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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921545/editorial-new-frontiers-in-the-scientific-study-of-developmental-language-disorders
#1
EDITORIAL
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
Developmental language disorders (DLD) are common and have far-reaching developmental consequences. Nevertheless, public awareness of DLD is poor, and one goal of this special issue is to showcase a set of papers that provide a clear and coherent message about the nature and impact of DLD, and the potential of intervention to mitigate these impacts. In this editorial, we highlight seminal papers JCPP has published on language disorders over the last 40 years. Many of the issues raised then are still relevant now; however, the papers that comprise this special issue exemplify how far the field has come in achieving consensus on terminology and diagnostic criteria, and producing highly consistent findings on the stability and impact of DLD, and the potential for language change in response to targeted interventions...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921543/language-growth-in-children-with-heterogeneous-language-disorders-a-population-study
#2
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, George Vamvakas, Debbie Gooch, Gillian Baird, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. METHODS: SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919924/comparison-of-parent-report-and-direct-assessment-of-child-skills-in-toddlers
#3
Lauren E Miller, Kayla A Perkins, Yael G Dai, Deborah A Fein
BACKGROUND: There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains...
September 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903722/eeg-power-at-3%C3%A2-months-in-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#4
April R Levin, Kandice J Varcin, Heather M O'Leary, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain development during infancy may precede the behavioral manifestation of developmental disorders. Infants at increased risk for autism are also at increased risk for other developmental disorders, including, quite commonly, language disorders. Here we assess the extent to which electroencephalographic (EEG) differences in infants at high versus low familial risk for autism are present by 3 months of age, and elucidate the functional significance of EEG power at 3 months in predicting later development...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900155/inflexible-neurobiological-signatures-precede-atypical-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#5
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao
Variability in neurobiological signatures is ubiquitous in early life but the link to adverse developmental milestones in humans is unknown. We examined how levels of signal and noise in movement signatures during the 1st year of life constrain early development in 71 healthy typically developing infants, either at High or Low familial Risk (HR or LR, respectively) for developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Delays in early learning developmental trajectories in HR infants (validated in an analysis of 1,445 infants from representative infant-sibling studies) were predicted by worse stochastic patterns in their spontaneous head movements as early as 1-2 months after birth, relative to HR infants who showed more rapid developmental progress, as well as relative to all LR infants...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884888/foxp1-haploinsufficiency-phenotypes-beyond-behavior-and-intellectual-disability
#6
Angela Myers, Christèle du Souich, Connie L Yang, Lior Borovik, Jill Mwenifumbo, Rosemarie Rupps, Causes Study, Anna Lehman, Cornelius F Boerkoel
The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879490/homogeneous-subgroups-of-young-children-with-autism-improve-phenotypic-characterization-in-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#7
Lisa D Wiggins, Lin H Tian, Susan E Levy, Catherine Rice, Li-Ching Lee, Laura Schieve, Juhi Pandey, Julie Daniels, Lisa Blaskey, Susan Hepburn, Rebecca Landa, Rebecca Edmondson-Pretzel, William Thompson
The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algorithms. Four classes of children with ASD were identified from latent class analysis: mild language delay with cognitive rigidity, mild language and motor delay with dysregulation, general developmental delay, and significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869842/changes-in-intrinsic-local-connectivity-after-reading-intervention-in-children-with-autism
#8
Jose O Maximo, Donna L Murdaugh, Sarah O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
Most of the existing behavioral and cognitive intervention programs in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have not been tested at the neurobiological level, thus falling short of finding quantifiable neurobiological changes underlying behavioral improvement. The current study takes a translational neuroimaging approach to test the impact of a structured visual imagery-based reading intervention on improving reading comprehension and assessing its underlying local neural circuitry. Behavioral and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data were collected from children with ASD who were randomly assigned to an Experimental group (ASD-EXP; n=14) and a Wait-list control group (ASD-WLC; n=14)...
September 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869354/working-memory-network-alterations-in-high-functioning-adolescents-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Evelien M Barendse, Lisanne J Schreuder, Geert Thoonen, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Walter H Backes, Albert P Aldenkamp, Jacobus F A Jansen
AIM: People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically have deficits in the working memory (WM) system. Working memory is found to be an essential chain in successfully navigating in the social world. We hypothesize that brain networks for WM have an altered network integrity in ASD compared to controls. METHODS: 13 adolescents (1 female) with autistic disorder (n = 1), Asperger's disorder (n = 7), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (n = 5), and 13 typically developing control adolescents (1 female) participated in this study...
September 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867039/-long-term-outcome-of-perinatal-stroke
#10
C Vuillerot, S Marret, M Dinomais
Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke (NAIS) affects 6-17 newborns on 100 000-birth term neonates, most of these children keeping long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Based on a literature review, the objectives of this paper are to describe motor and cognitive outcomes after a NAIS and to propose a consensual monitoring of these children to improve their management. About 30 % of children after a NAIS will develop a unilateral cerebral palsy requiring a management by a team with expertise in physical medicine and rehabilitation...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863035/same-or-different-the-overlap-between-children-with-auditory-processing-disorders-and-children-with-other-developmental-disorders-a-systematic-review
#11
Ellen de Wit, Pim van Dijk, Sandra Hanekamp, Margot I Visser-Bochane, Bert Steenbergen, Cees P van der Schans, Margreet R Luinge
OBJECTIVES: Children diagnosed with auditory processing disorders (APD) experience difficulties in auditory functioning and with memory, attention, language, and reading tasks. However, it is not clear whether the behavioral characteristics of these children are distinctive from the behavioral characteristics of children diagnosed with a different developmental disorder, such as specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disorder (LD), or autism spectrum disorder...
