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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300935/specific-and-social-fears-in-children-and-adolescents-separating-normative-fears-from-problem-indicators-and-phobias
#1
Paola P Laporte, Pedro M Pan, Mauricio S Hoffmann, Lauren S Wakschlag, Luis A Rohde, Euripedes C Miguel, Daniel S Pine, Gisele G Manfro, Giovanni A Salum
Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears...
March 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285254/the-predictive-role-of-daily-cognitive-stimulation-on-executive-functions-in-bipolar-disorder
#2
Charles Cotrena, Laura Damiani Branco, André Ponsoni, Flávio Milman Shansis, Renata Kochhann, Rochele Paz Fonseca
This study aimed to estimate the predictive role of clinical and demographic variables on the three core executive functions (EF) - working memory (WM), inhibitory control (IC) and cognitive flexibility (CF) - in bipolar disorder (BD). The sample consisted of 38 patients with BD type I, 39 with BD type II, and 106 control participants with no mood disorders. Subjects completed the Hayling Test, Trail Making Test, Digit Span Backwards, Sentence Word Span Test, and Stroop Color-Word Test. Composite scores for WM, IC and CF were calculated, and their correlations with clinical and demographic variables were analyzed...
March 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277395/exploring-the-strengths-of-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-a-qualitative-study
#3
Jahangir Maghsoudi, HamidReza Oreyzi, Ali Zargham-Boroujeni
BACKGROUND: Professional nurses typically pay significantly more attention to the weaknesses rather than strengths of their psychiatric patients. Thus, new approaches to care are needed to discover the strengths of these patients and to provide effective encouragement during the caring process. However, little is currently known regarding the strengths that psychiatric patients possess during their illness and healing. PURPOSE: The current study aimed to explore the self-perceptions and experiences of psychiatric patients regarding their strengths...
April 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262550/pathways-for-neuroimaging-of-neonatal-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Lee, David M Mirsky, Lauren A Beslow, Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Amy R Danehy, Laura Lehman, Nicholas V Stence, Arastoo Vossough, Max Wintermark, Michael J Rivkin
PURPOSE: To provide consensus-based, suggested imaging protocols to facilitate the accurate and timely diagnosis of a neonate with symptoms concerning for stroke. METHODS: The Writing Group, an international collaboration of pediatric neurologists and neuroradiologists with expertise in perinatal and childhood stroke, participated in a series of pediatric stroke neuroimaging symposia. These discussions, in conjunction with extensive literature review, led to a consensus for imaging protocols to guide practitioners in the diagnosis of neonatal stroke subtypes as defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Common Data Elements...
January 26, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258361/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-intensive-care-prevalence-risk-factors-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
R Gawlytta, G-B Wintermann, M Böttche, H Niemeyer, C Knaevelsrud, J Rosendahl
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of intensive care which might affect not only the patients but also their relatives. About one fifth of these patients develop clinically important PTSD in the first year after intensive care. Comorbid psychopathology, received benzodiazepines, and memories of the frightening, distressing ICU experiences are common risk factors for the development of PTSD symptoms. There are only a few specific approaches for the treatment of PTSD after intensive care...
March 3, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249737/historical-documents-on-epilepsy-from-antiquity-through-the-20th-century
#6
REVIEW
Christos P Panteliadis, Photios Vassilyadi, Julia Fehlert, Christian Hagel
Historical documents dating back almost 4500years have alluded to the condition of epilepsy, describing signs and symptoms that are well-known today. Epilepsy was thought to be a mystical disorder by almost all Ancient cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Iranians and Chinese. Hippocrates was the first to de-mystify the condition of epilepsy, providing a more scientific approach to the condition. As the signs and symptoms of epilepsy occurred without an obvious cause, the idea stood that it was a mystical phenomenon of divine punishment...
February 26, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242515/emotional-word-usage-in-groups-at-risk-for-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-an-objective-investigation-of-attention-to-emotion
#7
Christie K Fung, Melody M Moore, Nicole R Karcher, John G Kerns, Elizabeth A Martin
Both extreme levels of social anhedonia (SocAnh) and extreme levels of perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) indicate increased risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and are associated with emotional deficits. For SocAnh, there is evidence of self-reported decreased trait positive affect and abnormalities in emotional attention. For PerMag, there is evidence of increased trait negative affect and increased attention to negative emotion. Yet, the nature of more objective emotional abnormalities in these groups is unclear...
February 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229356/symptoms-of-swallowing-anxiety-in-panic-disorder-patients-and-associated-psychopathologic-factors
#8
Ersin Budak, İbrahim Taymur, Sinay Önen, Bilgen Biçer Kanat, Önder Akdeniz, Hakan Demirci
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of swallowing difficulty in Panic Disorder (PD) patients and the factors associated with these symptoms. METHODS: In the pre-phase of the study, 22 PD patients who were treated in psychiatry outpatient clinics and who were found to have swallowing difficulty were evaluated. PD patients were asked to write about their thoughts, feelings and behaviors associated with swallowing difficulty. Later, these texts were examined and 41 expressions were identified in which patients described their swallowing difficulty...
