagnosed with AIT and four euthyroid controls per case, matched according to age and sex, were identified from Danish health registers...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#7
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727049/association-of-udder-traits-with-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-crossbred-bos-indicus-bos-taurus-cows
#8
M W Tolleson, C A Gill, A D Herring, P K Riggs, J E Sawyer, J O Sanders, D G Riley
The size, support, and health of udders limit the productive life of beef cows, especially those with background, because, in general, such cows have a reputation for problems with udders. Genomic association studies of bovine udder traits have been conducted in dairy cattle and recently in Continental European beef breeds but not in cows with background. The objective of this study was to determine associations of SNP and udder support scores, teat length, and teat diameter in half (Nellore), half (Angus) cows...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727007/best-management-practices-for-newly-weaned-calves-for-improved-health-and-well-being
#9
B K Wilson, C J Richards, D L Step, C R Krehbiel
Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726455/a-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-parents-employment-and-children-s-obesity
#10
Robert Crosnoe, Rachel Dunifon
Despite public concerns about the negative implications of the increased labor force participation of mothers for child development, decades of research have revealed few risks and some benefits. One potential risk-a consistently observed association between maternal employment and childhood obesity-offers a window into how some dimensions of family health may be undermined by work in an economic and policy context that is not family friendly. The purpose of this article is to identify ways that a developmental perspective can enrich the literature on how children's weight may be related to the work experiences of both mothers and fathers across diverse populations, a literature that heretofore has been dominated by economic and demographic perspectives, focused almost solely on women, and largely ignored racial/ethnic variation...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726250/too-big-too-small-or-just-right-cost-efficiency-of-environmental-inspection-services-in-connecticut
#11
Jeffrey P Cohen, Patricia J Checko
OBJECTIVE: To assess optimal activity size/mix of Connecticut local public health jurisdictions, through estimating economies of scale/scope/specialization for environmental inspections/services. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Connecticut's 74 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) must provide environmental health services, but their efficiency or reasons for wide cost variation are unknown. The public health system is decentralized, with variation in organizational structure/size...
July 20, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726073/investigation-of-heavy-metal-level-and-mineral-nutrient-status-in-widely-used-medicinal-plants-leaves-in-turkey-insights-into-health-implications
#12
Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Bahattin Yalcin, Senay Turan, Ibrahim Adnan Saracoglu, Sedat Karadeniz, Ibrahim Ertugrul Yalcin, Goksel Demir
The use of plants in treatments has been as old as humanity and it has preserved its popularity for centuries til now because of their availability, affordability and safeness. However, despite their widespread use, safety and quality issues have been major concerns in the world due to industrial- and anthropogenic-based heavy metal contamination risks. Thus, this study was attempted to analyze the heavy metal levels and mineral nutrient status of widely used medicinal plants in Turkey to have insights about their health implications on humans...
July 19, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725261/health-risk-behavior-among-chronically-ill-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-assessment-tools
#13
REVIEW
Derrick Ssewanyana, Moses Kachama Nyongesa, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with chronic illnesses engage in health risk behaviors (HRB) which pose challenges for optimizing care and management of their ill health. Frequent monitoring of HRB is recommended, however little is known about which are the most useful tools to detect HRB among chronically ill adolescents. AIMS: This systematic review was conducted to address important knowledge gaps on the assessment of HRB among chronically ill adolescents. Its specific aims were to: identify HRB assessment tools, the geographical location of the studies, their means of administration, the psychometric properties of the tools and the commonest forms of HRB assessed among adolescents living with chronic illnesses globally...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724543/cervical-cancer-screening-in-rural-bhutan-with-the-carehpv-test-on-self-collected-samples-an-ongoing-cross-sectional-population-based-study-reach-bhutan
#14
Iacopo Baussano, Sangay Tshering, Tashi Choden, Fulvio Lazzarato, Vanessa Tenet, Martyn Plummer, Silvia Franceschi, Gary M Clifford, Ugyen Tshomo
OBJECTIVES: The Bhutanese Screening Programme recommends a Pap smear every 3 years for women aged 25-65 years, and coverage ranges from 20% to 60%, being especially challenging in rural settings. The 'REACH-Bhutan' study was conducted to assess the feasibility and outcomes of a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in rural Bhutan. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based study of cervical cancer screening based on the careHPV test on self-collected samples...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724489/population-genetic-structure-of-the-cayo-santiago-colony-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#15
Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, Robert F Oldt, Jillian Ng, Angelina V Ruiz-Lambides, Elizabeth Maldonado, Melween I Martínez, Carlos A Sariol
The rhesus macaque population at Cayo Santiago increases annually and is in urgent need of control. In-depth assessments of the colony's population genetic and pedigree structures provide a starting point for improving the colony's long-term management program. We evaluated the degree of genetic variation and coefficients of inbreeding and kinship of the Cayo Santiago colony by using pedigree and short tandem repeat (STR) data from 4738 rhesus macaques, which represent 7 extant social groups and a group of migrant males...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724455/a-seroprevalence-study-to-determine-the-frequency-of-hantavirus-infection-in-people-exposed-to-wild-and-pet-fancy-rats-in-england
#16
J M Duggan, R Close, L McCann, D Wright, M Keys, N McCarthy, T Mannes, A Walsh, A Charlett, T J G Brooks
Recent cases of acute kidney injury due to Seoul hantavirus infection from exposure to wild or pet fancy rats suggest this infection is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We conducted a seroprevalence study in England to estimate cumulative exposure in at-risk groups with contact with domesticated and wild rats to assess risk and inform public health advice. From October 2013 to June 2014, 844 individual blood samples were collected. Hantavirus seroprevalence amongst the pet fancy rat owner group was 34.1% (95% CI 23·9-45·7%) compared with 3·3% (95% CI 1·6-6·0) in a baseline control group, 2·4% in those with occupational exposure to pet fancy rats (95% CI 0·6-5·9) and 1·7% with occupational exposure to wild rats (95% CI 0·2-5·9)...
July 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724450/variation-in-species-composition-and-infection-rates-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-at-different-altitudinal-transects-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-the-highland-of-dirashe-woreda-south-ethiopia
#17
Taye Yohannes Daygena, Fekadu Massebo, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is heterogeneous, and varies due to altitude. The information on whether the transmission of malaria is indigenous or imported to highland areas is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the species composition and infection rates of Anopheles at different altitudinal transects, and the risk of malaria if any in the highland of Dirashe Woreda, South Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was conducted in Gato (low altitude; average elevation of 1273 m), Onota (mid-altitude; average elevation of 1707 m) and Layignaw-Arguba (high altitude; average elevation of 2337 m) from August 2015 to April 2016...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724446/economic-burden-of-malaria-inpatients-during-national-malaria-elimination-programme-estimation-of-hospitalization-cost-and-its-inter-province-variation
#18
Shangfeng Tang, Da Feng, Ruoxi Wang, Bishwajit Ghose, Tao Hu, Lu Ji, Tailai Wu, Hang Fu, Yueying Huang, Zhanchun Feng
BACKGROUND: Apart from its direct impact on public health and well-being, malaria had placed significant socioeconomic burden on both individuals and whole health systems. This study was conducted to investigate the hospitalization cost of malaria and explore the inter-province variation during the National Malaria Elimination Programme in China. METHODS: Information on medical expenditure for malaria treatment was extracted from inpatient medical records in Henan, Hainan and Guangxi Province...
July 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724244/evaluating-mercury-concentrations-and-body-condition-in-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis-at-merritt-island-national-wildlife-refuge-minwr-florida
#19
Frances M Nilsen, Jonathan E Dorsey, Russell H Lowers, Louis J Guillette, Stephen E Long, John A Bowden, Tracey B Schock
Concentrations of mercury (Hg) are not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations and often correlate to environmental impact. However, monitoring the impact of Hg deposition in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental conditions that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, the ability of the environment to methylate Hg), as well as affect the accessibility to organisms for sampling...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724231/arsenic-speciation-in-aquifer-sediment-under-varying-groundwater-regime-and-redox-conditions-at-jianghan-plain-of-central-china
#20
Yanhua Duan, Yiqun Gan, Yanxin Wang, Chongxuan Liu, Kai Yu, Yamin Deng, Ke Zhao, Chuangju Dong
At Jianghan Plain of central Yangtze basins where the health of >73, 000 people has been affected by long term intake of high arsenic groundwater, over 100 sediment samples from four boreholes at the field monitoring sites were collected and analyzed to delineate the distribution and speciation of As in the shallow aquifer sediment. Results showed that sediment As concentration is generally dependent on the lithological conditions, with the higher As concentration present in fine particle sediment, especially in the silty sand layers underlying clay or silty clay layers...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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