August 31, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857799/age-at-exposure-to-surgery-and-anesthesia-in-children-and-association-with-mental-disorder-diagnosis
#12
Caleb Ing, Ming Sun, Mark Olfson, Charles J DiMaggio, Lena S Sun, Melanie M Wall, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Animals exposed to anesthetics during specific age periods of brain development experience neurotoxicity, with neurodevelopmental changes subsequently observed during adulthood. The corresponding vulnerable age in children, however, is unknown. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed using a longitudinal dataset constructed by linking individual-level Medicaid claims from Texas and New York from 1999 to 2010. This dataset was evaluated to determine whether the timing of exposure to anesthesia ≤5 years of age for a single common procedure (pyloromyotomy, inguinal hernia, circumcision outside the perinatal period, or tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy) is associated with increased subsequent risk of diagnoses for any mental disorder, or specifically developmental delay (DD) such as reading and language disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
August 29, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841425/insensitivity-to-response-contingent-feedback-in-adolescents-with-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#13
Joanna C Lee
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficiency of the use of response-contingent feedback in adolescents with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) by using the balloon analogue risk task (BART). The BIS/BAS scales were also used to evaluate a participant's responses to reward- or punishment-related events in everyday situations. The results showed that adolescents with DLD performed on the BART at a suboptimal level due to inefficient use of response-contingent feedback. Findings of the BIS/BAS scales also generate a possible hypothesis of reduced motivational salience for larger monetary outcomes in DLD...
August 22, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837728/how-stuttering-develops-the-multifactorial-dynamic-pathways-theory
#14
Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Purpose: We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. Method: We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including genetic/epigenetic factors; motor, linguistic, and emotional features; and advances in neuroimaging studies. We update evidence for our earlier claim: Although stuttering ultimately reflects impairment in speech sensorimotor processes, its course over the life span is strongly conditioned by linguistic and emotional factors...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828483/global-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-among-children-and-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm, Larry Burd, Svetlana Popova
Importance: Prevalence estimates are essential to effectively prioritize, plan, and deliver health care to high-needs populations such as children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, most countries do not have population-level prevalence data for FASD. Objective: To obtain prevalence estimates of FASD among children and youth in the general population by country, by World Health Organization (WHO) region, and globally. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Education Resource Information Center, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies published from November 1, 1973, through June 30, 2015, without geographic or language restrictions...
August 21, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803755/communicating-complex-genomic-information-a-counselling-approach-derived-from-research-experience-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Ny Hoang, Cheryl Cytrynbaum, Stephen W Scherer
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) share characteristics (impairments in socialization and communication, and repetitive interests and behaviour), but differ in their developmental course, pattern of symptoms, and cognitive and language abilities. The development of standardized phenotyping has revealed ASD to clinically be vastly heterogeneous, ranging from milder presentations to more severe forms associated with profound intellectual disability. Some 100 genes have now been implicated in the etiology of ASD, and advances in genome-wide testing continue to yield new data at an unprecedented rate...
July 29, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803559/rethinking-the-idea-of-late-autism-spectrum-disorder-onset
#17
Elizabeth C Bacon, Eric Courchesne, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Debra Cha, Sunny Pence, Laura Schreibman, Aubyn C Stahmer, Karen Pierce
A common theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom onset includes toddlers who do not display symptoms until well after age 2, which are termed late-onset ASD cases. Objectives were to analyze differences in clinical phenotype between toddlers identified as ASD at initial evaluations (early diagnosed) versus those initially considered nonspectrum, then later identified as ASD (late diagnosed). Two hundred seventy-three toddlers recruited from the general population based on a failed developmental screening form or parent or physician concerns were followed longitudinally from 12 months and identified as early- and late-diagnosed cases of ASD, language delayed, or typically developing...
August 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802365/exploring-reasons-for-late-identification-of-children-with-early-onset-hearing-loss
#18
Elizabeth M Fitzpatrick, Johnny Cesconetto Dos Santos, Viviane Grandpierre, JoAnne Whittingham
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796874/do-the-hard-things-first-a-randomized-controlled-trial-testing-the-effects-of-exemplar-selection-on-generalization-following-therapy-for-grammatical-morphology
#19
Amanda Jean Owen Van Horne, Marc Fey, Maura Curran
Purpose: Complexity-based approaches to treatment have been gaining popularity in domains such as phonology and aphasia but have not yet been tested in child morphological acquisition. In this study, we examined whether beginning treatment with easier-to-inflect (easy first) or harder-to-inflect (hard first) verbs led to greater progress in the production of regular past-tense -ed by children with developmental language disorder. Method: Eighteen children with developmental language disorder (ages 4-10) participated in a randomized controlled trial (easy first, N = 10, hard first, N = 8)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781152/speech-and-language-translating-the-genome
#20
REVIEW
Pelagia Deriziotis, Simon E Fisher
Investigation of the biological basis of human speech and language is being transformed by developments in molecular technologies, including high-throughput genotyping and next-generation sequencing of whole genomes. These advances are shedding new light on the genetic architecture underlying language-related disorders (speech apraxia, specific language impairment, developmental dyslexia) as well as that contributing to variation in relevant skills in the general population. We discuss how state-of-the-art methods are uncovering a range of genetic mechanisms, from rare mutations of large effect to common polymorphisms that increase risk in a subtle way, while converging on neurogenetic pathways that are shared between distinct disorders...
August 3, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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