February 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208966/study-of-parental-perceptions-on-health-social-needs-of-children-with-neuro-developmental-disability-and-it-s-impact-on-the-family
#9
Nusrat Jahan Rafique Ansari, Ramchandra Keshav Dhongade, Preeti Sagar Lad, Ashwin Borade, Suvarna Yg, Vishal Yadav, Ashwini Mehetre, Rahul Kulkarni
INTRODUCTION: The term Neuro Developmental Disorder (NDD) is used for conditions caused by a dysfunction in any part of the brain or nervous system, resulting in physical and/or psychological symptoms as a child develops. Family of children with NDD face many problems. It is very important to find them and create awareness so that gaps in essential services and supports can be decreased. AIM: To explore parental perceptions on health & social needs of children with NDD, to understand the impact of disability on the families having children with disability, and to find out the parental perceptions on availability of services for children with NDD and its utilization by families...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208851/2d-4d-ratio-and-its-implications-in-medicine
#10
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, Prathibha K Muthu
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178960/ultrasound-and-dynamic-functional-imaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M Bornstein, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely available, safe and relatively low cost tools and analyses recent work highlighting their potential utility as biomarkers for differentiating subtypes of cognitive impairment and dementia, tracking disease progression and evaluating response to treatment in various neurocognitive disorders...
February 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178911/bringing-mini-chalk-talks-to-the-bedside-to-enhance-clinical-teaching
#12
Michael B Pitt, Jay D Orlander
Chalk talks - where the teacher is equipped solely with a writing utensil and a writing surface - have been used for centuries, yet little has been written about strategies for their use in medical education. Structured education proximal to patient encounters (during rounds, at the bedside, or in between patients in clinic) maximizes the opportunities for clinical learning. This paper presents a strategy to bring mini-chalk talks (MCTs) to the bedside as a practical way to provide relevant clinical teaching by visually framing teachable moments...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165847/moving-beyond-routines-in-teaching-and-learning-releasing-the-educative-potential-of-published-eating-disorder-memoirs
#13
Donna Lee Brien, Margaret McAllister
Learning from the lived experience of disordered eating is vital for contemporary mental health practitioners. While mental health practitioners need to understand the psycho-biological issues that impact the person and family with an eating disorder, there is much about this complex condition that eludes and escapes a bio-medical perspective. Use of an aesthetic lens on the issue can illuminate various challenges, tensions and insights that people with disordered eating experience along the journey of their ill-health and on to their recovery, but which often remain unstated in the clinical context...
February 6, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143692/the-journal-of-allergy-and-clinical-immunology-in-practice-2016-year-in-review
#14
REVIEW
Michael Schatz, Scott H Sicherer, Robert S Zeiger
As editors, we concluded that it would be helpful to our readers to write a Year in Review article that highlights the Review, Original, and Clinical Communication articles published in 2016 in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. We summarized articles on the topics of asthma, rhinitis/rhinosinusitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis, drug allergy, urticarial/angioedema, eosinophilic disorders, and immunodeficiency. Within each topic, epidemiologic findings are presented, relevant aspects of prevention are described, and diagnostic and therapeutic advances are enumerated...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141707/bullying-and-adhd-which-came-first-and-does-it-matter
#15
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132055/atmosphere-on-the-phenomenology-of-atmospheric-alterations-in-schizophrenia-overall-sense-of-reality-familiarity-vitality-meaning-or-relevance-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-5
#16
Louis Sass, Matthew Ratcliffe
"Atmospheric" alterations are key aspects of altered subjectivity in mental disorder. Karl Jaspers famously described the "delusional mood": a sense of uncanny salience and ominousness that often precedes the onset of schizophrenic psychosis or of delusions. Such experiences, he writes, involve "a transformation in our total awareness of reality" that often verges on ineffability. In psychiatry, these experiential alterations are often referred to in terms of "derealization." Though derealization most obviously refers to a decline in the sense of objective presence or felt actuality, it can also refer to other unusual experiences in which things seem unlike normal or standard reality, including altered familiarity, vitality, meaning, or relevance...
January 28, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126016/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-infected-women-within-reproductive-age-group-at-mizan-aman-general-hospital-southwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke, Yayehirad Alemu Melsew
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is serious in the case of immune suppression and prenatal transmission. In immunocompromised hosts, it is manifested primarily as a life-threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. Congenital toxoplasmosis results in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and associated factors among HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group (18-49 years) at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia...
January 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113638/haptic-feedback-manipulation-during-botulinum-toxin-injection-therapy-for-focal-hand-dystonia-patients-a-possible-new-assistive-strategy
#18
Seyed Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Christopher Ward, Olivia Samotus, Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, Jack Lee, Mallory Jackman, Mandar Jog, Rajni Patel
Abnormality of sensorimotor integration in the basal ganglia and cortex has been reported in the literature for patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD). In this study, we investigate the effect of manipulation of kinesthetic input in people living with writer's cramp disorder (a major form of FHD). For this purpose, severity of dystonia is studied for 11 participants while the symptoms of 7 participants have been tracked during 5 sessions of assessment and Botulinum toxin injection (BoNT-A) therapy (one of the current suggested therapies for dystonia)...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094217/development-and-validation-of-a-quality-of-life-questionnaire-for-patients-with-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders
#19
Jyothi Tadakamadla, Santhosh Kumar, Ratilal Lalloo, Newell W Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaire for patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). STUDY DESIGN: For item generation, 15 personal interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with OPMD patients existing QoL questionnaires were reviewed, and inputs from specialist clinicians (n = 10) were considered. Data collected from patients were analyzed by using NVivo...
March 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073100/investigating-the-use-of-appropriation-in-the-writing-of-a-child-with-autism-a-case-study
#20
Jamie Maxwell, Christine Weill, Jack Damico
This case study investigated how a 10year old child with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), Kameron (pseudonym), utilized appropriation as a writing strategy in the context of group therapy. Using the same questions as Lensmire and Beals (1994) in their study of a typically developing third-grader, written products were collected over the course of one semester and analyzed, along with video, audio, and participant observation data, to consider the following questions: 1) Where did the material come from? 2) What was taken? and 3) How was it used? Analysis of the process of Kameron's writing revealed utilization of appropriation as a strategy for 2 of the 4 written products...
January 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
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